旅游
travel
分类表
旅游经济
travel economics

  旅游经济(Tourism Economy)是指由旅游者的旅游活动引起的,旅游者同旅游企业之间以及旅游企业同相关企业之间的经济联系。旅游企业为旅游者提供相应吃、住、行、游、购、娱乐等服务,而旅游者给付一定报酬,从而形成了旅游者与旅游企业之间的经济联系。旅游企业为安排好旅游者的旅游活动,需要同有关其他企业或部门发生经济联系。这些经济联系便构成了旅游经济的内容,它是国民经济运行的一部分。
  
  旅游经济的特点
  1、逐步宽松的经济条件
  随着近几年的经济改革和发展,国家和地方的财政收入有了较大的增长,人民收入也在不断提高,因此一方面可以有更多的资金用于发展旅游业所需的资金投入,另一方面居民的旅游消费支出也有很大的增长潜力,这些良好的市场条件为今后几年中国的旅游业提供了较为宽松的发展空间。
  2、趋于成熟的旅游经济政策
  国家近几年大力支持和推动旅游业的发展,各地政府也积极维护和推进旅游产业的发展。大西部开发战略,更以生态建设和环境保护为根本点和切入点。重视生态环境保护的方针政策同时也为旅游经济发展提供了政策性的指导方向。
  3、加快旅游生态环境建设的步伐
  
  这几年,国家把生态环境建设、结构调整和资源开发结合起来,不断加强对自然生态环境的建设和保护,制定了《全国生态环境建设规划》,并要求各级地方政府,明确建设目标、任务和重点,全面实施天然林资源保护工程,精心组织生态环境的综合治理,实施退耕还林等工程。坚持生态环境建设与水利、水电资源开发相结合,与发展林业、畜牧业相结合,与旅游资源开发相结合的原则,从根本上保证了旅游业的发展。
  4、大力发展地方旅游经济
  以深圳为代表的国内旅游经济产业,在短短的几年时间迅猛发展。具有原创风格的世界文化主体公园、世界之窗等优秀旅游景点,为国内旅游业发展起了创新和带头作用。每年接待大批国内外游客,为该地区的经济发展起了相当大的促进作用,也使人们看到旅游经济在拉动内需、促进经济发展过程中所起的重要作用。沿海经济发达地带,无一不是旅游业发达地带。海南、深圳、珠海、东莞、上海、大连、青岛等著名旅游地区,积极维护和培育旅游经济的发展。尤其是大连在近几年声名日盛,被誉为“北方的香港”。
  5、走向全国的旅游市场
  近几年国家将继续加快和发展旅游产业,完善旅游市场法制建设,依法治理和规范旅游市场秩序。在加强生态环境保护和建设的基础上,大力发展基础设施建设,加强对航空业的投入和标准化管理工作;对铁路系统进行提速和电气化改造,并在西部地区增加了许多支线;高速公路的建设也加快了步伐。与此同时,大力整顿旅游公司及中介机构,以提高服务质量,保护消费者权益。这些措施对于开发旅游资源,促进全国旅游市场的健康发展具有重要的意义。
  
  国内旅游经济的投资方向
  1、基础设施
  中国的基础设施与发达国家相比相差太远,无论是硬件设施,还是软件服务方面都应加大投资力度。必须继续在交通运输、城市规划建设、改善卫生条件、信息服务设施等方面上一台阶才行。
  2、生态环境建设和维护
  可持续发展是旅游经济发展的重中之重,中国在生态环境建设和保护方面,需要大量的投资。中国正急需解决的生态问题有如下几点:
  
  (1)森林面积由于过度的滥砍滥伐,中国的森林面积每年以5000KM2的速度减少,森林覆盖面积仅为14%,远远低于世界平均的25%的水平。
  (2)草原面积目前中国草原的1/3由于过度放牧,只放牧不养草,许多草原被毁于一旦,联合国开发计划署警告称,再不采取紧急措施,到明年中国草原的沙化率将上升30%,势必严重破坏在西部地区的部分自然景观和人文古迹。
  (3)珍稀动植物保护由于人口的增长,不断侵占动物栖息地,在国际上登记的630种濒临灭绝的珍稀动物中,中国有56种。
  (4)垃圾处理目前中国各旅游城市及景区的垃圾处理尚未有一完善的处理方法和流程,每到旅游旺季,人多之时,漫山遍野,人过之处,垃圾成堆,有待制定措施采用法律形式加以规范。
  (5)大气污染许多城市的空气污染严重到令人害怕的程度。例如北京,这座具有悠久历史的古城,前不久据BBC报道的消息称:由于严重的污染,北京很难看到蓝天。许多外国游客一提到北京的环境问题,都为之可惜。又如山西的著名旅游景点,从市区到景点的途中,一路烟雾腾腾,日本游客不得不戴着口罩坐在封闭的旅游车里,怨声四起。
