欧洲:   希腊 Greece   首都:雅典  国家代码: gr      朝政
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希腊

  希腊位于欧洲的东南部,面积为131,957平方公里,人口大约为10,964,020人。雅典是希腊的首都,人口为3,192,606人。当地时间为GMT+2小时。希腊共和国为总统议会制共和国。现任总统为:卡若罗斯-帕普利亚斯,总理为:克斯塔斯-卡拉曼利斯,国会:由每四年一度的选举选出300位成员。
  
    1981年希腊正式加入欧盟。当前货币为欧元。希腊经济采取自由企业制度,并受经济财政事务协调委员会以及世贸组织规则限制,希腊是这两个金融机构的会员。
  
  雅典卫城
  
    国家行政管理部门
  
    希腊划分为 13 个行政区域,它们被称为 Peripheries (区)。下一个级别的行政区域则称为 Nomos (辖区)。那里总共有 51 个辖区和一个自治区 ( 在圣山州 ) 。
  
    当地社区以 Dimos (城)或 Kinotita (社)命名,总共有 900 个城和 130 个社。
  
    天气情况
  
    希腊属于地中海气候和充足的阳光,温和的温度和少量的降雨。因为希腊的地形崎岖且分布在大陆和海洋之间,所以那里的气候变化多种多样。夏天通常称作“迈尔特米亚”的季节性微风系统冷却了亚热带温暖的气候,虽然山区气温较低。冬天气候温和,伴有少量雨雪天气,但是山区通常被雪覆盖。
  
  
  
  奥林匹亚
    历史发展
  
    希腊最早的人类起源可以追溯到旧石器时代(大约是公元前12,000-10,000年)
  
    在新石器时代末期(大约是公元前7,000-3,000年)是希腊文化的鼎盛时期。在塞萨利,马其顿地区,伯罗奔尼撒半岛等地区发现很多新石器时代的墓地。
  
    铜器时代的起源(大约是公元前3000年-1100年)出现在爱琴海的一个市区(Poliochni 在利姆诺斯岛的一个海岛)。鼎盛时期在克里特,希腊的大陆和基克拉迪斯群岛在希腊的东北部,也是具有典型的文化发展的地区。公元前2千年初期,在克里特的米诺安出现了有组织的宫殿社会,并导致了初期文字的出现和发展。以克诺索斯宫殿为中心,米诺安人创造了一种同东地中海人联系的网络,他们接受了东地中海人的文化元素,并对希腊大陆和爱琴海岛屿的文化造成决定性影响。
  
    在希腊大陆的迈锡尼人利用克里特圣托里尼的火山喷发(元前1500年左右)造成严重损失影响这一因素,脱颖而出,成为元前1100年时期爱琴海地区的霸主。迈锡尼人在迈锡尼城、Tiryns、皮洛斯、底比斯、 Gla、雅典和Iolkos建造的城堡构成了锡尼的中心霸主地位。迈锡尼的最大规模破坏发生元前1200左右,并导致了迈锡尼文明的衰落和大批移民向亚西亚海岸和塞浦路斯(第一个希腊的殖民地)的转移。
  
    大约二个世纪后是经济和文化衰落时期, 也就是所谓的黑暗时期(公元前1150年- 900 年), 随后进入几何图形时期 (公元前九世纪-八世纪),也是希腊文明时期的开始。希腊文明时期是以希腊城邦制的建立,希腊字母的创造和荷马史诗的撰写而为标志的(公元前八世纪末期).随后古代时期(公元前七世纪-六世纪)是主要社会和政治变动时代。希腊城邦当时的殖民地域广泛,西边远及西班牙,北边直达黑海,南边远至北非国家,为当时古代鼎盛时期打下了基础。古代时期的特点(公元前五世纪-四世纪)是雅典文化和政治优势;这样的程度以至公元前五世纪的后期称为伯里克利的“黄金时代”。公元前404年,在伯罗奔尼撒战争中以雅典失去统治而告终。
  
    在公元前4个世纪期间,新的力量涌现。菲利普二世和他的儿子,亚历山大, 马其顿人在希腊开始扮演主角。 亚历山大的远征到东方和征服占领印度河附近的地区从而改变了现今已形成的世界格局。因为亚历山大的死亡,他创立的帝国在他后代人中崩解了,导致在之后的希腊时代中,建立一个个独立王国局面的盛行(公元前3世纪到公元前1世纪)。在这个期间, 希腊的各个城市还都保留一些自主权,但他们丢失了很多他们之前的权利和威信。罗马人在公元前146年对希腊最终的完全占领使希腊这个国家并入了大罗马帝国的版图。在罗马统治期间(公元前1世纪到公元3世纪), 大多罗马皇帝都是希腊文化的钦佩者,并且友好的促进希腊城市的发展,特别是雅典。通过传道者保罗在公元前1世纪期间的旅行。基督教,这个新的宗教信仰逐渐的发展到整个希腊。
  
