历史
history
  历史小说
a historical novel
  古典小说
classical novels
  经书
Confucian classics
  小说评鉴
Novel Pingjian
  诗歌评赏
Poetry Pingshang
  影视
film and television
  音乐
music
  体育健身
gymnastics workout
  经商职管
Commercialism Zhiguan
  人文社科
Human culture Sheke
  百科学
hundred ology
 

  正史
history books written is biographical style
  编年
Annalistic
  载记
Set record
  别史
historical records on facts
  杂史
Miscellaneous History
  官职
office
  政书
Political books
  史论史评
a historical treatise historiography
  纪事本末
commentary the whole course of an event from beginning to end
  诏令奏议
imperial decree memorialize the emperor
  通史
comprehensive history
  断代
division of history into periods
  世界历史
World History
  书信
epistle

    阅读 正史 作品!!!


  历史:history historical
  
  广义历史:客观世界运动发展的过程,可分为自然史和人类社会史两方面。
  狭义历史:人类社会发生、发展的过程。
  历史学:研究历史的学问,简称史学。与历史的概念相对应,历史学也有广义与狭义之分。
  广义历史学:世界上一切科学都可以称为历史学。
  (“我们仅仅知道一门唯一的科学,即历史科学。”——马克思、恩格斯)
  狭义历史学:研究人类社会以往运动发展过程的学问。
  历史科学:
  通常我们将马克思主义的历史学称之为历史科学,因为这是在唯物史观科学理论指导下的历史学,而以往的史学从根本上来说,很多都没有超出历史 唯心论的范畴。
  历史与历史学的关系:
  历史,是客观存在的事实,真相只有一个。然而记载历史、研究历史的学问却往往随着人类的主观意识而变化、发展完善,甚至也有歪曲、捏造。正因为如此,当年胡适才说:“历史就像一个小姑娘,你爱怎么打扮就怎么打扮。”这里的“历史”一词,严格说来,应该是狭义历史学的含义。也因此,我国古代优秀的史学家们特别重视“史德”——“善恶必书”、“析理居正”,通俗地说,就是实事求是地记录、公正客观地分析论断。
  
  词源
  “史”字在中国古代指史官。篆文中写为“ ”(见图),许慎在《说文解字》中说:“史,记事者也。从又持中。中,正也。”
  “历史”一词则出现于清末。
  
  历史这个词在英语中为History,在法语中为Histoire,二者同出于希腊语的Histria,其本意为“征问”、“问而知之”。
  
  
  
  
  国外对“历史”一词的解释
  (一)自然界和人类社会的发展过程,也指某种事物的发展过程或个人的经历。
  (二)过去的事实,过时的事物。例:这件事早已成为历史。
  (三)对过去事件的记载, 沿革, 来历; 大事记。
  (四)记载和解释作为一系列人类活动进程的历史事件的一门学科。
  (五)书名。即《希腊波斯战争史》。古希腊历史学家希罗多德著。全书共九卷,前四卷主要追述埃及、巴比伦、波斯、吕底亚、西徐亚及希腊本土的历史,后五卷叙述希腊与波斯战争的起因和经过,止于公元前479年。书上杂有许多神话传说,不尽可信。但此书为欧洲第一部重要的历史著作。
  (六)个人的履历;经历
  (七)对形成未来的进程有影响的事件
  (八)历史记载,征服者美化自己的工具。
  (九)历史的真实,往往会随着时间的推移在演变。
  
  
  
  历史学的功用及方法
  
  历史学的功用
  英国诗人雪莱曾这样写道:“历史,是刻在时间记忆上的一首回旋诗。”
  历史,它往往会以惊人的相似度再次出现,如何从过往相似的历史事件中吸取经验教训?如何利用古人的智慧应对今天的现实生活?答案是,学习研究历史。
  也因此,历史学就有了它最重要的功用——经世致用。
  何谓经世?致力于国家,致力于社会谓之经世;何谓致用,以我之所学,化我之所用谓之致用。
  “以史为鉴”,“读史明智”……都在强调着历史学的现实指导作用,对个人、对民族、对人类的启示和帮助。
  当一个民族成为能够从历史中不断汲取力量、不断思考、不断创新、不断反省的民族时,那将是整个地球,乃至宇宙之福。
  
  
  