  3、旅游经济的服务意识
  服务意识的培养,关系到一个地区旅游市场的兴旺发达,沿海旅游城市无不将此视为重要环节。中国旅游经济发展的薄弱环节之一就是缺乏服务意识,游客所到之处,常常被欺骗和挨宰,导致游客也不爱护当地的风景和设施,乱扔垃圾,乱割乱划,破坏设施,形成恶性循环。优良的服务意识和水平是保持和维护旅游市场健康发展的源泉。
  4、古建筑遗迹的保护
  中国在推行城市化建设的进程中,应小心谨慎地保护古代文明遗址与周边生态环境,不可因城市建设而损坏和毁灭古代建筑及遗迹。当地政府要切实采取措施使城市建设与文物古迹的保护协调一致。
  5、咨询和中介业
  随着旅游市场的发展,咨询业和中介业将大力发展。同时,完善的咨询和中介业有赖于当地政府的培育和规范管理,唯此方能确保游客在当地的旅游过程中,得到详尽和正确的信息服务,从而加大对游客的吸引力。
  
  中国旅游经济的调整重点
  旅游经济发展应以提高服务质量和水平为中心。在现阶段中国经济发展和生活水平有所提高后,旅游市场服务质量和水平必须相应提高,才能实现旅游业的较快增长,而这种提高不是很容易实现的,往往需要对旅游市场中的各个环节加以规范和管理。在旅游市场的培育和建设方面,要以提高服务质量和水平为中心,注重服务意识和服务效率的提高。具体应注意以下几点:
  首先,把重点放在提高服务质量上。服务质量的提高主要表现在自然环境和人文环境方面的均衡提高。在投入有限的情况下,充分利用已有的资源,通过服务质量的提高,来获取最大的经济效益,保持旅游经济的可持续发展。
  其次,注重提高旅游市场发展的水平。长期以来,中国由于经济落后和生活水平较低,基础设施较差,旅游环境和旅游市场的整体服务水平一直处于一种脏乱差的状况,对旅游经济的发展极为不利。如果各地的服务水平总是如此,旅游经济的发展将很难提高。目前中国的各地旅游市场环境状况不佳,并存在乱投资,低水平模仿建设、制造人文景点的现象(例如北京的世界公园)。只有在创新和管理上有较大提高,才能保证旅游经济的适当发展。
  
  旅游经济的作用
  1、增加国家外汇收入,平衡收支
  随着国际政治、经济、文化交流发展,作为国家支付手段的外汇,其作用日益显著。作为外汇收入的旅游业在国家创汇,平衡国际收支方面起到了重要作用,这已经为各国实践所证明,为人们所认识。人口3900万,面积50平方公里的西班牙,是世界第一个旅游大国,被称为“旅游王国”。它充分利用其得天独厚的自然环境;阳光、海水、沙滩的优势以及一流的服务吸引来自世界各地的游客。1972年至1977年,该国旅游收入平均占全部出口收入的 26%,其中1975年,西班牙进出口贸易逆差达78亿美元,而旅游收入31亿美元,补偿了40%贸易逆差。旅游业发达的瑞士也如此。
  
  2、回笼货币,积累资金
  旅游收入的另一重要部分是国内旅游收入。国内旅游收入对于国家回笼货币,积累资金起着积极的作用。据统计,我国在群众手里的节余资金超过2万亿人民币,而且每年以30%左右幅度增长。如何引导消费,更有效地回笼货币,渠道很多,而旅游就是一个新的渠道。随着人们物质生活水平的提高,闲假时间的增多,人们对精神的需求和消费日益迫切。
  事实上,我国国内旅游业已经出现了迅猛发展的势头,其经济作用也日益显著。据统计,1985年,我国国内旅游人数约2.4亿人次,总收入80亿元,到94年,国内旅游点人数上升到5.24亿人次,总消费为1023.5亿人民币。
  3、带动相关行业促进地区经济发展
  据法国旅游业协会主席菲利普·邦贝尔热分析:“43%的旅馆、咖啡店和饭店的收益,同旅游直接有关;航空运输收益的42%同旅游有关,铁路运输收益的23%、汽车的12%、农业的8%、建筑业的6%同旅游业有关。”
  旅游业是一个综合性很强的产业,吃、住、行、游、购、娱是旅游的六大要素。要有吃、有住、进得来,出得去,有物可购,有处去乐。因此,旅游的发展,必然不断带动与这要素直接相关的饮食、建筑、交通、邮电通讯、园林、商业、轻纺、保险等行业的发展。
