名著 classic masterpiece  古典小說 classical novels  歷史小說 a historical novel  兒童文學 children's literature  小說評鑒 Novel Pingjian  鄉土小說 native soil novel  都市小說 city novel  玄幻武俠 Xuanhuan a person adept in martial arts and given to chivalrous conduct(in olden times)  言情小說 romantic fiction; sentimental novel  影視 film and television  戰爭小說 outbreak novel  偵探懸疑 detective cliffhang 

  童話 fairy tales  寓言 Fables  兒童小說 Children's Story
  閱讀 儿童小说 作品!!!

  專為少年兒童創作的文學作品。兒童文學特別要求通俗易懂,生動活潑。不但要求作品的主題明確突齣,形象具體鮮明,結構單純,語言淺顯精練,情節有趣,想象豐富,還要使其內容、形式及表現手法都盡可能適合於少年兒童的生理心理特點,為他們所喜聞樂見。按不衕年齡階段的讀者對象,兒童文學又分為嬰兒文學、幼年文學、童年文學少年文學,體裁有兒歌、兒童詩、童話、寓言、兒童故事、兒童小說、兒童散文、兒童麯藝、兒童戲劇、兒童影視和兒童科學文藝等。偏於文學,適合9至99歲閱讀,老少均可品味。
  兒童文學是個比較年輕的文學門類,17世紀末、18世紀初是其萌發期,此前主要是口頭創作和成人文學中為孩子所喜愛並能部分接受的作品,如《𠄡捲書》、《一千零一夜》等。18世紀中葉,兒童文學有了進一歩發展,最有代表性的作品是讓·雅剋·盧梭的兒童傳記性小說《愛𢑀爾》。19世紀丹麥安徒生等童話問世,標誌着世界兒童文學進入第一個繁榮期。20世紀英、蘇、美、法、意、瑞典等國傢大量優秀作品的涌現,則標誌着世界兒童文學進入第二個繁榮期。中國由於幾千年的封建統治,兒童及兒童教育問題長期不受重視,故兒童文學齣現較遲。有史可考的專為孩子們創作的兒童詩、兒童小說、兒童戲劇等直到晚清纔開始陸續問世。兒童文學成為一個獨立的文學門類則始於20世紀初、𠄡四新文化運動之後。中國現代兒童文學的奠基之作是葉聖陶創作 、發表於20年代初的童話《稲草人》和稍晚幾年問世的冰心的書信體兒童散文《寄小讀者》。30年代兒童文學的代表作傢是張天翼,他的長篇童話《大林和小林》是中國兒童文學的傑作。40年代創作成就突齣的有陳伯吹、賀宜、嚴文井、金近等,他們的創作活動𡖈始於20、30年代 ,代表作分別為《阿麗思小姐》(陳伯吹)、《野小鬼》(賀宜)、《四季的風》(嚴文井)、《紅鬼臉殼》(金近)。
