唐代 作者列表
李隆基李世民李治李显李旦
李亨李适李昂李忱李晔
李豫李渊李重茂李诵李纯
李恒李湛李瀍李漼李儇
唐哀帝沈法兴李子通刘黑闼王摩沙
李恒
Li Heng
唐代  (795年824年)
网笔号: 睿圣文惠孝皇帝
庙号: 穆宗
陵墓: 光陵
开端终结
在位820年824年
长庆821年元月824年十二月
  唐穆宗名为李恒,唐宪宗的第三个儿子,贞元十一年(795)七月六日出生于京师长安大明宫之别殿。原名李宥,先封为郡王,宪宗元和元年(806)八月,进封遂王。李恒是册封为皇太子以后改的名字,这一点与他的父皇宪宗相同。
  
  【生平】
  穆宗以前的唐朝诸帝多能将皇位传给儿子,高宗(武则天)还有二子(即中宗和睿宗)即位做了皇帝,穆宗的父亲宪宗另外也还有一个儿做了皇帝,即宣宗。穆宗以后的懿宗,有第五子即位为僖宗,第七子即位为昭宗。此前,睿宗的儿子当中,一位受命登基(唐玄宗),一位追认为帝(让皇帝李宪),三位获赠太子,已被旧史盛赞为“天与之报,福流无穷”。但穆宗一共有五子,其中竟然有三个做了皇帝,即唐敬宗、唐文宗、唐武宗,这在唐朝历史上绝无仅有。由于每个儿子即位后都把各自的生母追尊为皇太后,所以穆宗先后有三个皇后和他配享太庙,这在唐朝历史上也属罕见。穆宗于长庆四年(824)正月死时,刚刚30岁,相对于他之前的唐朝皇帝来说,可谓最短寿的一位。这些情况透露出,在穆宗君临天下时,唐朝的皇位继承已发生了很大的变化,皇帝的人身安全也已变得毫无保障。所有这些似乎再次提示我们,穆宗时期的宫廷局势已经难以用常规来审视了。
  宫变夺位
  穆宗出生前,其父宪宗已经有了长子李宁和次子李恽。排行老三的穆宗,却有一个势力强大的母亲,那就是宪宗为广陵王时于贞元九年(793)娶的妃子郭氏——对唐室有再造功绩的尚父郭子仪的孙女。长子李宁的母亲是宫人纪氏,次子李恽的母亲竟没有留下姓名,在这一情况下,究竟是选择哪一位皇子,宪宗一直没有拿定主意。事情一直拖到他登基四年以后,到元和四年(809)三月,宪宗心中渐渐地向长子倾斜了。此时的李宁已经17岁,平素喜欢读书,举止颇符合礼法,深受宪宗的喜爱。于是在大臣李绛建议早立储君以杜绝奸人窥伺觊觎之心时,他宣布了立长子为嗣君的决定。这次册立很费了一些波折,本来应该在春天举行的册立仪式,由于连续遭遇大雨,使时间一改再改,一直拖到了孟冬十月。这期间有多少来自穆宗母亲郭氏的阻力,我们已经不得而知了。
  接下来的事情使所有人都感到无奈。元和六年(811)十二月,刚刚做了两年太子的李宁竟然在19岁的时候一病而死。宪宗悲痛欲绝,出乎意料地为他废朝13日,并特别制订了一套丧礼,加谥为“惠昭”。李宁的死,使宪宗不得不为选立继承人再次陷入抉择。
  此时,宫廷内外几乎都建议选立郭氏所生的皇三子李宥,最受皇帝恩宠的宦官吐突承璀则建议应当按照次序立次子李恽。宪宗也有意立次子,但是李恽因为母氏地位卑贱难以在朝廷上得到支持,而郭氏一系在朝野上下的势力实在是太强大了。立三子宥的呼声占据了上风,宪宗也徒无奈何,只好请翰林学士崔群代次子恽起草了表示谦让的奏表,于元和七年(812)七月下诏立李宥为太子,改名为李恒。十月,举行了册立大典。
  其实宪宗心里对这位太子并不满意,吐突承璀揣度皇帝的心意,也一直没有放弃为李恽的经营。宪宗这次立储事件,为穆宗日后的登基埋下了祸根,也为自己留下了祸患。
  元和八年(813)十月,在刚刚册立新太子整一年的时候,拥立太子的朝廷官员又上表请求宪宗立郭氏为皇后。自玄宗以后,后宫活着被立为皇后的只有肃宗的张皇后,那是因为她在平叛的特殊时期有特殊的功劳,宪宗将郭氏册立为贵妃已经是后宫最尊贵的角色,宪宗以种种借口拒绝了此番动议。此事以后,郭贵妃在朝野内外,广结党羽,包括宦官中的厉害角色神策军中尉梁守谦以及王守澄等人,他们暗中和吐突承璀等较量。
  元和十四年底,宪宗因为服用方士柳泌的丹药身体恶化,吐突承璀也就加紧了改立李恽的谋划。太子李恒十分紧张,曾经问计于他的舅舅郭钊,时为司农卿的郭钊嘱咐他,一定要尽“孝谨”之心,不要考虑其他的事。这说明他们已经做好了充分准备,就等着宪宗死了。元和十五年(820)正月二十七日,宪宗暴死,梁守谦、王守澄等人立即拥立太子即位,这就是唐穆宗。吐突承璀和皇次子李恽被这突如其来的政变杀了个措手不及,一起被送上了黄泉路。
  穆宗位居储君期间的惶恐不安,随着成功登基也就烟消云散了。他对扶植自己登基的一干人等给予了不同的赏赐,特别是把生母郭贵妃册立为皇太后,以报答她多年来的辛苦经营。与此相对照,他对父皇的亲信和宠臣则分别处以杀罚贬斥。正是所谓一朝天子一朝臣。