  
  历史学习方法
  历史科学习总的要求是讲求方法,提高效益。具体要求是打实基础,突出重点;独立思考,善于质疑;及时总结,触类旁通;循序渐进,效率第一。
  历史科学习要掌握三种知识:章节知识结构、专题知识结构和理论知识,其中,章节知识是基础。下面具体说一下学习的方法:
  1、课文大、小字,是教材的主体内容,其中“大字”是学习的重中之重。掌握大字,首先是记要记“死”、背要背“硬”。强调“在理解的基础上记忆”无疑是正确的,但理解不能代替记忆。其次,理解要深。理解知识,即掌握历史事件的内部结构和外部联系,区分历史事物的表层现象和内涵本质。如魏源的“师夷制夷”思想,字面表意是学习西方和抵御侵略,隐含的目的是“强国”;二是不同概念之间的隐性联系,洋务派继承了抵抗派“师夷长技”的思想,并扩大了学习西方的内容,但两派都不懂得两次鸦片战争失败的根本原因是腐朽落后的封建制度,更不懂得挽救民族危亡的根本出路在于改变这一制度,这要挖掘的隐性联系。“小字”是对大字的延伸和补充,它更具体、详实,可视情况掌握:知识性记述,浓缩成要点;情节性描述,转化为理性认识;观点结论性分析,与大字同等掌握。
  2、表格、地图和文献资料是学习的重要内容。地图掌握注意两点,一是与重大历史事件、现象相联系,能够反映时代特征和历史演变趋势的地图;二是对图中内容,首先掌握教材述及的内容。文献资料是复习时易忽略的内容,高考对教材文献资料的命题技术不断提高。对教材文献资料,一要读懂,二要分析与正文的关系,三要能说明反映了什么现象和问题。
  3、注释不是章节知识学习的重点,可作浏览式掌握,但在某些专题知识的序列中有它的重要位置。如“奇怪战争”是注释内容,把它放到绥靖政策这个知识结构中,可以看出它是英法绥靖政策在战时的继续。总之,上述几种教材知识,学习时即要有轻重缓急次序,又要注意各自特点,不可偏废。
  总之,要记住基本史实,在此基础上不断总结,注意将理论与史实结合起来,不断提高自己的分析和理解能力。
  
  
  
  中国历史朝代公元对照简表
  
  朝 代 起 讫 都 城 今 地
  夏 约前2070—约前1600
  阳城 河南登封
  商① 约前1600—约前1046 亳 河南郑州
  殷 河南安阳
  周 西周 约前1046—前771② 镐京 陕西西安
  东周 前770—前256 洛邑 河南洛阳
  秦 前221—前206 咸阳 陕西咸阳
  汉 西汉③ 前206—公元25 长安 陕西西安
  东汉 25—220 洛阳 河南洛阳
  三国 魏 220-265 洛阳 河南洛阳
  蜀 221-263 成都 四川成都
  吴 222-280 建业 江苏南京
  西晋 265-315 洛阳 河南洛阳
  东晋 315-317 洛阳 河南洛阳
  十六国 东晋 317-420 建康 江苏南京
  十六国④ 304-439 — —
  南朝 宋 420-479 建康 江苏南京
  齐 479-502 建康 江苏南京
  梁 502-557 建康 江苏南京
  陈 557-589 建康 江苏南京
  北朝 北魏 386-534 平城 山西大同
  洛阳 河南洛阳
  东魏 534-550 邺 河北临漳
  北齐 550-577 邺 河北临漳
  西魏 535-557 长安 陕西西安
  北周 557-581 长安 陕西西安
  隋 581-618 大兴 陕西西安
  唐 618-907 长安 陕西西安
  五代
  十国 后梁 907-923 汴 河南开封
  后唐 923-936 洛阳 河南洛阳
  后晋 936-946 汴 河南开封
  后汉 947-950 汴 河南开封
  后周 951-960 汴 河南开封
  十国⑤ 902-979 — —
  宋 北宋 960-1127 开封 河南开封
  南宋 1127-1279 临安 浙江杭州
  辽 907-1125 皇都
  (上京) 辽宁
  巴林右旗
  西夏 1038-1227 兴庆府 宁夏银川
  金 1115-1234 会宁 阿城(黑龙江)
  中都 北京
  开封 河南开封
  元 1206-1368 大都 北京
  明 1368-1644 南京 北京
  太祖——思宗
  清 在公元1616年即明万历四十四年建立,国号金,建都于赫图阿拉,后迁都与沈阳,于1636改国号为清,1644-1912都城在 北京
  中华民国 1912-1949 南京 江苏南京
  中华人民共和国1949年10月1日成立,首都北京。
  附注:
  ① 约公元前14世纪盘庚迁都于殷,此后商也成为殷。
  ② 公元前841年(西周共和元年)为中国历史确切纪年的开始。
  ③ 包括王莽建立的“新”王朝(公元8年—23年)。王莽时期,爆发大规模的农民起义,建立了农民政权。公元23年,新王莽政权灭亡。公元25年,东汉王朝建立。
  ④ 这时期,在我国北方,先后存在过一些封建政权,其中有:汉(前赵)、成(成汉)、前凉、后赵(魏)、前燕、前秦、后燕、后秦、西秦、后凉、南凉、北凉、南燕、西凉、北燕、夏等国,历史上叫做“十六国”。
  ⑤ 这时期,除后梁、后唐、后晋、后汉、后周外,还先后存在过一些封建政权,其中有:吴、前蜀、吴越、楚、闽、南汉、荆南(南平)、后蜀、南唐、北汉等国,历史上叫做“十国”。
  
  
  
  
  
