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园林建筑
garden architecture

  建筑是人们用石材,木材等建筑材料搭建的一种供人居住和使用的物体,如住宅,桥梁,体育馆等等。广义上来讲,园林也是建筑的一部分。有人说过:上帝一次性给出了木头.石头.泥土和茅草,其他的一切都是人的劳作...这就是建筑。建筑是凝固的音乐.建筑是一部石头史书。
  
  园林史
  是阐释园林的渊源,演变,发展的规律及其特征,论述物化为园林的外在形态,风格,体系,蕴涵着人类对于生存环境,社会哲学思想,观念,审美需求,政治影响,造园思想流派内在的认识,通过和运用历史的社会结构,经济组织,生产方式,科学技术积淀的造园实践方法与经验表现;论述人类生存有形环境,无形环境活动的现象分析的园林理论与实践,是人类生存环境活动的足迹,追求与体现,折射着人类创造理想生存环境的巨大努力,是文明的载体.为现代园林景观,环境建设提供历史借鉴,思想理论,分析方法,要素运用,传承警示与发展"走向真实必由之路"的依据.
  
  园林发展的四大历史阶段
  世界园林历史,经历了原始文明,农业文明,工业文明和信息文明四大文明阶段.
  (一)原始文明阶段
  人类社会的原始文明大约持续了二百多万年.人类树巢而居,茹毛饮血,巢穴而居,采集渔猎.人类对大自然环境的被动适应状态,在生存演化过程中,人类被动植物的形态,色泽等外观特征所吸引并有了心灵感应,赋有生命意义,有了动植物崇拜.原始文明后期,人类农业和聚居的部落,园圃种植,鸟兽养殖.部落附近及房前屋届有了果园,菜圃,畜养鸟兽场所.逐渐满足了人们祭祀温饱需要,园林得到孕育,进入萌芽状态.
  其园林萌芽状态的特点为:种植,养殖,观赏不分;为全体部落成员共管共享;主观为了祭祀崇拜和解决温饱问题,而客观有观赏功能.
  
  (二) 农业文明阶段
  距今大约1万年前,在亚洲和非洲的一些大河冲积平原和三角洲地区,农业的长足发展,人类进入了以农耕为主的农业文明阶段,果园,菜圃,兽场亦分化为供生产为主的果蔬园圃和供观赏为主的花园,猎苑.伴随农业生产力的进一步发展,产生了城镇,国都和手工业,商业,使建筑技术不断提高,为大规模兴造园林提供了必要条件
  自然地域,文化体系演化形成世界园林体系.文化体系的主要影响因素有种族,宗教,风俗习惯,语言文字系统,历史地理和文化交流等,尤其以自然地域,种族,宗教文化,语言文字系统影响最大.
  
  世界园林体系划分为欧洲园林体系,伊斯兰园林体系和中国园林体系三大体系.
  
  *欧洲园林体系
  欧洲园林,又称为西方园林.主要是以古埃及和古希腊园林为渊源以法国古典主义园林和英国自然风景式园林两大流派,以人工美的规则式园林和自然美的自然式园林为造园风格,思想理论,艺术造诣精湛独到.
  欧洲园林覆盖面广,它以欧洲本土为中心,势力范围囊括欧洲,北美,南美,澳大利亚等四大洲,对南非,北非,西亚,东亚等地区的园林发展和当代亦产生了重要影响.
  欧洲园林的两大流派都有自己明显的风格特征.规则式园林:气势恢宏,视线开阔,严谨对称,构图均衡,花坛,雕像,喷泉等装饰丰富,体现庄重典雅,雍容华贵的气势.
  自然风景式园林取消了园林与自然之间的界线,将自然为主体引入到园林,排除人工痕迹,体现一种自然天成,返璞归真的艺术.
  
  *伊斯兰园林体系
  伊斯兰园林,是以古巴比伦和古波斯园林为渊源,十字形庭园为典型布局方式,封闭建筑与特殊节水灌溉系统相结合,富有精美细密的建筑图案和装饰色彩的阿拉伯园林.
  伊斯兰园林以幼发拉底,底格利斯两河流域及美索不达米亚平原为中心,以阿拉伯世界为范围,横跨欧,亚,非三大洲,以印度,西班牙中世纪园林风格最为典型,对世界各国园林艺术风格的变迁有很大的影响力.
  伊斯兰园林通常面积较小,建筑封闭,十字形的林阴路构成中轴线,全园分割成四区.园林中心,十字形道路交汇点布设水池,象征天堂.园中沟渠明暗交替,盘式涌泉滴水,又分出几何形小庭园,每个庭园的树木相同.彩色陶瓷马赛克图案在庭园装饰中广泛应用.
  