  穆宗即位后,没有忘记把犯有自己名讳的地名等统统改掉。像恒岳(恒山)改为镇岳,恒州改为镇州,定州的恒阳县改为曲阳县。就这样,唐朝的又一代新君登基了。
  游乐无度
  穆宗即位时已26岁。对于壮年登基的皇帝来说,如果想在政治上有一番作为,这正是一个使人钦慕的年龄,太宗就是29岁登基,玄宗则是28岁。如果想饱食终日、游乐享受,那也是无人可以比拟的时候。穆宗没有仿效太宗、玄宗的励精图治,而是纵情享乐,毫无节制。
  尚在朝廷上为宪宗治丧期间,穆宗就毫不掩饰自己对游乐的喜好。当元和十五年(820)五月宪宗葬于景陵以后,他越发显得没有节制。很快,他就带着亲信随从狩猎取乐去了。到六月,皇太后郭氏移居南内兴庆宫,穆宗就率领六宫侍从在兴庆宫大摆宴筵。酒宴结束后,他又回幸神策右军,对亲信中尉和将领大加颁赐。鎏金刻人马狩猎杯从这天起,穆宗每三日来神策左右军一次,同时驾临宸晖门、九仙门等处,目的是为了观赏角抵、杂戏等表演。七月六日是穆宗的生日,他异想天开地制订了一套庆祝仪式,只是因为一些大臣提出自古以来还没有这样的做法,才算作罢。他在宫里大兴土木,修建了永安殿、宝庆殿等。宫苑内修假山倒塌,一次就有七位工人被压死。当永安殿新修成的时候,他在那里观百戏,极欢尽兴。在永安殿,穆宗还与中宫贵主设“密宴”以取乐,连他的嫔妃都参加。除此之外,他还用重金整修装饰京城内的安国、慈恩、千福、开业、章敬等寺院,甚至还特意邀请了吐蕃使者前往观看。
  到了八月,穆宗又到宫中鱼藻池,征发神策军二千人将宪宗时期早已淤积的水面加以疏浚,九月初二池水开通后,他就在鱼藻宫大举宴会,观看宫人乘船竞渡。由于时间临近九九重阳,穆宗又想大宴群臣。担任拾遗的李珏等人上疏劝谏,认为:“陛下刚刚登临大宝,年号尚且未改,宪宗皇帝园陵尚新,如果就这样在内廷大举宴会,恐怕不合适。”穆宗根本不听。在重阳节那天,还特意把他的舅舅郭钊兄弟、朝廷贵戚、公主驸马等都召集到宣和殿饮酒高会。
  十一月的一天,穆宗突然下诏:“朕来日暂往华清宫,至落日时分当即归还。”此时,正值西北少数民族引兵犯境,神策军中尉梁守谦将神策军4000人及八镇兵赴援,形势很是紧张,御史大夫李绛、常侍崔元略等跪倒在延英殿门外切谏。穆宗竟然对大臣们说: “朕已决定成行,不要再上疏烦我了。”谏官再三劝谏也是无效。第二天一早,穆宗从大明宫的复道出城前往华清宫方向而去,随行的还有神策军左右中尉的仪仗以及六军诸使、诸王、驸马千余人,一直到天色很晚才还宫。
  对于穆宗的“宴乐过多,畋游无度”,谏议大夫郑覃等人一起劝谏:“现在边境吃紧,形势多变,如果前线有紧急军情奏报,不知道陛下在什么位置,又如何是好?另外,陛下经常与倡优戏子在一起狎昵,对他们毫无节制地大肆赏赐,这些都是百姓身上的血汗,没有功劳怎么可以乱加赏赐呢!”穆宗看到这样的表章感觉很新鲜,就问宰相这都是些什么人。宰相回答说是谏官。穆宗就对郑覃等加以慰劳,还说“当依卿言”。穆宗的这一态度使宰相们高兴了一阵子,但实际上他对自己说过的话根本不当回事,转过身,穆宗依旧是我行我素。
  穆宗甚至觉得,经常宴饮欢会,是件值得高兴的事。一天,他在宫中麟德殿与大臣举行歌舞酒宴,就很兴奋地对给事中丁公著说:“听说百官公卿在外面也经常欢宴,说明天下太平、五谷丰登,我感觉很安慰。”丁公著却持不同的看法,他对穆宗说:“凡事过了限度就不是好事了。前代的名士,遇良辰美景,或置酒欢宴,或清谈赋诗,都是雅事。国家自天宝以后,风俗奢靡,酒宴以喧哗沉湎为乐。身居高位、手握大权者与衙门的杂役一起吆三喝四,无丝毫愧耻之心。上下相效,渐以成俗,这造成了很多的弊端。”穆宗对他的这番说辞也觉得有道理,表示虚心接受,但就是坚决不改。
  穆宗这种近乎疯狂的游乐,到了长庆二年十一月才算有了收敛。原因是他有一次在禁中与宦官内臣等打马球时发生了意外。游玩中有一位内官突然坠马,如同遭到外物打击一样。由于事发紧急,穆宗十分恐慌,遂停下来到大殿休息。就在这一当口,穆宗突然双脚不能履地,一阵头晕目眩,结果是中风,卧病在床。此事一发生,宫外就接连有很多天不知道穆宗的消息。而在此前一周,穆宗还率人以迎郭太后为名前往华清宫,巡狩于骊山之下,他即日就骑马驰还京城,而他前往迎接的郭太后则是第二日方还。
  穆宗中风以后,身体一直没有康复。长庆三年(823)正月初一,穆宗因为身体有病没有接受群臣的朝贺。病中的穆宗曾经想过长生不老,和他的父皇一样迷恋上了金石之药。处士张皋曾经上疏,对穆宗服食金丹事提出过劝阻。不过,穆宗还没有等到丹药毒发就在长庆四年(824)正月二十二日驾崩于他的寝殿,时年30岁。正是贪生之心“太甚”,反而加速了他的死亡。
  