  中国古代的二十四史
  
  序号 |书名|作者|卷数
  1 史记 西汉 司马迁 130
  2 汉书 东汉 班固 100
  3 后汉书 南朝 范晔 120
  4 三国志 西晋 陈寿 65
  5 晋书 唐朝 房玄龄等 130
  6 宋书 南朝 梁沈约 100
  7 南齐书 南朝 梁萧子显 59
  8 梁书 唐朝 姚思廉 56
  9 陈书 唐朝 姚思廉 36
  10 魏书 北齐 魏收 114
  11 北齐书 唐朝 李百药 50
  12 周书 唐 令狐德棻等 50
  13 隋书 唐 魏征等 85
  14 南史 唐 李延寿 80
  15 北史 唐 李延寿 100
  16 旧唐书 后晋 刘昫等 200
  17 新唐书 宋朝 欧阳修、宋祁 225
  18 旧五代史 宋 薛居正等 150
  19 新五代史 宋 欧阳修 74
  20 宋史 元朝 脱脱等 496
  21 辽史 元 脱脱等 116
  22 金史 元 脱脱等 135
  23 元史 明朝 宋濂等 210
  24 明史 清朝 张廷玉等 332
  注︰1920年,柯劭忞撰《新元史》脱稿,民国十年(1921年)大总统徐世昌以《新元史》为“正史”,与“二十四史”合称“二十五史”。
  历史难学呀。
  
  世界历史大事年表
  
  14-15世纪欧洲出现资本主义萌芽
  14世纪末朝鲜王朝建立
  14-16世纪欧洲文艺复兴运动
  1487-1488迪亚士远航到达非洲南部沿海
  1492哥伦布远航到达美洲
  1497-1498达伽马远航到达印度
  1519-1522麦哲伦船队环球航行
  16世纪早期印度莫卧儿帝国建立
  1520-1570西欧宗教改革
  1566-1581尼德兰革命
  1600英国东印度公司建立
  17世纪初期荷兰侵入印度尼西亚,法,英,荷开始在北美掠夺殖民地;德川幕府开始统治日本
  1640英国资产阶级革命开始
  1688英国光荣革命,资产阶级和新贵族的统治确立
  17世纪英法成为贩卖奴隶的主要国家
  1689俄国彼得一世开始改革
  17时机后半期法国路易十四开始改革
  17时机后半期牛顿力学体系确立
  18世纪中期普鲁士腓特烈二世改革
  18世纪中后期奥地利特雷西亚女皇和约瑟夫改革
  18世纪60年代英国工业革命开始
  1775-1783北美独立战争
  1776北美大陆会议发表《独立宣言》,宣布美利坚合众国独立
  1785瓦特的改良蒸汽机投入使用
  1789.7法国资产阶级革命开始
  1792.9法兰西第一共和国成立
  1793.6-1794。7法国雅各宾派专政
  1794法国热月政变
  1799拿破仑发动“雾月政变”
  1804海地宣布独立
  1804拿破仑称帝,法兰西第一帝国开始
  1810-1826拉丁美洲反对西班牙殖民统治的独立运动
  1815维也纳体系的确立
  1830法国七月革命
  1831,1834法国里昂工人起义
  19世纪30年代法拉第证明了电磁感应现象
  1836-1848英国宪章运动
  1844德意志西西里工人起义
  1848.2《共产党宣言》发表
  1848-1849 1848年欧洲革命
  1853-1856克里米亚战争
  1857-1859印度民族大起义
  19世纪中期达尔文创立生物进化论学说
  1861俄国农奴制改革
  1861-1865美国内战
  1864第一国际成立
  1868日本明治维新开始
  1870-1871普法战争
  19世纪70年代初意大利统一最终完成
  1871德意志统一最终完成
  1871.3-5巴黎公社
  19世纪70年代第二次工业革命开始
  1881-1899苏丹马赫迪反英大起义
  1882德意奥三国同盟形成
  19世纪80年代法国最终确立了对越南的统治
  1889第二国际建立
  19世纪末20世纪初主要资本主义国家完成向帝国主义过渡
  20世纪初世界殖民体系最终形成
  20世纪初爱因斯坦提出相对论
  1903俄国社会民主工党第二次代表大会
  1905-1908印度民族解放运动的高涨
  1907英法俄协约的最后形成
  1910日本正式吞并朝鲜
  1910-1917墨西哥资产阶级革命
  1914-1918第一次世界大战
  (20世纪初到20世纪90年代)
  1917.11.7(俄历10月25日)俄国十月社会主义革命
  1918.11德国十一月革命爆发
  1918-1922印度民族解放运动高涨
  1919-1922土耳其凯末尔革命
  1919.3.1朝鲜三一运动
  1919.3匈牙利苏维埃共和国建立
  共产国际建立
  1919.1-6巴黎和会
  1921.11-1922。2华盛顿会议
  1922.10墨索里尼在意大利上台
  1922.12苏联成立
  1925.10洛迦诺会议
  1929-1933资本主义世界经济危机
  1931.9.18日本帝国主义侵华的九一八事变
  1933.1希特勒在德国上台
  1933.3罗斯福就任美国总统,实行新政
  1935共产国际第七次代表大会
  1935-1936埃塞俄比亚抗击意大利侵略的民族解放运动
  1936-1939西班牙反对法西斯的民族革命战争
  1937.7.7中国全面抗日战争的开始
  1938.9慕尼黑会议
  1939.8苏德互不侵犯条约
  1939.9第二次世界大战全面爆发
  1940.6法国投降
  1940秋不列颠之战
  1940.9德意日三国同盟条约签订
  1941.6苏德战争爆发
  1941.12太平洋战争爆发
  1941秋大西洋宪章
  1942初《联合国家宣言》形成反法西斯同盟
  1942莫斯科保卫战
  1942.6中途岛战役
  1942.7-1943。2斯大林格勒战役
  1943.12.1中美英发表《开罗宣言》
  1943.11-12苏美英举行德黑兰会议
  1944.6美英军队在诺曼底登陆,欧洲第二战场开辟
  1945.2苏美英举行雅尔塔会议
  1945.5.8德国签订无条件投降书
  1945.9.2苏美英举行波茨坦会议日本签订无条件投降书
  20世纪四五十年代第三次科技革命开始
  1945.10联合国建立
  1947美国提出杜鲁门主义
  印巴分治,印度,巴基斯坦独立
  1948以色列建立,第一次中东战争爆发
  美国开始实施马歇尔计划
  1949北大西洋公约组织建立
  1949.10.1中华人民共和国建立
  1950-1953美国侵略朝鲜战争
  20世纪50年代初-70年代初资本主义经济发展史上的黄金时期
  1954《关于恢复印度支那和平的日内瓦协议》签字
  1955亚非国家召开的万隆会议
  华沙条约组织成立
  1956波兰波兹南事件,匈牙利事件
  第二次中东战争(苏伊士运河战争)
  1959古巴革命取得胜利
  1960非洲有17个国家独立,这一年被成为“非洲独立年”
  20世纪60年代初不结盟运动形成
  20世纪60年代初-1973美国侵略越南的战争
  20世纪60年代中期七十七国集团产生
  20世纪六七十年代亚洲出现经济发展迅速的国家和地区
  1967欧洲共同体成立
  1968苏联出兵占领捷克斯洛伐克
  1971中国在联合国的合法地位得到恢复
  1972.2美国总统尼克松访华,上海公报发表
  1973美国在《关于在越南结束战争,恢复和平的协议》上签字
  第四次中东战争
  1979中美建交
  20世纪80年代末东欧剧变
  1991苏联解体
  1992北美自由贸易区形成
  1993欧洲联盟建立
  1994北美自由贸易区正式成立
  1997东南亚爆发金融危机
  1999北约轰炸南斯拉夫联盟共和国
  2003美国入侵伊拉克
  