  *中国园林体系
  中国园林尊崇与自然和谐为美的生态原则,属于山水风景式园林范畴,以非规则式园林为基本特征,园林建筑与山水环境有机融合,自然和谐,浑然一体,涵蕴人伦教化,诗情画意的写意山水园林.
  中国大陆三面环山,一面濒海的独特的地理环境,长期的中央集权,礼仪制度和农业本位文化,文明远远高于世界诸国文化,以泱泱大国自居,小视四方,中国园林自诞生以后,在自己特殊的国情和历史文化背景下自我发展.从其独到的创世纪说到三代时期的囿,秦汉时期的苑,魏晋六朝的自然山水园林,唐宋时代的全景式写意山水园林,最后达到明清时代浓缩自然山水,以小见大的高度象征性写意园林阶段.从明朝中期始,私家园林逐渐分化,先有江南园林脱颖而出,北方园林接踵其后,岭南园林增其华丽.三大区域园林相互影响,相互兼容,使中国园林的类型和风格不断拓展与深化,中国园林不像欧洲园林那样,风格剧烈复合变异,而是不断传承发展,以东方独有的文化及造园思想理论甚至影响西方.
  
  中国园林特点主要有:
  1).本于自然,高于自然自然风景以山,水为地貌基础,山,水,植物乃是构成自然风景的基本要素,中国园林绝非一般地利用或者简单地模仿这些构景要素的原始状态,而是有意识地加以改造,调整,加工,剪裁,从而表现一个精练概括的自然,典型化的自然.惟其如此,本于自然而又高于自然并伦理化,道德化,园林要素与之结合意蕴其中,尤为突出.
  2).建筑美与自然美有机融合——与自然和谐为美中国园林建立在尊重自然的基础之上,"阴阳五行说"被誉为世界最早的生态学,建筑能够把地域自然与山,水,花木,鸟兽等造园要素有机地组织在一系列风景画面之中.突出彼此谐调,互相补充的积极的一面,限制彼此对立,互相排斥的消极的一面.把后者转化为前者,中轴对称的规整式构图于宫室寺观建筑,却天工人巧,为中国园林建筑的特殊形式.在园林总体上达到一种人工与自然高度和谐的 "天人合一"与"自然和谐为美"的哲理境界.
  3)中国园林漾漾充溢着诗情画意;拥有着独具魅力的意境创造
  中国园林影响了汉文化体系,也深深影响了日本.
  佛教从我国传入日本,特别是汉化的禅宗传入日本后,与日本特色的神道教融合,形成了日本特色:追求精神上"净,空,无"的禅文化,成为突破中国园林形式的切人点.日本早期"枯山水,除选用砂,石之外,还含有小块地被植物或小型灌木,如修剪整齐的黄杨,杜鹃等.后期的"枯山水园"竭尽其简洁,纯净,无树无花,只有几尊自然天成的石块,满园耙出纹理的细砂,凝聚成一方禅宗净土."茶室庭园"则显示出极精致,极正式的氛围,中国的茶文化在日本发展为"茶道",庭园布设精美的石制艺术品,主人石,客人石,刀挂石,石灯笼,石水钵等,逼真磊落,不带一点世俗尘埃,表达了日本人对"纯净,空寂,无极"境界的追求.
  纵观日本园林的历史演进,日本园林受中国园林影响至远至深,尽管在某些方面有独特的造诣,甚至反过来影响中国园林,但它最终并没有脱离中国园林体系.
  
  (三) 工业文明阶段
  
  (四) 信息文明阶段
  促进了公共园林,公共绿地,城市与生态景观的艺术发展,促进了人类任何"工程"与自然生存环境景观活动的艺术思考.
  
  文化多元化,全球一体化的当代,人类环境建设与赖以生存的自然生态环境理论思考,保护自然环境,维护生态平衡为核心的可持续发展理论深入人心.
  