  据澳大利亚官方统计,旅游业涉及29个经济部门中的108个行业。仅以建筑业为例,十多年前,住店难在我国许多城市是普遍现象,那时人们在外有个地方住就算不错,有的甚至在车站过夜。但短短十几年,到1998年底我国已有各类旅店21万家,涉外饭店约4000家,星级饭店2000多家,其中五星级45家,四星级117家,三星级近1000多家,二星级和一星级1000多家。游客住的地方数量多,档次全,再已不是原来的情景了。期间建筑业获得的发展可以想象。
  美国夏威夷的瓦胡岛,开发前是一片荒凉的海滩,五十年代为旅游区后,建成的旅游、商业街,密布小岛。目前,该岛已成为年接待世界旅游者约400万人次的世界著名旅游区。建筑业的发展,又带动与之相配套的水、电、煤气、暧气、通讯等行业,饭店内的装饰、家俱、餐饮、卫生用品等等,工业及所需的农产品的生产自然也相应地发展起来,其连锁效应是巨大的。
  游客每到一地总要买些纪念品、土特产等带回去。即旅游要素中的“购”,旅游对商品的需求带动了工艺品、纪念品及有民族特色的产品的生产与开发。据测算一位旅客在异国旅行购物所花费用一般约全部旅费的1/2。旅游业的发展对相关产业的带动作用可用一句话来概括,即“一业兴百业旺”。
  4、增加就业机会
  由于旅游业促进了许多行业的发展,使整个社会就业机会增多。旅游业是一种综合性的行业,它不但能直接向社会提供就业机会,而且能间接地为社会提供就业机会。按国际的习惯测算,旅游业直接就业与间接就业的人员比例大约为1:5。每增加旅游业的一间客房,可以直接提供0.75的就业机会,并间接地为2.5人在有关部门(饭店、商业、交通业)提供就业机会。目前,我市直接从事旅游业工作的人数已达3万之多,间接的达20万,占全市总人口的五分之一。
  5、旅游经济的扶贫功能
  旅游业是见效快、永久性的扶贫开发项目。从国际国内旅游业的发展过程可以看出,旅游业发展的速度,远远快于各种产业发展的速度。旅游是第二次世界大战以后才成为一个产业的,在不到半个世纪的时间里,就迅速发展成世界第一大产业。这种发展速度,是任何一个产业都难以比拟的。邻近我们国家的新加坡和泰国,经过不到20年的苦心经营,就发展成为亚洲的旅游强国,成为世界著名的旅游胜地。我国少数民族地区的许多旅游点,也是在很短的时间内热起来的。如云南的西双版纳和德宏,四川的九寨沟,湖南的张家界,贵州的龙宫,从开发、宣传到变成热点,都只有几年的时间。广西的北海更快,仅两、三年就热起来了,1992年游客已达150万人。较小的旅游点如龙胜的一个温泉,一片梯田;融水的一段贝江,开发一、两年就分别引来了十余万游客。由于人们旅游欲望的强烈,信息传递的现代化和交通工具的发达,所开发的旅游区只要有独特的景观和丰富的内容,能满足人们要求,并把宣传工作做到五洲四海,千家万户,就可以在较短的时间内大见成效,并且变成永久性的财源。因此,旅游业是短、平、快,永久性的扶贫开发项目。


  Tourism economy (Tourism Economy) is caused by the tourists, tourism, and tourists with tourism enterprises and tourism-related business enterprises and economic ties between. Tourism enterprises to provide corresponding tourists eating, living, transportation, travel, shopping, entertainment and other services, while tourists pay a certain return, creating a tourist and economic links between tourism enterprises. Travel arrangements for business travelers to tourist activities, need to work with other enterprises or departments in the economic ties. These economic ties constitute the content of the tourism economy, which is part of the national economy.