  为什么要研究历史:
  首先,研究历史可以满足人类的好奇心。我是谁?我从哪里来?这不但是哲学问题,也是历史问题。如何回答这些问题,就必须研究历史。人类的好奇心是人类发展的重要动力,其中自然包括对自己过去的好奇心。
  研究历史,可以避免我们重新走以前的弯路。举个例子:鸦片战争我们打败了,那么我们有没有可能打赢?结论是我们不可能打赢,因为我们已经整体落后了。可是为什么一场注定要打败的战争,我们还要打?因为当时中国人的历史局限性,他们在开战前认识不到一定会打输的结果。鸦片战争后,当时的中国人认真总结了历史教训了么?显然没有,于是才有后面的第二次鸦片战争的失败、中法战争不败而败、甲午战争的惨败、八国联军之战的失败等一系列的失败。中国面对列强屡次失败,而日本则未战就屈服,然后通过明治维新奋发图强,迅速崛起。面对现代化的机遇,日本之所以能付出很小的代价就获得很大的成果,就是因为他们看到了中国的惨败,认识到反抗的后果,所以采取了貌似屈辱,实际则更积极主动的政策。
  我们犯过错误,为此我们耽误了整整138年的时间(1840-1978),那么我们如何避免这种错误的再次发生?我们不研究历史行么?说句题外话,我认为中国近代的断代,与其定成1840-1949,不如改成1840-1978更恰当。
  目前,中华民族正处于复兴阶段,这次复兴,我们是能再次创造一个汉、唐、康雍乾那样的强盛时代,还是只能创造一个西晋、元初那样的短暂兴盛时代?我们应该效仿汉、唐、康雍乾的什么?避免西晋、元初时代的什么?不研究这些问题,行么?
  为什么马克思预言的资本主义的衰落还没有到来,反而在美国爆发了强大的生命力?为什么苏联解体并放弃了社会主义?资本主义怎么了?社会主义怎么了?为什么只有欧洲是延着马克思主义历史观描述的原始社会-奴隶社会-封建社会-资本主义社会这样的发展顺序,而世界其他民族都没有完整的延着这条路发展?马克思主义的历史发展观,是人类发展的规律还是仅仅是在欧洲的特例?中国的封建社会和欧洲的封建社会有很大的差异,中国的(以及阿拉伯、东南亚的)封建社会真的是封建社会么?
  正如我们不能因为明清还有家奴,就说明清还是奴隶社会一样,我们也不能因为宋代就有所谓“资本主义萌芽”就说中国就一定能自主产生资本主义社会。社会主义是我们从国外学来的,现在我们又正在学习外来的资本主义社会的生产方式和行为规范,甚至我们的法律体系、道德体系也都在向资本主义靠拢,那么资本主义和社会主义能在我们国家融合么?这两颗外来的果,嫁接在我们这五千年的老树上,最后能有什么结果?
  日韩和台湾的发展现实表明,资本主义能够在有几千年传统的东亚国家取得成功,甚至比本来应该更有优势发展资本主义的印度、南美、北非更成功,原因是什么?我们应该借鉴什么?我们传统文化中的什么因素导致我们东亚国家更容易发展资本主义?
  以上都是我们为什么要研究历史的原因。