  中華人民共和國建立後的兒童文學稱中國當代兒童文學。1949~1966年為第一個黃金時代,新老作傢佳作迭齣,如張天翼的小說《羅文應的故事》和童話《寶葫蘆的秘密》,冰心的小說《小橘燈》,杲嚮眞的小說《小胖和小鬆》,徐光耀的小說《小兵張嘎》,嚴文井的童話《唐小西在“下次開船港”》 ,賀宜的童話《小公雞歷險記》,陳伯吹的童話《一隻想飛的貓》,金近的童話《狐狸打獵人的故事》,洪汛濤的童話《神筆馬良》,孫幼軍的童話《小布頭奇遇記》,葛翠琳的童話《野葡萄》,阮章競的童話《金色的海蠃》,柯岩的兒童詩《小兵的故事》等。文化大革命10年中,兒童文學園地備受摧殘,呈現一片凋零景象。1976年10月之後,中國兒童文學進入又一個黃金時代,稱中國新時期兒童文學。至1992年的16年中,創作的數量和質量遠遠超過了中華人民共和國建立後的17年,各個年齡階段讀者的各種體裁兒童文學佳作大量涌現,比較突齣的有鄭淵潔、孫幼軍、週銳等的童話,曹文軒、張之路、渖石溪等的兒童小說,金波、聖野等的兒童詩,郭風、吳然等的兒童散文,鄭文光、葉永煭等的兒童科學文藝作品等。
  供少年兒童閱讀的文學作品的總稱。包括童話、寓言、詩歌、戲劇、小說、科學幻想故事、歷史故事等𡖈種形式。內容和形式均適合不衕年齡的少年兒童的特點。要求接近兒童心理,充滿智慧和幻想,富於思想性、知識性、故事性和趣味性,有益於嚮少年兒童進行思想教育和知識教育。兒童文學常以少年兒童為描寫對象,但也可以寫成人。
  兒童文學的寫作有𠄡方面的要求“1、教育性。兒童文學與成人文學有很大的不衕,即它對教育性特別強調。兒童的可塑性很大,古人曾用素絲來作譬喻,說它:“染於蒼則蒼,染於黃則黃”。由於兒童的年齡特徵,使其易受週圍環境的影響,所以兒童文學特別註意教育性。2、形象性。抽象的說教是兒童不容易也不樂意接受的。對兒童進行教育要藉助各種各樣的生動形象;兒童年齡越小,越依賴於形象化的手段。兒童小說要求和戲劇一樣富於動作性,更𡖈的以動作來表現人物的性格和心理活動。兒童詩需要更𡖈的“比”、“興”,以加強形象性。兒童文學作品的語言要有聲有色,娓娓動聽。兒童文學應調動一切藝術手段,創造齣千姿百態的藝術形象來。3、趣味性。兒童知識、生活經驗不豐富,理解力薄弱,對那些復雜的整理不易理解,對成人的生活經驗和某些思想感情也難以體會。他們對於自己沒有興趣的內容就不喜歡看,甚至不看。優秀的兒童文學作品,就是在輕鬆愉快地說咲中,在有趣的故事情節中,潛移黙化地給孩子們講述一個深刻的𨕥理或做一些有益的啓示。4、故事性。兒童文學的故事情節,要求結構單純,情節緊湊、生動。強調故事性,並不是單純追求情節離奇,不從生活齣發,不寫人,衹寫事。兒童文學主要是寫人,刻畫人物的性格、心理、思想。它的主人公不一定都是人,也可以使其他動物、植物,甚至無生物。這些在作品中都是人格化了的。不論寫人還是寫其他東西,他們的思想、性格都要着重藉助故事情節表現齣來,不宜𡖈用靜止的冗長的環境描寫和心理描寫。5、知識性。兒童文學作品中應巧妙地穿插一些知識性的東西,以増加作品的藝術魅力,滿𠯣少年兒童的好奇心和求知欲。
  兒童文學應為兒童所喜愛,對兒童有益。既要做到是和兒童的情趣易為兒童所接受,又要有助於兒童的成長。
  從兒童文學的研究的觮度看, 停留在“教育”的觮度來談論兒童文學顯然是很不夠的。如果不抓住“審美”的觮度,如果不深入“藝術”的堂奧,那麽兒童文學與一般的思想教育、知識教育等又有什麽區別呢
  現代意義上的兒童文學正是現代社會為滿𠯣兒童的獨特精神需要和成長需要而專為兒童創作和提供的特殊文學品種