  The characteristics of tourism economy
  1, gradually easing the economic conditions
  With the recent years of economic reform and development of national and local financial incomes are growing larger, people are constantly Tigao Shouru, so more money on the one hand Ke Yi Yong Yu development Lvyou Ye Suoxu the capital Touru On the other hand residents tourism consumption expenditure had a great growth potential, these favorable market conditions for the next few years China's tourism industry provides a more generous space for development.
  2, more mature tourism economic policies
  Countries to vigorously support and promote tourism development, local governments also actively maintain and promote the tourism industry. Great western development strategy, more to ecological construction and environmental protection as a fundamental point and entry point. Attention to ecological and environmental protection policies of economic development but also provide for tourism policy-orientation.
  3, to speed up the pace of tourism ecological environment
  In recent years, the state of the ecological environment construction, structural adjustment and resources to exploitation of them, constantly strengthening the natural ecological environment construction and Bao Hu, formulated the "National Ecological Environment Construction Planning" and called Geji local governments, Mingque construction Mubiao, tasks and priorities, the full implementation of natural forest protection project, a comprehensive well-organized management of the ecological environment, returning farmland to forest and other projects implemented. Adhere to the ecological environment and water resources, water resources development, integration, and development of forestry, animal husbandry combined with tourism, the principle of combining resources development, a fundamental guarantee for the development of tourism.
  4, to develop the local tourism economy
  5, to the country's tourism market
  In recent years the state will continue to accelerate and develop the tourism industry, improve the tourism market and legal system, rule by law and regulate the tourism market order. Strengthen ecological protection and construction, based on to develop infrastructure, strengthen investment in the aviation industry and standardization management; on the electrification of the railway system speed and transformation, and an increase in the number of extension in the western region; highway construction also accelerated the pace. At the same time great efforts to consolidate tourism companies and intermediary institutions to improve service quality, protect consumer interests. These measures for the development of tourism resources and promote the healthy development of the national tourism market of great importance.
  Domestic tourism investment in the direction of the economy
  1, infrastructure
  China's infrastructure and far from the developed countries, whether hardware or software services should be increased investment. Must continue in transport, urban planning and construction, improve health conditions, and information services such as the last step Caixing.
  2, the ecological environment construction and maintenance
  Sustainable development is the top priority of economic development, tourism, China's ecological environment construction and protection, will require significant investment. China is in urgent need to solve ecological problems are the following:
  (1) forest area due to excessive deforestation, forest area in China to 5000KM2 annual rate of reduction in forest cover only 14%, far below the world average of 25% level.
  (2) grassland steppe of China's current 1 / 3 due to excessive grazing, grazing not only raise grass, many grasslands are destroyed, United Nations Development Programme warned, do not take urgent measures to grassland desertification in China next year, the rate will rise 30%, it will seriously undermine the western part of the natural landscape and cultural heritage.
  (3) the protection of rare plant and animal population growth, and constantly occupied habitat in the international registration of 630 kinds of rare and endangered animals, China has 56 species.