  History: history historical
  General History: the objective world sports development process, can be divided into natural history and the history of human society both.
  Narrow History: place in human society, the development process.
  History: the study of history, learning, short history. Correspond with the concept of history, history also has broad and narrow sense.
  General History: All the world can be called scientific history.
  ("We just know that a unique scientific, or historical science." - Marx, Engels)
  Narrow sense of history: the study of the development of human society in the past movement of knowledge.
  History of science:
  Usually we will call the Marxist history of science history, because it is under the guidance of scientific theory of historical materialism, history, and past history fundamentally, many do not go beyond the scope of the history of idealism.
  The relationship between history and history:
  History, is an objective fact, there is only one truth. However, recorded history, history of knowledge is often subjective as the human sense of change, development of a sound, even with distortion and fabrication. Because of this, the year before Hu said: "History is like a little girl, love how you dress on how dress." Where "history" is, strictly speaking, should narrow the meaning of history. As a result, our best historians of ancient special attention to "the history of Germany" - "good and evil must book", "Analysis of Li Ju Zheng", generally, of seeking truth from facts recorded, fair and objective analysis of argument.
  Etymology
  "History" means the official historian of ancient Chinese characters. Zhuanwen write to "" (see photo), Xu Shen in "Shuo Wen Jie Zi" said: "History, notes were also. From another holding. Of being also."
  "History" is the term appeared in the late Qing Dynasty.
  History of the word in English for the History, in French as Histoire, with two out of the Greek Histria, its original meaning as a "sign asked," "asked with knowledge."
  Abroad on the "historical" interpretation of the term
  (A) of the nature and development of human society, but also refers to the development of certain things or personal experience.
  (B) the fact that, out of date things. Example: This issue has already become history.
  (C) the record of past events, history, history; Events.
  (D) record and explain the process of human activity as a series of historical events of a discipline.
  (E) title. That "the history of Greek Persian War." Ancient Greek historian Herodotus book. The book is nine volumes, the former principal recalled four volumes of Egypt, Babylon, Persia, Lydia, Scythian and Greek local history, after the five-volume description of the causes of war between Greece and Persia, and through, and ends at 479 BC. The book there are many myths and legends mixed, not entirely credible. But this book is the first important European historical writings.
  (F) personal resume; experience
  (7) on the formation of future events that affect the process of
  (8) historical records, conqueror beautify their own tools.
  (Ix) the truth of history, often evolving over time.
  Function and methods of history
  History function
  English poet Shelley once wrote: "History is engraved in time and memory on a swing poem."
  History, it is often a remarkable similarity again, how similar historical events from the past lessons learned? How to use the wisdom of the ancients meet today's real life? The answer is that the learning of history.
  As a result, history will have its most important function - the Society.
  What is The World? Committed to the State, committed to the community that the economic world; What Pragmatism, as I shall have learned of that I used for the Practical.
  "Look," "Reading Shi Mingzhi" ... ... have emphasized the guiding role of the reality of history, the individual, the nation of human inspiration and help.
  When a nation be able to continue to draw strength from the history, and continue, continue to innovate and reflect the ethnic identity, it would be the whole earth, and even a blessing to the universe.
  Learning history
  History The general requirement is the emphasis on learning ways to improve efficiency. Specific requirements is to play solid foundation, focused; independent thinking, good question; timely summary of analogy; step by step, the efficiency of the first.
  History learning to master the three kinds of knowledge: knowledge structure section, thematic structure and theory of knowledge, where knowledge is the foundation chapter. Specifically about the following learning methods:
  1, the text big, small print, is the main content of textbooks, which "characters" is the top priority of learning. Control characters, first of all remember to remember "dead" back to back "hard." Emphasized that "in understanding the basis of memory," undoubtedly correct, but understanding can not replace memories. Second, to understand deeper. Understanding of knowledge, that is, grasp the historical events of the internal structure and external linkages, distinguish the history and meaning of things, the nature of surface phenomena. Such as Wei Yuan's "Prostitutes" thinking, literally meaning the study of the table and resist Western aggression, the implicit aim is to "power"; second is the hidden links between different concepts, Westernization inherited resistance to school "learning Technology "thinking, and expand the content of learning the West, but the two parties do not understand the root causes of the failure of the two Opium Wars is decadent and backward feudal system, but do not know how to save the nation from peril fundamental way out is to change the system, which To tap the hidden links. "Small print" is an extension and supplement large print, it is more specific, detailed, depending on the circumstances control: knowledge account, condensed into a point; plot description, into rational knowledge; view concluding analysis, and the characters the same master.
