唐代 作者列表
李隆基李世民李治李显李旦
李亨李适李昂李忱李晔
李豫李渊李重茂李诵李纯
李恒李湛李瀍李漼李儇
唐哀帝沈法兴李子通刘黑闼王摩沙
李纯
Li Chun
唐代  (778年820年)
网笔号: 昭文章武大圣至神孝皇帝
庙号: 宪宗
陵墓: 景陵
开端终结
在位805年820年
元和806年元月820年十二月
  唐宪宗李纯,原名李淳,被立为皇太子以后改名。他是唐顺宗长子,大历十三年(778)二月十四日出生在长安宫中。宪宗即位以后,经常阅读历朝实录,每读到贞观、开元故事,他就仰慕不已。宪宗以祖上圣明之君为榜样,认真总结历史经验,比较注重发挥群臣的作用,敢于任用和倚重宰相,他在延英殿与宰相议事,都是很晚才退朝。宪宗在位15年间,勤勉政事,君臣同心同德,从而取得了元和削藩的巨大成果,并重振中央政府的威望,成就了唐朝的中兴气象。长期以来,唐朝皇帝得到评价较高的有三人:太宗、玄宗、宪宗。宪宗没有能够像太宗和玄宗那样开创一个辉煌盛世,却能够和他们并驾齐驱、相提并论,这也正说明了他的不同寻常。
  削藩成功后,李纯在胜利与成就面前,迷失了自己。
  首先是越来越喜欢敛财——跟德宗的晚年如出一辙。这个倾向在元和十三年八月的那次宰相任命中就表现得极为明显。当时宪宗执意要提拔户部侍郎、判度支皇甫镈[ 镈bó ]与卫尉卿、盐铁转运使程异为相。表面的原因当然是他们善于为帝国理财,内在的原因是他们更善于进贡“羡余”以供皇帝开销。时任宰相的裴度和崔群感到这是一个不好的苗头,于是极力劝阻,可宪宗不听。
  其次是迷上了道教的长生术,下诏征召天下方士。皇甫镈不失时机地向天子举荐了一个叫柳泌的方士,此人自称能炼出长生不死的丹药。柳泌来到长安不久就向天子提出:“天台山是神仙居住的地方,有很多灵草。臣虽然知道,可无法得到,如果派臣去当那里的地方官,就有希望找到了。”李纯立刻任命柳泌为代理台州[ 今浙江临海市]刺史,并赐三品金紫衣。
  谏官们纷纷上疏表示反对:“历代人君喜欢方士的很多,可从来没有派他们管理地方政府的。”天子不以为然地说:“竭尽一个州的力量,能换来人君的长生不老,做臣属的又何必吝惜一个州!”
  李纯晚年沉迷于丹药,朝臣们不约而同地发现:天子的气色一天比一天难看,而脾气则一天比一天暴躁。起居舍人裴潾忍不住再次上疏,说:“从去年以来,各地推荐的方士越来越多,纵使天下真有神仙,也必然是隐藏在深山老林中,怕被人知道。凡是跻身于权贵之门、说大话、炫奇技、哗众取宠的人,都是心术不正贪图利益之辈,岂可轻信他们的话,乱吃他们的药?何况金石之药酷烈有毒,不是人的五脏六肺所能承受。臣请下令让献药者自己先吃一年,则真伪自辨。”
  
  生平
  李纯出生时,正是皇曾祖代宗的晚年。他出生的第二年,祖父德宗即位,父亲顺宗被立为太子。李纯幼年懵懂之时,长安城里就发生了“泾师之变”,仓皇出逃的德宗没有能够保障宗室子弟的安全,那些没有及时撤离者有77人死于叛军之手,这使德宗一直痛疚不已。李纯六七岁的时候,德宗刚刚重返长安。有一天,李纯被祖父德宗皇帝抱在膝上逗引作乐,问他:“你是谁家的孩子,怎么在我的怀里?”李纯道:“我是第三天子。”这一回答使德宗大为惊异,作为当今皇上的长孙,按照祖、父、子的顺序回答为“第三天子”,既闻所未闻,又很契合实际,德宗皇帝不禁对怀里的皇孙增添了几丝喜爱。贞元四年(788)六月,11岁的他就被册封为广陵郡王。