    现在许多的旅游者到希腊来都可以在数百个考古遗志看到希腊历史从旧石器时代到罗马时代的“手印”,分布在希腊的各个地区的考古博物馆和收藏室。
  
    康斯坦丁决定把罗马帝国的首都从罗马迁到君士坦丁堡(公元324年),从而把国家的力量转移到帝国的东部。这次迁都标志着希腊进入了拜占庭帝国时代的初期。在1204年以后, 当君士坦丁堡被第四次十字军攻陷,他们放弃了希腊部分地方,因为威尼斯人认为为了控制贸易通道,爱琴海占据了战略位置(海岛或沿海城市)。1262年君士坦丁堡的由拜战庭人再收复标志着最后阶段的帝国时代的存在。从14世纪土耳其民族逐渐的开始了占领帝国的部分,1453年君士坦丁堡被土耳其人攻陷。1669年克里特岛是土耳其人将占领的希腊的最后部分。大约在随后的四个世纪克里特被土耳其人占领,直到1821年希腊独立战争的爆发。
  
    很多纪念碑从拜占庭时期和土耳其帝国时期保存到现在,例如拜占庭式和波斯特-拜占庭式的教堂和僧道院,土耳其式建筑,迷人的拜占庭和法兰西式的城堡,还有各式各样的纪念碑,等等都保留着他们自己的风格。
  
    1830年希腊独立战争的结果标志着独立的希腊王国的形成,然而,国土面积十分有限。在19世纪末和20世纪初期期间, 随着希腊人口的增加,希腊国土也逐步完整。1920年,一次世界大战以后,希腊的国土得到了最大的限度延伸,总理维尼泽罗斯的贡献由为突出。希腊根据当时的形式在第二次世界大战结束时与多德卡尼斯群岛合并。
  
    1974年,在7年的专政以后,由全体公民表决通过,国家从君主立宪制转变成共和制; 1981年,希腊成为欧共体的正式成员国。
  
    公共卫生
  
    为了确保必要的身体健康,来自欧盟国家希望到希腊旅游的旅游者必须随身携带欧洲身体健康证明(EHIC)或者任何由当地社会安全的权威部门签发的相关的合法证明。
  
    因此,希腊可以提供以下相关的治疗:
  