  (4) waste present, China tourist cities and scenic spots not yet have a comprehensive waste treatment methods and processes, each of the tourist season, when many people of the hills, people their path, garbage piles, the measures to be developed by law forms and regulations.
  (5) air pollution a serious air pollution in many cities to frightening proportions. Such as Beijing, has a long history of this ancient city, long ago, according to BBC news reports: due to serious pollution, Beijing is difficult to see the blue sky. Many foreign tourists at the mention of Beijing's environmental problems, all whom pity. Another example of Shanxi's well-known tourist attractions, from downtown to the attractions on the way, the way the smoky tavern, Japanese tourists have to travel wearing a mask sitting in a closed car, loudly complaining.
  3, tourism economy of service
  Service awareness, related to the prosperity of the tourism market in a region, the coastal tourist city are all regarded as an important part of this. China's economic development, tourism is one weak link is the lack of service awareness, tourists everywhere he went, often deceived, and Ai Zai, leading visitors in the care of the local landscape and facilities, littering, indiscriminate cutting plan chaos, destruction facilities a vicious circle. Excellent service and level of consciousness is to maintain and safeguard the healthy development of the tourism market source.
  4, the protection of ancient architectural monuments
  Construction of China in the implementation of the process of urbanization should be carefully 保护 ruins of ancient civilizations and peripheral ecological environment will not be any urban construction from damage and destruction of ancient buildings and archaeological sites. The local government should take practical measures to make urban development consistent with the protection of cultural relics.
  5, consulting and intermediary business
  With the tourism market development, consulting and intermediary industry will develop. Meanwhile, the sound advice and intermediation depends on nurturing and regulating local government management, the most important matter to ensure that tourists can only travel in the local process to obtain detailed and accurate information services, thereby increasing its attractiveness to tourists.
  Adjustment of China's tourism economy focus
  Tourism Economic Development should improve service quality and level of the center. At this stage, China's economic development and improved living standards, the tourism market and level of service quality must be raised accordingly in order to achieve rapid growth of tourism, and this increase is not very easy to implement and often require travel market to regulate all aspects and management. In the nurturing and development of the tourism market, it is necessary to improve service quality and level of the center, focusing on service awareness and service efficiency. Concrete should note the following:
  First of all, to focus on improving service quality. Improve the quality of services mainly in the natural and human environment, to improve the balance. In the case of limited investment, the full use of existing resources, through the improvement of service quality, to maximize economic benefits, to maintain the sustainable development of tourism economy.
  Second, pay attention to improving the level of development of the tourism market. A long time, due to economic backwardness and low living standards, poor infrastructure, tourism, environment and tourism market, the overall level of service has been in a situation of College Students Donate Sperm, on the tourism economy of those areas. If the level of service around the always the case, the development of tourism economy will be difficult to improve. China's current poor state of the environment around the tourism market, and there is chaos investment, low copy construction, manufacturing human attraction phenomena (such as Beijing World Park). Only in innovation and management has improved greatly in order to ensure the proper development of tourism economy.
  The role of tourism economy
  1, increase national foreign exchange earnings, balance of payments
  2, the currency withdrawn from circulation, accumulation of capital
  Another important part of tourism income is the income from tourism. Income from domestic tourism currency withdrawn from circulation for the nation, plays an active role in the accumulation of funds. According to statistics, China's savings from the hands of the masses more than 2 trillion yuan, and annual growth rate of 30%. How to guide consumption, more efficient currency withdrawn from circulation, there are many channels, and tourism is a new channel. With the improvement of people's living standards, the increase in leisure time off, the spirit of the people on the increasingly urgent demand and consumption.
  In fact, China's domestic tourism has emerged in the momentum of rapid development, its economic role is increasingly significant. According to statistics, in 1985, the number of domestic tourism in China is 2.4 million passengers, the total income of 8.0 billion, to 94 years, the number of domestic tourist trips rose to 524 million, total consumption was 102.35 billion yuan.