  2, tables, maps and literature are an important part of learning. Map grasp two points, one with major historical events, phenomena linked to reflect the characteristics of the times and historical trends in the evolution of the map; the second is the figure, the first thing to grasp the content of materials covered. Review of literature is easy to ignore when the contents of teaching literature on the college entrance examination proposition technology continues to improve. On the teaching of literature, one to read, second, analysis of the relationship between the body, three to be able to explain the phenomenon and problems reflect what.
  3, chapter notes are not the focus of knowledge and learning can be used for browsing-type control, but in some special knowledge of the sequence has its important position. Such as "strange war" is the comment content, put it to appease the knowledge structure, we can see that it is the British and French policy of appeasement in the war continued. In short, the knowledge of several textbooks, learning that should be prioritized, and pay attention to their characteristics, can be neglected.
  In short, we must remember the basic facts, constantly sum up on this basis, attention will combine theory with historical facts, and constantly improve their analysis and understanding.
  AD control dynasties in Chinese history summary table
  Start and end dynastic capital of this land
  Summer 2070 BC - about pre-1600
  Henan Dengfeng Yangcheng
  Business ① about before 1600 - before about 1046 mm Zhengzhou
  Anyang Yin
  Weeks before the Western Zhou Dynasty about 1046 - Top 771 ② Gao Jing Xi
  Eastern Zhou Dynasty 770 - 256 Luoyi former Luoyang, Henan
  Pre-Qin 221 - 206 BC Xianyang Xianyang
  Han Han ③ 206 BC - AD 25, Xi'an Chang'an
  25-220 Eastern Han Luoyang, Henan Luoyang
  San Guowei 220-265 Luoyang Luoyang
  221-263, Chengdu, Sichuan Chengdu, Sichuan
  Wu 222-280 Jianye, Nanjing, Jiangsu
  Western Jin Dynasty 265-315 Luoyang Luoyang
  Luoyang, Henan Luoyang Jin 315-317
  16 Nanjing, Jiangsu China Eastern Jin 317-420 Jiankang
  16 States ④ 304-439 - -
  Southern Song Dynasty 420-479 Jiankang Nanjing
  Qi 479-502 Jiankang Nanjing
  Liang 502-557 Jiankang Nanjing
  Jian Kang Chen in Nanjing, Jiangsu 557-589
  Shanxi Datong Pingcheng Northern Wei 386-534
  Luoyang Luoyang
  534-550 Eastern Wei Lin Zhang Ye Pei
  Lin Zhang Ye Pei Qi 550-577
  Xi'an Chang'an Western Wei 535-557
  Northern Zhou 557-581 Xi'an Chang'an
  Sui Hing Xi'an 581-618
  Xi'an Chang'an Tang 618-907
  Five
  Ten Girder 907-923 Bian Kaifeng
  Later Tang 923-936 Luoyang Luoyang
  Houjin 936-946 Kaifeng Kaifeng
  Later Han 947-950 Bian Kaifeng
  Later Zhou Dynasty 951-960 Kaifeng Kaifeng
  Ten ⑤ 902-979 - -
  Northern Song Kaifeng Kaifeng 960-1127
  Hangzhou Linan Song 1127-1279
  Royal Liao 907-1125
  (To Beijing) Liaoning
  Balin Right Banner
  Xingqing House Yinchuan, Ningxia Western Xia 1038-1227
  Gold 1115-1234 will Ninga City (Heilongjiang)
  Both Beijing
  Kaifeng Kaifeng
  Most of Beijing Yuan 1206-1368
  Beijing, Nanjing Ming 1368-1644
  Taizu - Si cases
  Clear that in the year 1616 the establishment of Ming Dynasty 40 years, the country money, a capital in the Early Qing, later moved the capital of Shenyang, in 1636 changed its title to the Qing capital in Beijing ,1644-1912
  Republic of China, Nanjing, Jiangsu, Nanjing 1912-1949
  The People's Republic of China on Oct. 1, 1949 establishment of the capital Beijing.
  Note:
  ① About 14 BC the world Jipan Geng moved the capital to Yin, since business has become Yin.
  ② 841 BC (the first year of the Western Zhou Republic) for the precise dating of the beginning of Chinese history.
  ③ including the Wang Mang established the "new" dynasty (AD 8 years -23 years). Wang Mang period, the outbreak of large-scale peasant uprising, the regime established farmers. AD 23, the new regime destruction of Wang Mang. 25 AD, the establishment of the Eastern Han Dynasty.
  ④ this period, in northern China, there has been some of the feudal regime, including: Chinese (Han Zhao), Cheng (Cheng Han), the former cool, after Zhao (Wei), the former Yan, Former Qin, Later Yan, Later Qin , Xiqin, after the cool, cool South, Northern Liang, Nam Yin, Western Liang, Northern Yan, summer and other countries in history, called "16 States."
  ⑤ this period, in addition to Later Liang, Later Tang Dynasty, Houjin, after the Han, Later Zhou Dynasty, but also there has been some of the feudal regime, including: Wu, Former Shu, Wu and Yue, Chu, Min, Southern Han, Jingnan (Nanping), Shu , Southern Tang, Northern Han and other countries in history, called "Ten."
  Ancient China Twenty-Four Histories
  Serial number | title | author | Volumes
  Sima Qian's Records of the Western Han Dynasty 130 1
  2 100 Han Han Ban
  Fan Ye, after 3 120 Southern Han
  Western Jin Chenshou 4 of the Three Kingdoms 65
  130 5 Book of Jin Tang Fang Xuanling etc.
  6 Songshu Nan Liang Shen towards 100
  7 South Korea Liang Xiao Qi Shunan child was 59
  8 Liang Shu Tang Yao Silian 56
  9 Chen Shu Tang Yao Silian 36
  Qi Wei Wei Shu received 10 114
  11 Li Tang Wei is 50 per drug