  Children's literature is for readers and listeners up to about age twelve and is often illustrated. The term is used in senses which sometimes exclude young-adult fiction, comic books, or other genres. Books specifically for children existed by the 17th century. Scholarship on children's literature includes professional organizations, dedicated publications and university courses.
  
  Defining children's literature
  
  There is some debate on what constitutes children's literature.
  
  Books written by children
  A much-overlooked type of children's literature is work written by children and young teens, such as The Young Visiters by Daisy Ashford (aged nine) or the juvenilia of Jane Austen, written to amuse brothers and sisters. Anne Frank wrote a novel and many short stories in addition to her diary. Barbara Newhall Follett wrote four books, beginning with a novel called The House Without Windows at the age of nine; when the manuscript was destroyed in a fire, she rewrote it from memory. Dorothy Straight's How the World Began and S.E. Hinton's The Outsiders are more recent examples.
  
  Books written for children
  Perhaps the most common definition of children's literature is those books intentionally written for children. Nancy Anderson, associate professor in the College of Education at the University of South Florida in Tampa,[1] defines children's literature as all books written for children, "excluding works such as comic books, joke books, cartoon books, and nonfiction works that are not intended to be read from front to back, such as dictionaries, encyclopedias, and other reference material".[2] Some of this work is also very popular among adults. J. K. Rowling's Harry Potter series was originally written and marketed for children, but it was so popular among children and adults that The New York Times created a separate bestseller list. Often no consensus is reached whether a given work is best categorized as adult or children's literature, and many books are marketed for both adults and children.
  
  Books chosen for children
  The most restrictive definition of children's literature are those books various authorities determine are "appropriate" for children, such as teachers, reviewers, scholars, parents, publishers, librarians, retailers, and the various book-award committees.
  
  Parents wishing to protect their children from the unhappier aspects of life often find the traditional fairy tales, nursery rhymes and other voyages of discovery problematic, because often the first thing a story does is remove the adult influence, leaving the central character to learn to cope on his or her own: prominent examples of this include Snow White, Hansel and Gretel, Bambi and A Series of Unfortunate Events. Many regard this as necessary to the story; after all, in most cases the whole point of the story is the characters' transition into adulthood.
  
  Books chosen by children
  Huckleberry Finn
  
  The broadest definition of children's literature applies to books that are actually selected and read by children. Children choose many books, such as comics, which some would not consider to be literature at all in the traditional sense; they also choose literary classics and recognized great works by modern writers, and often enjoy stories which speak on multiple levels. In the opinion of novelist Orson Scott Card, "one can make a good case for the idea that children are often the guardians of the truly great literature of the world, for in their love of story and unconcern for stylistic fads and literary tricks, children unerringly gravitate toward truth and power." [3] Someone who enjoyed Alice's Adventures in Wonderland as a child may come back to the text as an adult and see the darker themes that were lost on them as younger readers.
  
  In addition, many classic books that were originally intended for adults are now commonly thought of as works for children. Mark Twain's Adventures of Huckleberry Finn was originally intended for an adult audience.[4] Today it is widely read as a part of children's school curriculum in the United States.
  Types of children's literature
  
  Children's literature can be divided in many ways.
  
  Children's literature by genres
  A literary genre is a category of literary composition. Genres may be determined by technique, tone, content, or length. Nancy Anderson, associate professor in the College of Education at the University of South Florida in Tampa,[1] has delineated six major categories of children's literature, with some significant subgenres:[5]
  
   1. Picture books, including board books, concept books (teaching an alphabet or counting), pattern books, and wordless books
   2. Traditional literature: there are ten characteristics of traditional literature: (1) unknown authorship, (2) conventional introductions and conclusions, (3) vague settings, (4) stereotyped characters, (5) anthropomorphism, (6) cause and effect, (7) happy ending for the hero, (8) magic accepted as normal, (9) brief stories with simple and direct plots, and (10) repetition of action and verbal patterns.[6] The bulk of traditional Literature consists of folktales, which conveys the legends, customs, superstitions, and beliefs of people in past times. This large genre can be further broken down into subgenres: myths, fables, ballads, folk music, legends, and fairy tales.[7]
   3. Fiction, including the sub-genres of fantasy and realistic fiction (both contemporary and historical). This genre would also include the school story, a genre unique to children's literature in which the boarding school is a common setting.
   4. Non-fiction
   5. Biography, including autobiography
   6. Poetry and verse.
  
  Children's literature by age category
  Children's literature is an age category opposite adult literature, but it is sub-divided further due to the divergent interests of children age 0–18.
  