  3, lead related industries to promote regional economic development
  According to the French Tourism Association, 席菲利普邦 Bell thermal analysis: "43% of the hotels, cafes and restaurants of the benefits, directly related with tourism; air transport income of 42% with tourism-related, 23% of rail receipts, car 12%, agriculture 8%, 6% of the construction industry with the tourism industry. "
  Tourism is a very complex industry, food, housing, transportation, travel, shopping and entertainment are the six elements of tourism. Have to eat, live, get in, be allowed to leave empty-can buy, there are Department to music. Therefore, tourism development, must continue to lead and this factor directly related to food, construction, transportation, telecommunications, garden, commercial, textile, insurance and other industries.
  According to official statistics, Australia, 29 economic sectors involved in tourism in the 108 industry. Only the construction industry, for example, ten years ago, difficult to stay in our country is a common phenomenon in many cities, when people are out there is even a good place to live, and some even spend the night at the station. But in the ten years to the end of 1998 China has all kinds of hotels 210 000 foreign-related hotel about 4000, more than 2,000 star-rated hotels, including 45 five-star, 117 four-star, three-star nearly more than 1000 home, two star and one star more than 1,000. Large number of visitors a place to live, all grades, no longer the scene of the original. Obtained during the development of the construction industry can imagine.
  Hawaii island of Oahu, before the development is a desolate beach, 50 years after a tourist resort, built in the tourism, commercial street, clouds island. Currently, the island has become a tourist in the world received about 400 million people world-famous tourist area. Construction industry, but also bring with matched water, electricity, gas, heating gas, telecommunications and other industries, hotels in the decoration, furniture, food, health supplies, etc., industrial and agricultural products needed for the production of the corresponding naturally to develop, its knock-on effect is enormous.
  Tourists arrived at a place always to buy some souvenirs, souvenirs and so on back. The tourism elements of the "Share", the tourism demand for commodities driven crafts, souvenirs, and there are national characteristics of the production and development. It is estimated that a passenger traveling in a foreign country usually spend on shopping for travel around all of the 1 / 2. The development of tourism related industries leading role can be summarized in one sentence, that "a prosperous industry of better business."
  4, increase job opportunities
  As the tourism industry to promote the development of many industries, increasing employment opportunities for the whole community. Tourism is an integrated industry, it will not only provide direct employment opportunities to the community, but also indirectly provide employment opportunities for the community. Calculated in accordance with international custom, direct employment and indirect tourism employment staff ratio of about 1:5. One for every room of tourism, can provide direct employment opportunities for 0.75, and, indirectly, to 2.5 in the relevant departments (restaurant, commercial, transportation) to provide employment opportunities. Currently, the city directly involved in the tourism industry that the number has reached 30000 as many indirect 20 million, accounting for one fifth of the total population of the city.
  5, pro-poor tourism economy functions
  Tourism is a quick, permanent poverty alleviation and development projects. From the development of international and domestic tourism can be seen that the speed of tourism development, much faster than the speed of development of various industries. Tourism is an industry after World War II became, in less than half a century, it quickly developed into the world's largest industry. This growth rate is hardly any comparable industry. Our neighboring countries Singapore and Thailand, after less than 20 years of painstaking efforts, on the development of tourism in Asia power, a world famous tourist destination. Many ethnic minority areas in China tourist spots, is in a very short time heat up. Such as Xishuangbanna and Dehong Yunnan, Sichuan, Jiuzhaigou, Zhangjiajie, Hunan, Guizhou, underwater, from the development, promotion to become a hot spot, are only a few years time. Guangxi Beihai faster, only two or three years on the heat up in 1992 reached 150 million visitors. Smaller tourist spots such as the Longsheng a spa, a terrace; melt water of a shell River, develop a couple of years drew on more than ten million visitors, respectively. Because people desire a strong tourism, modern information transmission and transport developed, the development of tourism as long as there is a unique landscape and rich content, to satisfy requirements, and to do publicity Continental seas, thousands of families, can be large in a relatively short period of time paid off, and become a permanent source of income. Therefore, tourism is a short, flat, fast, permanent poverty alleviation and development projects.
  

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