  12 weeks, so the book 50 Fen Tang Ling Hu Germany
  13 of the Sui Tang Wei Zheng, etc. 85
  14 Nanshi Tang Li Yanshou 80
  History of Tang Li Yanshou 100 15 North
  16 Old Houjin Liu Xu Tang, 200
  17 New Tang Xiu Song, Song Qi 225
  18 Old Five Dynasties Song Xue Ju Zheng, etc. 150
  19 new Five Dynasties Song Xiu 74
  496 20 Sung Yuan Tuotuo etc.
  21, 116, etc. History of the Liao Yuan Tuotuo
  22, 135, etc. The History of Yuan Tuotuo
  23, 210 Yuan Dynasty Ming Lian, etc.
  History of the Ming Qing Zhang Tingyu 24 of 332
  Note ︰ 1920, Ke Shao Zhimin Writing "new Yuan Dynasty" finalized, Republic of the Decade (1921) president Shichang "new Yuan Dynasty" to "official history", and "Twenty-Four Histories," collectively, the "Twenty-five Histories."
  Difficult to learn history, ah.
  Chronology of World History
  The Emergence of Capitalism 14-15 Century Europe
  Late 14th century to establish the Joseon Dynasty
  14-16 century European Renaissance
  1487-1488 Dias voyage to reach the southern coast of Africa
  Voyage of Columbus reached America in 1492
  1497-1498 Vasco da Gama arrived in India voyage
  1519-1522 Magellan Global Navigation fleet
  Early 16th century Indian Mughal Empire
  Reformation in Western Europe 1520-1570
  1566-1581 Netherlands revolution
  1600 established the British East India Company
  Indonesia invaded the early 17th century, the Netherlands, France, Britain and the Netherlands began to plunder colonies in North America; Tokugawa shogunate ruled Japan started
  1640 bourgeois revolution in Britain began
  1688 Glorious Revolution of England, the rule of the bourgeoisie and the establishment of the new aristocracy
  17th century Britain and France to become the slave trade in the major countries
  1689 Peter I began to reform in Russia
  17, half of the time Louis XIV of France began to reform
  17 timing system of the latter half of the establishment of Newtonian mechanics
  Mid-18th century, Frederick II of Prussia reform
  Austria in the late 18th century Queen and Joseph reform Teresia
  18th century British industrial revolution began 60 years
  1775-1783 American War of Independence
  1776 North American Continental Congress issued a "Declaration of Independence," declared independent United States of America
  1785 watts of improved steam engine in use
  1789.7 French bourgeois revolution began
  1792.9 French First Republic was established
  1793.6-1794. 7 French Jacobins dictatorship
  1794 France Thermidorian
  1799 Napoleon launched "Brumaire coup"
  Haiti declared independence in 1804
  1804 Napoleon proclaimed himself emperor of the French First Empire beginning
  1810-1826 Spanish colonial rule in Latin America against the independence movement
  1815 Vienna system Establishment
  1830 July Revolution in France
  1831,1834 uprising of workers in Lyon, France
  19 30s Faraday proved that the phenomenon of electromagnetic induction
  1836-1848 British Chartist
  German workers uprising in Sicily in 1844
  1848.2 "Communist Manifesto"
  1848-18491848 revolution in Europe
  1853-1856 Crimean War
  1857-1859 Indian National uprising
  Mid-19th century Darwinian theory of biological evolution, creation
  1861 reform of serfdom in Russia
  1861-1865 U.S. Civil War
  First International was established in 1864
  1868 Meiji Restoration, Japan began
  1870-1871 Franco-Prussian War
  70 early 19th century Italian unification finally completed
  Completed the ultimate reunification of Germany in 1871
  1871.3-5 Paris Commune
  19th century 70's second industrial revolution
  1881-1899 苏丹马赫迪 major uprising against the British
  1882 Triple Alliance Germany, Italy and Austria formed
  80 19th century France finally established the rule of Vietnam
  1889 establishment of the Second International
  Late 19th early 20th century, the major capitalist countries have completed the transition to imperialism
  Early 20th century, the colonial system ultimately form the World
  Einstein theory of relativity early 20th century
  Second Russian Social Democratic Labour Party in 1903 Congress
  1905-1908 Indian national liberation movements
  Russian Convention of 1907 Anglo-French final form
  1910, Japan formally annexed Korea
  Bourgeois revolution in Mexico 1910-1917
  1914-1918 First World War
  (20th century to 20th century, 90s)
  1917.11.7 (Russian calendar October 25) October Socialist Revolution in Russia
  Revolution broke out in Germany in November 1918.11
  1918-1922 upsurge of national liberation movement in India
  Ataturk revolution in Turkey 1919-1922
  1919.3.1 Korea 31 Sports
  1919.3 established the Soviet Republic of Hungary
  The establishment of the Communist International
  1919.1-6 Paris Peace Conference
  1921.11-1922. 2 Washington Conference
  1922.10 Mussolini came to power in Italy
  1922.12 set up the Soviet Union
  1925.10 Locarno Conference
  1929-1933 economic crisis in the capitalist world
  1931.9.18 Japanese imperialist invasion of China on September 18 Incident
  1933.1 Hitler came to power in Germany
  1933.3 Roosevelt became President, the implementation of the New Deal
  Seventh Congress of the Communist International in 1935
  1935-1936 invasion of Ethiopia against the Italian national liberation movements
  1936-1939 national revolutionary war against fascism in Spain
  1937.7.7 China, Sino-Japanese War began a comprehensive
  1938.9 Munich Conference
  1939.8 Non-Aggression Pact Soviet Union and Germany
  1939.9 outbreak of World War II
  1940.6 French surrender
  1940 Autumn Battle of Britain
  1940.9 Germany, Italy and Japan sign treaty of alliance