  宪宗自幼遭遇战乱,他自身的家庭关系也很有些混乱。他的母亲王氏曾是代宗的才人,另外有位同父兄弟被祖父德宗收养为子。宪宗自己的婚姻关系也有些奇特。贞元九年(793),时为广陵王的宪宗娶了郭氏为妻。郭氏,是尚父郭子仪的孙女,她的父亲是驸马都尉郭暧,乐舞俑母亲是代宗长女升平公主。升平公主与郭暧之间的故事后来被人编成了一出《打金枝》的戏剧,流传很广。由于母亲是代宗长女,这样算来,郭氏与顺宗是姑表兄妹,郭氏就长了宪宗一辈。或者说,论辈分,宪宗要比自己所娶的妃子郭氏低了一辈。他们成婚后,时为皇太子的顺宗因为郭氏母贵,父、祖有大勋于王室,对这位儿媳表示出无比的宠爱。宪宗自己对这位妃子似乎也不怎么冷落,因为,贞元十一年(795)时,也就是他们婚后两年,郭氏就生了儿子李宥,此即后来的穆宗。
  贞元二十一年(805)四月六日,宪宗被册为皇太子。七月二十八日,权勾当军国政事,即代理监国之任。八月四日,宪宗得父皇传位,八月九日正式即位于宣政殿。这一年,宪宗28岁。他从一个普通的郡王到登上最高权力的顶峰,仅仅用了4个月的时间。这一刻确实来得太快了。难道有什么神力相助吗?正是因为这一缘故,宪宗的登基伴着顺宗的内禅一直被人们猜疑着。宪宗登基前后,也的确有一些无法弄清楚的秘密。我们可以列举这样一些事例略做说明。
  其一,宪宗刚刚被立为皇太子以后,“二王”集团的陆质借侍读之机有所规劝,被宪宗制止:“陛下令先生为我讲解经义,怎么还扯其他的事?”说明此刻的宪宗有自己的政治见解。也就是说,宪宗在这一过程中未必是被动的,也似乎不会不知情。
  其二,在这年六月最早动议皇太子监国的剑南西川节度使韦皋,在八月十七日,突然暴病而死,时年 61岁。这是偶然的巧合还是事出有因,很值得索解。与韦皋上表差不多同时,荆南的裴均、河东的严绶也不约而同地给朝廷发来表章,内容竟然也与韦皋的相同。剑南、荆南和河东,三地节度使相距何止千里,如果没有幕后的指使,这样的步调一致真的很难理解。那么,幕后的指使是谁?从当时的蛛丝马迹来说,就是那些在宫中掌握禁军、拥立宪宗的宦官。
  其三,在顺宗以太上皇身份迁居兴庆宫以后,宪宗是不是还允许群臣和他相见?当事人刘禹锡在《刘子自传》中说:“当时太上皇身体有病,宰相大臣都不能得到召对。而宫掖事秘,建桓立顺,功归贵臣。”直接用东汉末年顺帝、桓帝被立的故事比附宪宗的即位,无法不给人这样一个强烈的印象:在此事过程中有外人无法明知的隐情。
  其四,发生了罗令则密谋废宪宗另行拥立的怪事。这年十月,山人罗令则从长安前往秦州,矫太上皇诏令,向陇西经略使刘澭请兵,谋划废宪宗另立皇帝。结果,刘澭告密,逮捕了罗令则,宪宗一方面以名马金银财物厚赐刘澭,另一方面诏令禁军审问罗令则,将其党羽杖死。此事的出现与因果存在很多疑点,但是对于宪宗来说,最大的便利是借机诛杀了政敌。
  其五,舒王李谊之死。舒王在德宗时一直是顺宗政治上的强大竞争者,来自宫中的宦官等势力也一直看好他。罗令则矫诏废立,最大的可能也就是利用这样的政治惯性拥立舒王。但是,当宪宗即位,舒王的政治价值在宦官眼里也就自然丧失,所以,在刘澭将罗令则押送到长安以后,舒王也就非死不可。《资治通鉴》和旧史中都说他在永贞元年十月戊戌“薨”,这应该与宪宗即位后的政治局面有关。
  其六,太上皇顺宗之死。宪宗在元和元年(806)正月初一率群臣为太上皇上尊号,正月十八日,宪宗下诏宣称太上皇“旧恙愆和”,说是旧病没有治愈,这就等于是向天下宣布了太上皇的病情,此举十分罕见。宪宗又说“亲侍药膳”,从当月十六日以后,暂时不听政。然而,在十九日,也就是宣布太上皇病情的第二天,顺宗就死于兴庆宫,同时迁殡于太极殿发丧。这就难怪有人估计太上皇早就死了,正月十八日向天下通报太上皇的病情,就是为掩盖太上皇被害死的真相。殊不知,这样做是欲盖弥彰,公布太上皇的病情,恰恰暴露出宪宗和宦官的做贼心虚,暴露出太上皇之死的可疑。
