名著
classic masterpiece
  古典小说
classical novels
  历史小说
a historical novel
  儿童文学
children's literature
  小说评鉴
Novel Pingjian
  乡土小说
native soil novel
  都市小说
city novel
  玄幻武侠
Xuanhuan a person adept in martial arts and given to chivalrous conduct(in olden times)
  言情小说
romantic fiction; sentimental novel
  影视
film and television
  战争小说
outbreak novel
  侦探悬疑
detective cliffhang
 

  战争
War of Resistance Against Japan
  军事生活
military life
  阅读 军事生活 作品!!!

  战争是政治集团之间、民族(部落)之间、国家之间的矛盾最高的斗争表现形式,是解决纠纷的一种最高、最暴力的手段,通常也是最快捷最有效果的解决办法。
  也可以解释为使用暴力手段对秩序的破坏与维护、崩溃与重建。古今中外的战争,概莫能外。
  人类出现以来,就一直没有停止过;战争伴随社会的革命,带来新的格局。 古代各个部落之间的战争,促进了民族的融合和国家的形成,也是民族大迁徙直接原因;国家内部不同民族之间的战争,促成民族的独立和新生国家的诞生;国家内部政治集团之间的战争,促成政权的更迭,如国共内战。
  战争与武装冲突相比,对抗形式,战争表现为,一是残酷性,双方以一切可用的暴力手段攻击另外一方;二是毁灭性,对抗的时候以一方消灭另外一方为代价;三是目的性,直至对方屈服、达到目的;四是持久性,常规战争持续时间长达几年或者数十年,现代的高科技战争持续数月到几年。任何战争都经过了策划和准备。
  与战争相关的术语为战区,战车,战斗,战术,战役,战场,战俘,战略,战术侦察,战争状态,战争赔偿,战争罪行。
  参见
  和平 - 正义 - 社会革命
  军事 - 军事家
  战争 - 战役 - 战斗
  冷战 - 军备竞赛
  内战
  军事对抗 - 武装冲突
  武器 - 兵器
  中国战争史
  斗争 竞争
  世界战争列表
  
  战争的性质
  是敌对双方为了达到一定的政治、经济目的而进行的武装斗争。阶级社会的战争,是用以解决阶级和阶级、民族和民族、国家和国家、政治集团和政治集团之间矛盾的最高的斗争形式。它是政治通过暴力手段的继续,是流血的政治。
  大家
  渴望和平
  
  战争的起源
  战争是在原始社会后期出现的。据考古资料证明,最早的战争出现在中石器时代的初期。这说明,人类从原始人群到现在,在大约二三百万年的历史长河中,有战争的历史还不到一万年(另一说法年数上万)。原始社会的战争是由氏族部落之间或部落联盟之间,为了争夺赖以生存的土地、河流、山林等天然财富,甚至为了抢婚、血族复仇而发生冲突,进而演变成原始状态的战争。这种战争,同阶级社会的战争有着本质的区别。它不具有政治目的和阶级压迫、奴役的性质,战争中的俘虏,不是杀掉,就是吃掉。后来,随着生产力和畜牧业的发展,父权制取代母权制,农业、手工业、商品生产有了发展,生产物品有了剩余,有了私有财产,出现了主人和奴隶,萌芽了私有制、阶级,使“古代部落对部落的战争,已经开始蜕变为在陆上和海上掠夺家畜、奴隶和财宝而不断进行的抢劫,变为一种正常的营生”。(《卡尔·马克思恩格斯军事文集》第二卷第 413页)日益频繁的战争,驱使原始公社制解体,人类进入了奴隶社会。从此以后,战争变成了政治的工具、阶级斗争的最高手段。私有制、阶级压迫和经济利益的冲突,成为发生战争的基本根源。掠夺和反掠夺、压迫和反压迫、侵略和反侵略、争霸和反争霸、扩张和反扩张的战争,便成为阶级社会的特殊的、必然的现象。到20世纪 80年代,在有文字记载的 3500多年的时间里,世界上共发生过14531次战争。帝国主义、霸权主义是现代战争的根源。在当今和未来,引发战争的因素是多种多样的,其中主要的有争夺势力范围、领土争端、边界纠纷、掠夺战略资源、争夺市场、意识形态斗争、宗教矛盾、民族矛盾等等,这些因素是现代战争的直接动因。
  