  1941.6 Soviet-German War broke out
  1941.12 Pacific War
  Autumn 1941, the Atlantic Charter
  Early 1942, "Declaration by United Nations" anti-fascist alliance formed
  1942 Battle of Moscow
  1942.6 Battle of Midway
  1942.7-1943. 2 Battle of Stalingrad
  1943.12.1 in the United States and Britain issued the "Cairo Declaration"
  1943.11-12 Su Meiying meeting held in Tehran
  1944.6 American and British forces landed in Normandy, opening a second front in Europe
  1945.2 Su Meiying at the Yalta Conference
  1945.5.8 Germany signed the unconditional surrender
  1945.9.2 Su Meiying Potsdam Conference held in Japan signed the unconditional surrender
  Four or five years of the 20th century scientific and technological revolution began the third
  1945.10 The United Nations established
  1947 Truman Doctrine, the United States
  Partition of India, India, Pakistan's independence
  1948, Israel established the first Middle East War
  The United States launched the Marshall Plan
  North Atlantic Treaty Organization established in 1949
  1949.10.1 The People's Republic of China established
  1950-1953 Korean War, the U.S. invasion
  50 -70 early 20th century capitalist economic development in the history of the early golden era
  1954 "on the restoration of peace in Indochina in Geneva Agreement" signed
  1955 Bandung Conference held in Asian and African countries
  Warsaw Treaty Organization was established
  1956 Poznan, Poland, the event, Hungary events
  The second Middle East war (Suez War)
  1959 victory of Cuban revolution
  1960, 17 countries in Africa, the independence of that year called "Year of African independence"
  Early 20th century, 60 the formation of the Non-Aligned Movement
  60 early 20th century the United States invasion of Vietnam War -1,973
  The mid-20th century, 70 G-60 produced
  Sixties and seventies of the 20th century rapid economic development of Asian countries and regions
  1967 established the European Community
  Soviet troops occupied Czechoslovakia in 1968
  1971 China's legitimate status in the United Nations be restored
  1972.2 U.S. President Richard Nixon visited China, the Shanghai Communique
  1973 United States "on ending the war in Vietnam, to restore peace agreement" signed
  The Fourth Middle East War
  1979 Sino-US relations
  The late 20th century collapse in Eastern Europe 80
  In 1991 the Soviet Union
  Formation of the North American Free Trade Area in 1992
  1993 establishment of the European Union
  1994 formally established the North American Free Trade Area
  1997 financial crisis in Southeast Asia
  1999 NATO bombing of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia
  2003 U.S. invasion of Iraq
  Why Study History:
  First, the study of history can satisfy human curiosity. Who am I? I come from? This is not only a philosophical issue, but also the question of history. How to answer these questions, we must study history. Human curiosity is an important driving force of human development, which naturally includes the curiosity of his past.
  We made mistakes, for which we delay a full 138 years (1840-1978), then how can we prevent this error from happening again? What we do not study history lines? To tell the way, I think that the dating of modern China, with its fixed into 1840-1949 than into 1840-1978 is more appropriate.
  At present, the Chinese nation is in a renaissance, the renaissance, we are able to re-create a Han, Tang, as the prosperity of the Kangxi era, or just to create a Western Jin Dynasty, the early Yuan Dynasty, as the short-term prosperity of the times? We should follow the example of the Han, Tang, Kangxi, Yongzheng and what? To avoid the Western Jin Dynasty, the early Yuan Dynasty era what? Not examine these issues, line What?
  Why Marx predicted the decline of capitalism, yet to come, but the outbreak in the United States a powerful vitality? Why did the Soviet Union and give up a socialist? How the capitalist? How a socialist? Why only Europe is the extension of the Marxist view of history described in a primitive society - the slave society - feudal society - the development of capitalist society, so the order of the world other people are not extend the full development of this road? Marxist view of historical development, laws of human development or just a special case in Europe? China's feudal society and feudal society in Europe is very different from China's (and the Arab, Southeast Asia) is a feudal society, feudal society really What?
  As we can not have slaves in Ming and Qing, said Ming or slave, we can not because there is the Song called "Seeds of Capitalism" said China will certainly be able to independently produce a capitalist society. Socialism is learned from abroad, and now we are learning outside the capitalist mode of production and social norms, even our legal system, moral system are all closer to capitalism, then capitalism and socialism can What in the integration of our country? That the two foreign fruit, grafting in our five thousand years old trees, the last to have any results?
  Japan and South Korea and Taiwan, the development of reality shows that capitalism can have thousands of traditional success of East Asian countries, and even more advantages over the original 应该 the development of capitalism in India, South America, North Africa, more successful, why? What should we learn? Our traditional culture of the causes that we facilitate the development of the capitalist countries in East Asia?
  The above are reasons why the study of history.



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