  将太上皇顺宗直接杀死,正是拥立宪宗的那些人为了消除一切可能的隐患,打消那些有着和罗令则等一样想法的人的幻想,目的最终自然不外乎是稳固自己的地位。而宪宗个人在当时早已是成熟的年龄,整个过程他自然不会茫然不知,权力的诱惑自然不会使他拒绝对太上皇用粗,利欲熏心,更何况九五之尊!元和十四年(819)七月,群臣讨论给宪宗上尊号时,一个宰相主张加“孝德”二字,另一位宰相崔群认为“睿圣” 的尊号已经可以包括其含义,不必再加“孝德”,宪宗听了怒不可遏,竟然把崔群贬到湖南任了一个观察团练使。宪宗对“孝德”二字如此在乎,正说明他“内有惭德”,心中有所顾及,这从侧面反映出他很有可能参与了逼顺宗内禅的事件。总之,在永贞内禅、宪宗即位的过程中,一定有隐秘而又不能明言的内容。韩愈与宦官俱文珍关系尚好,在他所作的《顺宗实录》中也隐约透露出了宦官对顺宗相逼的痕迹,以致宪宗即位以后,俱文珍等屡屡说其记载内容不实,要求下诏进行修改。这样做的目的,显然是为了掩盖事实真相。
  依靠宦官的拥立和发动宫廷政变而迅速取得了最高权力的宪宗,一登基就在政治上大显身手了。看来,皇帝的政治作为与他获取权力的途径是否合法,绝对没有直接的关系。宪宗之前的太宗和玄宗,莫不是如此。
  
  后妃及子女
  
  后妃
  郭贵妃
  子女
  女
  梁国惠康公主,始封普宁公主。帝特爱之。下嫁于季友。元和中,徙永昌。薨,诏追封及谥。将葬,度支奏义阳、义章公主葬用钱四千万,有诏减千万。
  永嘉公主,为道士。
  衡阳公主,蚤薨。
  宣城公主,下嫁沈。
  郑国温仪公主,始封汾阳公主。下嫁韦让。薨,追封及谥。
  岐阳庄淑公主,懿安皇后所生。下嫁杜悰,帝为御正殿临遣,繇西朝堂出,复御延喜门,止主车,大赐宾从金钱。开第昌化里,疏龙首池为沼。后家上尚父大通里亭为主别馆。贵震当世。然主事舅姑以礼闻,所赐奴婢偃蹇,皆上还,丐直自市。杜悰为澧州刺史,主与偕,从者不二十婢,乘驴,不肉食,州县供具,拒不受。姑寝疾,公主不解衣,药糜不尝不进。开成中,悰自忠武入朝,主疾侵,曰:“愿朝兴庆宫,虽死于道,不恨。”道薨。
  陈留公主,下嫁裴损。裴损为太子谕德。
  真宁公主,下嫁薛翃。
  南康公主,下嫁沈汾。薨咸通时。
  临真公主,始封襄城公主。下嫁卫洙。薨咸通时。
  普康公主,蚤薨。
  真源公主,始封安陵。下嫁杜中立。
  永顺公主,下嫁刘弘景。
  安平公主,下嫁刘异。唐宣宗即位,宰相以刘异为平卢节度使,帝曰:“朕唯一妹,欲时见之。”乃止。后随异居外,岁时辄乘驲入朝。薨乾符时。
  永安公主,长庆初,许下嫁回鹘保义可汗,会可汗死,止不行。太和中,丐为道士,诏赐邑印,如寻阳公主故事,且归婚赀。
  义宁公主,未及下嫁薨。
  定安公主,始封太和公主。下嫁回鹘崇德可汗。会昌三年来归,诏宗正卿李仍叔、秘书监李践方等告景陵。主次太原,诏使劳问系涂,以黠戛斯所献白貂皮、玉指环往赐。至京师,诏百官迎谒再拜。故事:邑司官承命答拜,有司议:“邑司官卑,不可当。”群臣请以主左右上媵戴鬓帛承拜,两裆持命。又诏神策军四百具卤簿,群臣班迓。主乘辂谒宪、穆二室,欷歔流涕,退诣光顺门易服、褫冠钅奠待罪,自言和亲无状。帝使中人劳慰,复冠钅奠乃入,群臣贺天子。又诣兴庆宫。明日,主谒太皇太后。进封长公主,遂废太和府。主始至,宣城以下七主不出迎,唐武宗怒。差夺封绢赎罪。宰相建言:“礼始中壶,行天下,王化之美也,请载于史,示后世。”诏可。
  贵乡公主,蚤薨。


  After the success of cut-fan, Li Chun victory and success in the face, lost his own.