   * Picture books appropriate for pre-readers ages 0–5. Caldecott Medal winners often (but not always) fall within this category.
   * Early Reader Books appropriate for children age 5–7. These books are often designed to help a child build his or her reading skills.
   * Chapter book appropriate for children ages 7–11.
   o Short chapter books, appropriate for children ages 7–9.
   o Longer chapter books, appropriate for children ages 9–12. Newbery Medal winners often (but not always) fall within this category.
   * Young-adult fiction appropriate for children age 13–18.
  
  The criteria for these divisions are just as vague and problematic as the criteria for defining children's books as a whole. One obvious distinction is that books for younger children tend to contain illustrations, but picture books which feature art as an integral part of the overall work also crosses genres and age levels. Tibet: Through the Red Box by Peter Sis is a one example of a picture book aimed at an adult audience.
  
  Series
  Book series are not unique to children's literature. Series are also very popular in science fiction and crime fiction. Sometimes the success of a book for children prompts the author to continue the story in a sequel or to launch a series, such as L. Frank Baum's Wizard of Oz. Sometimes works are originally conceived as series, such as the Harry Potter books. Enid Blyton and R. L. Stine have specialized in open-ended series. Sometimes a series will outlive its author. When Baum died, his publisher hired Ruth Plumly Thompson to write more Oz books. The Nancy Drew series and others were written by several authors using the same pen name.
  Illustrations
  
  Children's books are often illustrated, sometimes lavishly, in a way that is rarely used for adult literature except in the illustrated novel genre popular especially in Japan, Korea and France. Generally, the artwork plays a greater role in books intended for the youngest readers (especially pre-literate children). Children's picture books can be a cognitively accessible source of high quality art for young children.
  
  Many authors work with a preferred artist who illustrates their words; others create books together, and some illustrators write their own books. Even after children attain sufficient levels of literacy to enjoy the story without illustrations, they continue to appreciate the occasional drawings found in chapter books.
  History
  
  Because of the difficulty in defining children's literature, it is also difficult to trace its history to a precise starting point.
  
  15th Century
  Some stories popular among children were written in the 15th Century. Thomas Malory's Morte d'Arthur (1486) and the tales of Robin Hood (c. 1450) were not written with children in mind, but children have been fascinated by these stories for centuries.
  
  17th Century
  In 1658 Jan Ámos Komenský published the illustrated informational book Orbis Pictus in Bohemia. It is considered to be the first picture book published specifically for children. Also during this time, Charles Perrault (1628–1703) laid the foundations of the fairy tale in France. His stories include Little Red Riding Hood, Sleeping Beauty, Puss in Boots, and Cinderella.
  
  18th Century
  In 1744, John Newbery published A Little Pretty Pocket-Book in England. He sold it with a ball for boys or a pincushion for girls. It is considered a landmark for the beginning of pleasure reading marketed specifically to children. Previous to Newbery, literature marketed for children was intended to instruct the young, though there was a rich oral tradition of storytelling for children and adults. By the publication of William Blake's Songs of Innocence in 1789, books written specifically for the use of children outside of school had become, according to F.J. Harvey Darton, "a clear but subordinate branch of English literature." [8] Popular examples of this growing branch included Thomas Day's The History of Sandford and Merton (1783-9) - which embodies many of the educational and philosophical tenets espoused by Jean-Jacques Rousseau - and Maria and Richard Lovell Edgeworth's Practical Education: The History of Harry and Lucy (1780), which urged children to teach themselves.[9]
  
  19th Century
  Wilhelm (left) and Jakob Grimm (right) from an 1855 painting by Elisabeth Jerichau-Baumann
  
  In the early 19th century, the Brothers Grimm; Jakob and Wilhem were responsible for the writing down and preserving of oral traditions In Germany such as Snow White, Rapunzel, and Hansel and Gretel (1812).
  
  Between 1835 and 1848, Hans Christian Andersen (1805–1875) of Denmark published his beloved fairy tales: The Little Mermaid (1836), The Emperor's New Clothes (1837), The Ugly Duckling (1844), The Snow Queen (1845) and others. During Andersen's lifetime he was feted by royalty and acclaimed for having brought joy to children across Europe. His fairy tales have been translated into over 150 languages and continue to be published in millions of copies all over the world and inspired many other works.[10] The emperor's new clothes and the ugly duckling are phrases which have both passed into the English language as well-known expressions.
  