  【后妃】
  皇后
  恭僖皇后王氏 王皇后生唐敬宗。又称宝历太后、义安太后
  贞献皇后萧氏 萧皇后生唐文宗。又称积庆太后
  宣懿皇后韦氏 韦皇后生唐武宗
  妃嫔
  武贵妃
  张昭仪
  
  【子女】
  子
  唐敬宗
  唐文宗
  唐武宗
  怀懿太子李凑
  安王李溶
  
  女
  义丰公主,武贵妃所生。下嫁韦处仁。薨咸通时。
  淮阳公主,张昭仪所生。下嫁柳正元。
  延安公主,下嫁窦浣。
  金堂公主,始封晋陵公主。下嫁郭仲恭。薨乾符时。
  清源公主,薨太和时。
  饶阳公主,下嫁郭仲词。
  义昌公主,为道士。薨咸通时。
  安康公主,为道士。乾符四年,以主在外颇扰人,诏与永兴公主、天长公主、宁国公主、兴唐公主还南内。


  Life】 【
  Mouzon Tang emperors before the throne can pass over the son Gojong (Empress Wu) have two sons (that is, cases and Yejong) ascended the throne, became emperor, Mouzon Kenso There is also the father of another child, became emperor, that Xuanzong. Mouzon later Yizong, a fifth son ascended the throne as the Xi case, the seventh son ascended the throne as Akimune. Previously, the son of Yejong among ordered a throne (Emperor), a recovery that the emperor (emperor Li Xian), the three will receive a crown prince, the old history has been praised as "days with reported flow of infinite blessing" . However, a total of five sub-Mouzon, of which three have done even the emperor, that Tangjing Zong, Emperor Tang Wenzong, Tang Wuzong, this unique in the history of the Tang Dynasty. As each son's reign, regarded their mother Zhuizun for the empress dowager, so Mouzon has three queen and enjoy the Imperial Ancestral Temple with him, which is rarely the history of the Tang Dynasty. Mouzon in Changqing four years (824) died during the first month, just 30 years old, compared to before the Tang Dynasty emperor he is, indeed, a most short-lived one. These cases revealed that in Muzong Jun temporary world, the Tang Dynasty inherited the throne, great changes have taken place in the emperor's personal safety has become unprotected. All of these seem to prompt us once again, Mouzon has been difficult situation during the court to examine the use of conventional.