  They have expressed opposition remonstrant Shang Shu: "Chronicles Renjun like alchemist's a lot of, but never had to send their management of local government." Emperor with disapproval, said: "do all the power of a state, to the eternal youth in exchange for Ren Jun, so why begrudge Robinson is the one state! "
  Kenso an early age to the civil war, his own family relationships are also some confusion. His mother, Wang was the only person Daizong, another bit of the same father grandfather brother was adopted as the son of Corrections. Kenso their marriage relations are paradoxical. Zhen Yuan nine (793), when the Kenso Guangling Wang Kwok wife married. Kuo, is Shang Fu Guo Ziyi's granddaughter, her father was Fuma Du Wei Guo warm, dancing figurines mother is the eldest daughter of peace and prosperity Daizong Princess. Princess Sheng Ping Guo warming story between being compiled later in a "play the Princess," the drama, widely circulated. As the daughter of the mother is Daizong, this means, Kuo and Shun were cross-cousin brother and sister, Kuo on the long Kenso generation. Or, on the generational, Kenso concubine than their married to a generation of low Kuo. Them into marriage, when the Crown Prince of Shun Kwok mother because you were the parent, there are big Fun at the royal ancestors, on his daughter expressed tremendous favor. Kenso own concubine did not seem to how the cold, because Zhenyuan 10 year (795) hours, that is, they married two years, gave birth to a son, Lee Kwok forgive, namely later Mouzon.
  First, Kenso just been established as a Crown Prince after the "two kings" by Shi Du Group's land mass has been advice given the opportunity, stop by Kenso: "Your Majesty that I explained by Mr. justice, how can they pull the other the matter? "shows at the moment Kenso have their own political views. In other words, Kenso in this process may not be passive, do not seem aware of.
  Fourth, that the conspiracy occurred in Romania spent Kenso be crowned the strange. This October, so from Chang'an to Romanian Hermits Qinzhou, correction overlord edict, to Longxi Jinglue Shi Liu Yong Please soldiers, planning a separate waste Kenso emperor. The results, Liu Yong was the informant, that the arrest of Lo, Kenso one hand, gold and silver property Houci name Ma Liu Yong, on the other hand edict to make the imperial guards interrogated Law, stick to his gang dead. The emergence of this there are many doubts and cause and effect, but for Kenso, the greatest convenience is the opportunity to Heaven's a political enemies.
  Shun were directly killed by the overlord, it is those who own constitutional cases in order to eliminate all possible risks, discourage those with and Luo are, like the idea that people's fantasies, the ultimate purpose of nature is nothing more than a solid their status. The Kenso individuals are mature age, long time, the whole process, naturally he will not know how to respond, the natural temptation of power will not make his refusal of the overlord with the rough, blinded by greed, not to mention was the emperor! Dollars and 14 years (819) July, the ministers discussed the appellation to Kenso, a prime minister for an increase, "filial piety" word, another prime minister Cui group that "Core Sage" appellation may include the meaning has been , no need to "filial piety", Kenso heard furious, even the Cui group had fallen to an observation of any militia in Hunan to. Kenso of "filial piety" word so care is indicative of his "moral there ashamed," the heart has been taken into account, it reflects from the side, he is likely to participate in the force were within the Chan Shun events. In short, within the Zen Yongzhen, Kenso the process of ascending the throne, there must be secret but are not explicitly content. Wen Chun Han Yu and eunuchs all relations were good, he's "Shun cases Record" also works reveal a eunuch I am surrounded by traces of cis were so Kenso ascended the throne after all such paper has repeatedly said Jennifer false contents of their records, required even ordered modified. The aim, apparently to cover up the truth.
  Empress
  Female
  Hengyang Princess, flea death of a prince.
  Qi Yang Zhuangshu Gong master, Yi-An Empress born. Married Elsie Helen, Emperor as imperial temple temporary removal, Yao West Chodo out complex Royal Engi door, only the main car, big guests from giving money. Kai-Changhua, the sparse pool for marsh dragon first. Chase after the home on the Shangfu other museum in the main pavilion. When you shock the world. However, officiating principal Jiugu to hear, the gift of slaves Yan Jian, are still, beggars directly from the city. Mrs Helen prefectural governor for the Li River, the main and Chung-kai, 20 from those who do not tick, by donkey, not meat, for counties with, refused to be. Kou Qin Ji, the Princess did not understand, clothing, medicine does not taste does not enter Mi. Into the open, Helen Chungmu for Korea since the main disease invasion, said: "I hope the DPRK Imperial palace, although died Road, not hate." Road demise.
  Nam princess, married Shen Fen. Northern Sung Painting pass away the time.
  True source of the Princess, before sealing anling. Marry Du Zhongli.
  Princess Wing, early Changqing Xu Bao Yi married Uighur Khan, Khan will die, just not work. Wo, the beggar for the priests, Zhaoci eup India, such as seeking sun princess story, and marriage go cheap.
  Princess your village, flea death of a prince.
    

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