  园林史的现实意义
  一部人类园林史,记载人类对自我生存环境的内生自省的认知足迹.古老中国以其与自然和谐为美的生态法则的博大和诗情画意,昂首世界前列.西方内省历史的自我批判,也走到了世界的前沿.
  以铜为鉴,可以正衣冠;以人为鉴,可以明得失;以史为鉴,可以知兴亡.从园林到现代景观,环境设计,同其它文化一样,是在传承,吸收,借鉴,融合的历史氛围里走到了今天.借鉴中外园林历史发展的基本经验与教训,继承弘扬人类的优秀园林文化,为我国环境园林活动提供科学的理论和实践依据,是亟待解决的迫在眉睫的重大课题,具有重要理论价值与实践意义..
  离开自然和人文的生态环境,就没有人类存在和发展的基本前提,就没有民族共同体的兴亡和延续!当我们享受着现代文明,回首之时却发现没有了历史,农业社会不会规划,历经工业社会警醒之后的文明社会却理应规划.环境建设理应是其自身的褒奖!"如果城市所实现的生活不是它自身的一种褒奖,那么为城市形成而付出的全部牺牲就将毫无代价.无论扩大的权力还是物质财富,都不能抵偿哪怕是一天丧失了的美,欢乐和亲情的享受"(《城市发展史》刘易斯·芒福德).一个民族对自己的文化要有严格的自尊,愈严格愈自尊,自尊才能自立,自立才能自强!"参天之树必有老根,怀山之水必有共源".其文化情怀和文化自尊,形成民族团队血缘的,地缘的"家乡","家园".文化无需再争取什么优势文化,自身文化就是精神王牌!
  园林在泛艺术的当今信息时代,已从属于环境设计,无论高等教育,高等职业的园林环境教育,专业思想意识的哺育都应是第一位的,他们的未来肩负着有形,无形环境保护,建设并留给后人的神圣不可推卸的责任,技能已退居其次.尊重学科特质,政治素质不能取代专业素质,技能标准不能教条地度量专业标准,否则"建设"可能就是破坏!历史是一面镜子.环境设计应根据自然生态,地域环境,历史文化,意义属性;综合历史意见,时代意见,才能得出相对正确的环境建设理论并指导实践;才能够因地制宜,因时制宜,因园制宜.现代是过去和未来的合金.园林,环境史论理论应是专业环境建设者具备的最基本素质.历史是不能重复的,未来是可以选择的!