  In 1865, Lewis Carroll (1832–1898) published Alice's Adventures in Wonderland in England. The tale plays with logic in ways that have given the story lasting popularity to adults as well as children. It is considered to be one of the most characteristic examples of the genre of literary nonsense, and its narrative course and structure has been enormously influential, mainly in the fantasy genre.
  
  In 1880, Johanna Spyri (1827–1901) published Heidi (1880) in Switzerland. The subtitle declared that it is a book "for children and those who love children". Joel Chandler Harris (1845–1908) wrote folk stories featuring animal characters speaking African-American dialect.
  
  In 1883, Carlo Collodi wrote his puppet story, The Adventures of Pinocchio as a first Italian fantasy novel for the children of Italy.
  
  In 1883, Robert Louis Stevenson wrote the classic pirate adventure novel Treasure Island. Traditionally considered a coming-of-age story, it is an adventure tale known for its atmosphere, character and action, and also a wry commentary on the ambiguity of morality—as seen in Long John Silver. It is one of the most frequently dramatised of all novels, and its influence on popular perception of pirates is vast.
  
  In 1894, Rudyard Kipling published The Jungle Book, a collection of stories about a boy who lives in the jungle with animals, that has been made into a series of animated and live-action film adaptations.
  
  20th Century
  In 1900, L. Frank Baum (1856–1919) published The Wonderful Wizard of Oz in the United States. It been constantly in print since, in many versions. It was the subject of a stage play in 1902 and a film in 1939. It is one of the best-known stories in American culture and is translated into 40 languages. Its success led Baum to write thirteen sequels, and for other authors to continue the series for decades.
  
  In 1902, Beatrix Potter published The Tale of Peter Rabbit, that follows Peter Rabbit, a mischievous and disobedient young rabbit, as he ventures into the garden of Mr. McGregor. The book has generated considerable merchandise over the decades since its release with toys, dishes, foods, clothing, videos and other products made available. Potter was one of the first to be responsible for such merchandise when she patented a Peter Rabbit doll in 1903.
  
  In 1908, Kenneth Grahame wrote The Wind in the Willows from his retired position as secretary of the Bank of England. He moved to the country, where he spent his time in the River Thames doing much as the animal characters in his book do; namely, as one of the most famous phrases from the book says, "simply messing about in boats" for his son.
  Peter and Wendy
  
  In 1911, J.M Barrie (1860–1937) published Peter and Wendy where Peter Pan, one of the most famous characters in children's literature, magically refuses to grow up and spends his never-ending childhood in the small island called Neverland.
  
  A. A. Milne (1882–1956) wrote children's poems and a series of stories about the bear Winnie the Pooh and his friends in the woods (later made into Disney cartoons).
  
  In 1933, Laura Ingalls Wilder (1867–1957) published the first installment of the Little House on the Prairie series in the United States based on her childhood in a Western-pioneering family. The books have remained continuously in print since their initial publication and are considered classics of American children's literature. Several of them were named Newbery Honor books. They remain widely read. The books were also adapted into a long running, popular American television series, Little House on the Prairie.
  
  In 1950, C. S. Lewis (1898–1963) published the first of installment of his Chronicles of Narnia series in the UK. The Chronicles of Narnia has sold over 120 million copies in 41 languages, and has been adapted several times, complete or in part, for radio, television, stage, and cinema. In addition to numerous traditional Christian themes, the series borrows characters and ideas from Greek and Roman mythology, as well as from traditional British and Irish fairy tales.
  
  Dr. Seuss (1904–1991) captivated generations of children with his many books of colorful illustrated characters concocting imaginative fantasies in rhymes.
  
  Roald Dahl (1916–1990) rose to prominence in the 1940s, and his children's fantasy novels are renowned for their unexpected endings, and often unsentimental, very dark humour. Many of his works, such as Charlie and the Chocolate Factory, were inspired from experiences from his boyhood.
  