  战争的分类
  战争分为正义战争和非正义战争,这是由进行战争的政治目的决定的。正义战争包括:奴隶农民起义、农民革命战争、阶级解放战争、民族解放战争、反侵略战争、自卫战争等等。正义战争是为人民利益而战的,对社会的发展起着巨大的推动作用,是历史发展的火车头。与此相反,非正义战争包括:争霸战争、反革命战争、殖民战争、帝国主义战争、侵略战争等等,是为维护剥削阶级的利益和反动阶级的政治服务的,违背了人民的根本利益和社会的发展方向,是把人民推向灾难的战争。如日本发动的侵华战争,从“九一八事变”到日本投降,在长达 14年的时间里,给中国人民造成了巨大的灾难,中国军民伤亡总数3500万人以上,中国官方财产损失和战争消耗1000多亿美元,间接经济损失5000亿美元。拥护正义战争,反对非正义战争,这是我们对待战争的根本态度。
  今后的战争,将以局部战争为主,但世界战争的危险并没有消除。战争样式仍将以常规战争为主,但也不能排除使用核武器的可能性。战争总的趋势,是在不断向高技术化方向发展。随着高技术兵器不断出现,将会出现新的军兵种,可能出现由“天军”进行的“天战”和由“深海作战部队”进行的深海或海底作战;“机器人装备部队”,智能机器人将参战;电子战、信息战将大显身手;可见光对抗、红外对抗进行激烈的角逐。这种发展趋势,将会改变传统的战争样式与作战方法;战争的突然性、破坏性、残酷性、杀伤力和战争消耗都将空前增大;战争对综合国力的依赖增大,战争保障的任务更艰巨;作战指挥、作战协同、通信保障将更加复杂、艰巨。上述这一切,强烈地要求创造新的战争理论、战略战术。高技术战争,对人的军事、政治、文化素质和科学知识、指挥才能提出了更高的要求。通晓现代科学知识和技术的智勇双全的人,将是驾驭高技术战争胜利的决定因素。
  世界战争有被制止的可能性,但危险并没有消除。只要世界人民共同努力,发展和平力量和制约战争的力量,就能够推迟或制止新的世界战争。战争是必然要消亡的。只有全世界人民共同努力,实现共产主义,才能彻底清除战争的根源,使战争消亡,使人类进入永久和平的天堂。
  中国古籍称战争为争、战、征、伐、兵等。战国时期的兵书《吴子》中已有“战争”一词。历史上对战争及其产生根源有各种不同观点。自然主义战争学者认为,战争的根源在于自然环境和人类的生物本性,并认为战争是自然的和永恒的现象。宗教战争论者则认为战争是上帝对人的惩罚,并用超自然力量解释战争起因。种族主义者则认为,战争的起因是优劣民族之间差别。近现代地缘主义政治学者则认为战争是基于地理环境,即为争夺一定的生存空间和自然资源引起的。马尔萨斯主义者则认为,人口过剩和饥饿是战争的真正原因。历史唯物主义认为,战争既非从来就有,也不是永恒的,战争是社会生产力和生产关系发展到一定阶段的产物,是在私有制产生以后,随着阶级和国家的形成,出现压迫和被压迫时才出现的。历史上有各种类型的战争,包括侵略战争和自卫战争;正义战争和非正义战争,有传统战争和现代战争;局部战争和世界战争等多种类型。
  战争的根源有政治、经济、社会、文化等多种因素。对战争状态的描述也有多种方式,现代国家主要从法律角度对战争进行描述。认为战争是交战国之间的一种特殊法律关系。这种战争状态通常经过一定的法律程序,并伴随着一系列的法律后果。战争状态是法律状态,它往往是交战双方或一方宣战,但彼此之间并不一定有实际的战争冲突。通常由国家最高权力机关宣布战争状态。交战国家一旦进入战争状态,它们之间就由和平关系转变为战争关系,战争法也同时开始适用。对战争的描述除从法律角度外,还可以从军事角度、政治角度等方面进行论述。
  第二次世界大战中日本袭击美国珍珠港,随后美国宣布对日战争
  当今人类正处于新的技术革命的时代。科学技术的飞跃发展,全球社会交往的不断加深和扩大,对战争的发生、发展都具有重大影响作用。不仅使战争由传统的冷兵器战争过渡到热兵器战争 ,也使战争的影响范围由局部扩展到全球。与此相对应,制止战争的和平力量和技术手段也在不断发展,战争也由纯军事性向政治性、经济性、技术性发展。
  在人类历史长河中,战争始终蔓延不断,并构成人类历史的一个独特的篇章。据统计,从地球上出现文明以来的5000多年中,人类先后发生了15000多次战争,有几十亿人在战争中丧生,在这5000多年中,人类共有500年是生活在和平环境中。也就是说,每100年中,人类最少有90年是生活在战争状态中。
  20世纪90年代以来,全世界发生100多场战争,有90多个国家卷入其中……
  第一代战争的典型——恺撒两征不列颠。其特点是使用刀、箭、矛等冷兵器和笨重盔甲近距离格斗。
  第二代战争的典型——拿破仑战争。其特点是进入火器时代,火药、滑膛式器投入战争。
  第三代战争的典型——两次世界大战。其特点是坦克、飞机、战舰和现代化运输工具已全部使用。
  第四代战争的典型——美国向日本广岛投下原子弹,其特点是毁灭性的玉石俱焚的后果。
  第五代战争的典型——海湾战争。其特点是信息化,电子化,通过外科手术式精确打击,远距离发射高精确度、大镣伤力的突击和防御武器、新物理原理武器。
  