  Mouzon was born, his father Kenso already have the second son of the eldest son of Li Ning and Li Yun. Ranking third son of Mouzon, there is a powerful mother, and that is Kenso to Guangling Wang Zhen Yuan nine pm at (793) married the concubine Kuo - have recycling on the merits of the Shang Fu Tang Shi Guo Ziyi's granddaughter. Li Ning's mother was the eldest son of Ji Gong's people, the second son of Li Yun's mother actually did not leave his name, in this case, what is choose a prince, Kenso has not made up our mind. It has been dragging for four years after he ascended the throne, to the dollar and four years (809) March Kenso mind gradually tilted to the eldest son. Li Ning has 17 years of age at this time, usually like reading, behavior is quite consistent with rites, deeply Kenso favorite. So early in the proposed legislation Minister Li Jiang Hong Kong Adam watching coveted crown prince in order to stop the heart, he announced the decision to establish the eldest son of the Si Jun. The book is fee established a number of twists and turns, should have been established in the spring ceremony at the register, as experienced continuous heavy rain, so that time again and change, has been dragged MENG Dong October. During this period the number of mothers Kuo resistance from Mouzon, we have know.
  In fact, on the Prince Edward Kenso heart is not satisfied, Tu Cheng Cui try to speculate on the emperor's mind suddenly, and Yun Lee has not given up the business. Kenso the Legislative storage case for Mouzon planted seeds of future accession to the throne, left for their own evil.
  Mouzon among the crown prince during the anxious, with the successful accession to the throne also vanished. He ascended the throne to nurture their men are given a different reward, especially the mother, Guo Li as the Empress Dowager Concubine register in order to repay her many years of hard business. In contrast, his cronies and minions of the Fu Huang were sentenced to death penalty denounce. It is the so-called 一朝天子一朝臣.
  Mouzon throne when 26 years old. For the prime of life for the emperor ascended the throne, if you want to have a bright future in politics, this is a cause for admiration of the age is 29 years old Taizong ascended the throne, reign is 28 years old. If you want to eat three square meals a day and play to enjoy, that is, when no one can match. Mouzon did not follow the example of Taizong, reign of effort, but indulging pleasure, unrestrained.
  Still in court during the funeral for the Kenso, Mouzon will not hide their preference on the play. When the yuan and 15 years (820) May Kenso buried in King Mausoleum, he seems more and more uncontrolled. Soon, he would take his trusted followers went hunting for fun. To June, the Queen Mother Kuo moved to the South within the Imperial palace, Mouzon servant in the Imperial palace on the lead Palaces large Bai Yan feast. After the banquet, he returned to Kojin policy Youjun, the trusted lieutenant and general large increase Banci. Gilt carved troops hunting Cup this day, Mouzon policy every three days or so Army of God first, while your visit to Chen Hui, doors, nine cents a door, etc., the purpose of viewing angle of arrival, miscellaneous opera performances. July 6 is Mouzon's birthday, he indulged in a set ceremony, but because some ministers have not made such a practice since ancient times, gave up the idea be considered. His palace of projects and the construction of the Wing house, house, etc. Baoqing. Fall within the repair rockery palace, one will have seven workers were crushed to death. When the Wing house when the new marble, where he concept of 100 games, most Huan have fun. In Wing Hall, Mouzon House with the main set your "secret dinner" with pleasure, and even the participation of his concubines. In addition, he also decorated with a large amount of money refurbishing the security of capital within the country, Mercy, 1000 Fu, opening, Zhang Jing and other temples, and even specially invited to watch the Tibetan envoys.
  November day, Mouzon suddenly issued an edict: "I go to China to Japan temporarily Qing, to immediately return the sunset hours." At this point, a time when Northwest Minority led his troops violated its border, Shence Jun Lieutenant Liang Shouqian will Shence Jun the town of 4,000 people and eight soldiers Fuyuan, the situation was very tense, royal doctor Lijiang, Attendants, etc. knees slightly Cui Yuan Yan Ying Palace outside all remonstrance. Mouzon went so far as ministers, said: "Zhen Yi decided to make the trip, not to Shangshu bother me." Expostulation repeated admonition is invalid. The next morning, Mouzon Daming Palace complex from the city to the Chinese Qing Dao Chu direction away, accompanied by a Shence Jun Lieutenant guards of honor and six left and right arms of various makes, kings, Fuma thousand people have been late to the sky also Palace.
  Empress
  Xuan Yi Wei Queen Queen Webster Health Tang Wuzong
  Zhang Zhaoyi
  Tang Jingzong
  Li Yi Huai Prince Minato
  Princess Yi Feng, Wu concubine born. Ren Wei Department marry. Northern Sung Painting pass away the time.
  Jintang Princess, Princess Jinling before sealing. Marry Guozhong Gong. Pass away when Qian Fu.
  Yichang Princess, for the priests. Northern Sung Painting pass away the time.
    

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