    1. 到辖区的IKA(社会安全协会)健康部门(联合医院)或者医生办公室接受治疗。
  
    2. 地方门诊(以前的乡村门诊)或者到公立医院的健康中心。
  
    3. 合同医院的门诊部门。
  
    为了确保必要的身体健康,来自欧盟以外国家的旅行者到希腊旅游前必须要参考当地的社会安全部门的提供相关信息。
  
    紧急救助电话
  
    救护车:166
  
    SOS:1016
  
    值班医院和门诊:1434
  
    中毒急救:210 7793777
  
    药方:1434
  
    酒精或毒瘾救助热线:210 3617089


  Greece is located in southeastern Europe, an area of 131,957 square kilometers and a population of about 10,964,020 people. Athens is the capital of Greece with a population of 3,192,606 people. Local time is GMT +2 hours. President of the Hellenic Republic is a parliamentary republic. Incumbent President is: card if Ross - Karolos Papoulias, the Prime Minister as: Alex Freitas - Karamanlis, Parliament: once every four years by the election of 300 members.
  1981 Greece formally joined the European Union. The current currency is the euro. Greek economy to free enterprise system, and coordinated by the Economic and Fiscal Affairs Committee and the WTO rules and restrictions, Greece is a member of the two financial institutions.
  Acropolis
  National administrations
  Greece is divided into 13 administrative regions, which are known as Peripheries (District). The next level of administrative region is called the Nomos (area). Where a total of 51 districts and one autonomous region (in the holy state).
  Local communities, Dimos (City) or Kinotita (Club) named a total of 130 900 Town and community.
  Weather
  Greece has a Mediterranean climate and abundant sunshine, mild temperatures and little rainfall. Because the rugged terrain of Greece and the distribution between the mainland and the ocean, so there's a variety of climate change. Summer is usually referred to as "迈尔特米亚" seasonal wind system cooling the warm subtropical climate, although the mountains the temperature is lower. Winter climate is mild, with small amount of rain and snow, but the mountain is usually covered with snow.
  Olympia
  History
  Greek origins can be traced to the earliest Paleolithic humans (about 12,000-10,000 years BC)
  In the late Neolithic Age (about 7,000-3,000 BC) was the heyday of Greek culture. In Thessaly, Macedonia, Peloponnese peninsula and other regions have found that many Neolithic cemetery.
  The origin of the Bronze Age (about 3000 BC -1100) of an urban area in the Aegean Sea (Poliochni an island in Lemnos). Peak in Crete, mainland Greece and the Greek Islands Kick Gladys northeast, is typical of the cultural development of the region. 2 thousand years BC, the early emergence in Crete Minoan palace of organized society, and led to the emergence and development of the initial text. The Knossos palace as the center, Minoan people created a human connection with the network of the Eastern Mediterranean, they accepted the cultural elements of the Eastern Mediterranean, and the Greek mainland and the Aegean islands, causing a decisive influence on the culture.
  Mycenaean Greek mainland people use 克里特圣托里尼 volcanic eruption (yuan before 1500 or so) a serious loss of this factor, emerged as the Yuan period before the 1100 Aegean region's dominant. In Mycenaean Mycenaean city, Tiryns, Pylos, Thebes, Gla, Athens and the construction of the castle Iolkos Nigeria constitute the center of the tin dominance. The largest damage was Mycenaean element pre 1200 or so, and led to the decline of Mycenaean civilization, and a large number of immigrants to the coast of Asia Minor and Cyprus (the first Greek colony) of the transfer.
  During the 4th century BC, the emergence of new forces. Philip II and his son, Alexander, the Macedonians began to play a leading role in Greece. Alexander's expedition to the East and the conquest of the Indian occupation of the area near the river has changed the world now has formed a pattern. Because Alexander's death, he founded the empire among his descendants collapse, resulting in the Greek era after the establishment of an independent Kingdom, the prevalence of the situation (3rd century BC to 1st century BC). During this period, the Greek cities also have to retain some autonomy, but before they lost a lot of their rights and prestige. The Romans in 146 BC, the complete occupation of Greece, the Greek final this country into a large map of the Roman Empire. In Rome during the reign (1st century BC to the 3rd century AD), most of the Roman emperor who are the admiration of Greek culture, and promote the Greek city-friendly development, especially in Athens. Through the Apostle Paul in the 1st century BC, during the trip. Christianity, the gradual development of the new religion to the whole Greece.
  Now many tourists come to Greece can be seen at the behest of hundreds of Greek archaeological history from the Paleolithic to the Roman era of the "fingerprints", distributed in various regions of Greece, the archaeological museum and the collection room.
  Many monuments from the Byzantine period and saved the Turkish Empire to the present, for example, Byzantine and Post - Byzantine churches and monk homes, Turkish architecture, Byzantine and charming French-style castle, and all kinds of monuments , and so have had their own style.
  1830 results mark the Greek War of Independence the formation of the independent Kingdom of Greece, however, very limited land area. In the late 19th and early 20th century period, with the increase in the population of Greece, the Greek territory gradually complete. In 1920, after World War I, the land of Greece has been an extension of the maximum limit, the Prime Minister 维尼泽罗斯 The contribution of the outstanding. Greek form of the then end of the Second World War combined with the Dodecanese Islands.
  In 1974, after 7 years of dictatorship, a vote by all citizens, the state transition from a monarchy into a republic; 1981, Greece became a full member of the European Community.
  Public Health
  In order to ensure the necessary health, from the European Union countries want tourist to travel to Greece to carry proof of good health in Europe (EHIC) or any authority by the local department of social security issue related to the legal proof.
  Therefore, Greece can provide the following treatment:
  1. To the jurisdiction of the IKA (Social Security Institute) Health Sector (United Hospital) or doctor's office for treatment.
  2. Local clinic (formerly Village clinic) or public hospitals to health centers.
  3. Contract hospital outpatient departments.
  In order to ensure the necessary health, travelers from countries outside the EU before traveling to Greece to refer to the local social security departments to provide relevant information.
  Emergency Response
  Ambulance: 166
  SOS: 1016
  Duty of hospitals and clinics: 1434
  Poisoning: 2107793777
  Prescription: 1434
  Alcohol or drug help line: 2103617089
 

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