  Building is that people use stone, wood and other building materials a structure for human habitation and use of objects such as homes, bridges, stadiums and so on. Broadly speaking, the garden is part of the building. Someone once said: God gives the wood off. Stone. Soil and grass, are people of all other labor ... This is the building. Is the solidification of the music building. Architecture is a rock history book.
  Garden History
  Four historical stages of landscape development
  World garden history, through the primitive civilization, agriculture and civilization, industrial civilization and the information civilization four stages of civilization.
  (A) of the original Civilization stage
  Primitive and civilized human society lasted about more than 200 years. The human tree, nest door, Rumaoyinxue, nest door, collecting fishing and hunting. Human nature to adapt to the passive state of the environment, the living process of evolution, one species of human being , color and other characteristics of the attractive appearance and has telepathy, endowed with the meaning of life, with Worship. primitive civilization, the late, human agriculture and _set_tlement of the tribe, garden planting, breeding birds. tribe in the vicinity before the House session with the Housing orchard, vegetable garden, the keeper of birds place. gradually to meet the needs of people sacrifice food and clothing, garden be bred into the bud.
  The gardens bud features are: planting, cultivation, recreation, regardless; for all tribal members to share condominium; subjective to worship and sacrifice to solve the problem of food and clothing, and objective functions are viewing.
  (B) agricultural civilization stage
  Ago about 1 million years ago, in Asia and Africa, some of the alluvial plains and river delta areas, the rapid development of agriculture, mankind entered a mainly agricultural civilization in farming, orchards, vegetable garden, animal production field Yi differentiation is for based fruit and vegetable gardens, and mainly for ornamental gardens, hunting Court. With the further development of agricultural productivity, resulting in the towns, capital and handicrafts, commerce, construction techniques to continuously improve, to build large-scale garden Hing is a necessary condition
  Natural geographical, cultural system evolution form a system of the world garden. Culture system are the main factors of race, religion, customs, language systems, historical geography and cultural exchange, particularly in the natural geographic, ethnic, religious culture, languages, and systems affected maximum.
  Garden systems into the world system of the European landscape, the Islamic garden system and system of the three major systems of Chinese gardens.
  * European garden system
  European gardens, also known as the Western landscape. Mainly based on ancient Egypt and ancient Greece to the French garden as the source of classical gardens and English Landscape Garden two schools to the rules of artificial beauty garden and natural beauty of the natural garden is garden style, ideology and theory, superb unique artistic attainments.
  European garden coverage, it is native to Europe as the center of sphere of influence encompasses Europe, North America, South America, Australia, four continents, South Africa, North Africa, West Asia, East Asia and other parts of the development and contemporary garden has a major impact.
  Two major schools of European garden style has its own distinct characteristics. Rule garden: magnificent, eyes open, strict symmetry, balanced composition, flower beds, statues, fountains and other decorative rich, elegant and solemn expression, elegant momentum.
  Landscape Gardens eliminated the boundary between garden and nature, will be introduced into the natural landscape as the main body, ruled out of the canvas reflects the natural scenery, back to nature art.
  * Islamic garden system
  Islamic gardens are gardens of Babylon and Persia as the origin of the typical cross garden layout, closed building and special water-saving irrigation systems combined with the rich elegant architectural design and decoration of delicate colors of the Arab landscape.
  Islamic gardens, the Euphrates, Mesopotamia and the end of glis Mesopotamian plain as the center, as the scope of the Arab world, across Europe, Asia, and Africa, to India, Spain, the most typical style of the medieval garden, on the Art world garden style changes have great influence.
  Islamic gardens are usually smaller, building closed, trees planted by way constitute a cross axis, the whole garden is divided into four districts. Garden center, cross the road intersection layout pool, a symbol of heaven. Park in the alternating light and dark gullies, disc Chung Dripping Springs also separate the geometric shape of small gardens, each garden the same tree. colored decorative ceramic mosaic pattern is widely used in the garden.
  * China Garden System
  China Garden Lin Zunchong harmony with nature's ecological principles for the United States, are landscapes garden areas to non-rule-style garden, as the basic features, landscape architecture and landscape organically integrate the environment, natural and harmonious, seamless, implies one London-based, enjoyable poetic Landscape gardening.
  Chinese garden features are:
  1). This was natural, higher than the natural scenery with mountains, water based landscapes, mountains, water, plants but the basic elements constitute the natural landscape, not the general use of Chinese gardens, or simply mimic elements of these institutions view original state, but consciously to transform, adjust, process, crop, and thus the performance of a concise summary of the nature, typifying the nature. Only in this way, this was natural, and higher than the natural and ethical, moral-based, landscape elements and The combined implication of which is particularly prominent.
  2). Architectural beauty and natural beauty of organic integration - in harmony with nature as the United States and China garden built on the basis of respect for nature, "Yin said," hailed as the world's first ecological building to the geographical nature and mountains, water, flowers, birds and other elements of organic gardening organizations in a series of landscape images into. prominence harmonize with each other and mutually reinforcing the positive side, restrictions against each other, mutually exclusive of the negative side. the latter into the former, axial symmetry of the regular-type composition in the palace temple building, but day workers Qiao, China's special form of landscape architecture. in the garden generally achieve a high degree of harmony of man and nature, "Heaven" and "natural harmony for the U.S. "The philosophical realm.
  3) Yang Yang Chinese garden filled with poetic; has a unique charm to create the moods
  China Garden Chinese cultural system, affecting a profound impact on Japan.
  Throughout the history of the evolution of the Japanese garden, Japanese garden to the far by the profound influence of Chinese gardens, although in some respects unique skills, even in turn affect the Chinese garden, but it did not ultimately from the Chinese garden system.
  (C) stage of industrial civilization
  (D) Information Civilization stage
  Promote the public garden, public green space, urban development and ecological landscape of the arts, and promote the human any "project" and the activities of the natural living environment of the landscape art of thinking.
  Cultural diversity of contemporary globalization, human environment and the survival of theoretical consideration of natural ecological environment, protect the natural environment and maintaining ecological balance as the core of sustainable development theory enjoys popular support.
  Practical significance of landscape history
  A human landscape history, records the living environment of human self-recognition of endogenous self-reflection footprint. Ancient China for its beauty and natural harmony laws of the broad ecological and poetic triumph in the world. The history of Western self-critical introspection, has reached the forefront of the world.
  With copper as a mirror, you can now dressed; to person, we can see advantages and disadvantages; learn from history, one can know the rise and fall. From the garden to the modern landscape, environmental design, with other cultures, is in the transmission, absorption, learn the history of fusion atmosphere come today. learn the historical development of the basic foreign landscape experience and lessons, promote succession of outstanding landscape of human culture, for our environment parks activities Kexue the theory and practice of Yi Ju, yes urgent urgent solution of 重大 issue has important theoretical Jiazhi and practical significance ..
  

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