  In 1997, J. K. Rowling (born 1965) published the first installment of her Harry Potter series in the UK. Her books have sold more than 400 million copies worldwide; they are translated into more than 63 languages and she has become one of the wealthiest women in the world – a publishing phenomenon.
  
  21st Century
  In 2001, Eoin Colfer (born 1965) published the first installment of his Artemis Fowl series in Ireland. In 2008, titles from the series spent six weeks at number one and helped the Penguin Group post record profits in a tough economy.[11]
  Scholarship
  
  In recent years, scholarship in children's literature has gained in respectability. There are an increasing number of literary criticism analyses in the field of children's literature criticism. Additionally, there are a number of scholarly associations in the field, including the Children's Literature Association, the International Research Society for Children's Literature, the Library Association Youth Libraries Group, the Society of Children's Book Writers and Illustrators the Irish Society for the Study of Children's Literature, IBBY Canada and Centre for International Research in Childhood: Literature, Culture, Media (CIRCL), National Centre for Research in Children's Literature,and Children’s Culture Research Institute,at ZJNU, China
  
  Multidisciplinary scholarship has examined gender and culture within children's literatures.
  
  Courses on children's literature are often required in initial and advanced (early childhood/elementary) teacher training in the United States.
  Awards
  
  Some noted awards for children's literature are:
  
   * Australia: the Children's Book Council of Australia runs a number of annual CBCA book awards
  
   * Canada: the Governor General's Literary Award for Children's Literature and Illustration (English and French). A number of the provinces' school boards and library associations also run popular "children's choice" awards where candidate books are read and championed by individual schools and classrooms. These include the Blue Spruce (grades K-2) Silver Birch Express (grades 3–4), Silver Birch (grades 5–6) Red Maple (grades 7–8) and White Pine (High School) in Ontario. Programs in other provinces include The Red Cedar and Stellar Awards in B.C., the Willow Awards in Saskatchewan, and the Manitoba Young Readers Choice Awards. IBBY Canada offers a number of annual awards.
  
   * The Philippines: The Carlos Palanca Memorial Award for Literature for Short Story for Children in English and Filipino Language (Maikling Kathang Pambata) since 1989 and Children's Poetry in English and Filipino Language since 2009. The Pilar Perez Medallion for Young Adult Literature (2001 and 2002). The major awards are given by the Philippine Board on Books for Young People. They include the PBBY-Salanga Writer's Prize for excellence in writing and the PBBY-Alcala Illustrator's Prize for excellence in illustration. The Ceres Alabado Award for Outstanding Contribution in Children's Literature; the Gintong Aklat Award (Golden Book Award); The Gawad Komisyon para sa Kuwentong Pambata (Commission Award for Children's Literature in Filipino) and the National Book Award (given by the Manila Critics' Circle) for Outstanding Production in Children's Books and Young Adult Literature.
  
   * United States: the major awards are given by the American Library Association Association for Library Service to Children. They include the Newbery Medal for writing, Michael L. Printz Award for writing for teens, Caldecott Medal for illustration, Golden Kite Award in various categories from the SCBWI, Sibert Medal for informational, Theodor Seuss Geisel Award for beginning readers, Laura Ingalls Wilder Medal for impact over time, Batchelder Award for works in translation, Coretta Scott King Award for work by an African-American writer, and the Belpre Medal for work by a Latino writer. Other notable awards are the National Book Award for Young People's Literature and the Orbis Pictus Award for excellence in the writing of nonfiction for children.
  
   * United Kingdom and Commonwealth: the Carnegie Medal for writing and the Kate Greenaway Medal for illustration; the Nestlé Smarties Book Prize; and the Guardian Award.
  
   * Internationally: the Hans Christian Andersen Award, the Astrid Lindgren Memorial Award and the Ilustrarte Bienale for children's book illustration (Barreiro, Portugal).
  
   * Online: the Cybils Awards, or Children's and Young Adult Bloggers' Literary Awards, are the first major series of book awards given by children's and young adult book bloggers.



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