  关于新的世界战争的前瞻性研究
  青年学者刘周在“关于人类前途的预言”一文中提出了关于世界统一和第三次世界大战的前瞻性预言。该预言内容如下:
  关于人类前途的预言
  (一)世界统一是人类的前途和新生。人类若不归于灭亡,便要走向新生。
  (二)经济全球化的到来,使世界统一由一种模糊的远景,变成了一种越来越清晰的近景和不可逆转的历史趋势。
  (三)世界可否统一和何时统一,决定于经济全球化时代的矛盾,以及这些矛盾的发展情况。
  (四)经济全球化时代的主要矛盾:
  随着经济全球化的不断深入,经济活动的国际化趋势不断加强,各国之间在经济活动中的相互影响、相互依赖和相互联系日益紧密。因而,各国在经济活动中的相互协调也变得越来越重要越来越迫切。这也就是说,在经济全球化条件下,经济发展对各国相互协调的要求越来越高。
  另一方面,随着经济全球化的不断深入,市场越来越表现为全球的市场,因而竞争也越来越表现为全球的竞争。竞争的全球化发展,不可避免的使资本各国之间的矛盾日益加剧日益深刻。因为矛盾的加深加剧,各国之间相互协调的基础就越来越弱。所以,形式上有时会表现为某些国家之间因结成某种联盟而增加了协调,但是这种协调的实质不过是结盟国家利用盟国之间的协调来与联盟外国家进行斗争。所以,对于全球协调来说,这种局部性质的协调增加,不是全球协调增加的表现,而是全球协调减少的表现。某些地区性国家组织(譬如北约、欧盟、东盟等)作用的加强,所伴随着的正是联合国(全球性组织)作用的减弱,这就是经济全球化时代的全球协调日趋恶化的最好注释。所以,一方面是经济全球化时代经济发展对全球协调的要求越来越强,一方面则是世界各国的经济活动越来越不协调。这就是经济全球化时代各种矛盾产生及发展的主要基础。
  具体来说,经济全球化时代的主要矛盾有以下几种:
  一 发达国家内的矛盾
  (五)发达国家大都以比较完备的社会福利和社会保障体系,作为调节社会阶级矛盾的工具,从而保证其社会阶级关系的相对和谐。但是,社会福利和社会保障体系的完备,主要依靠于政府对企业的重税。也就是主要依靠于资本阶级向政府交纳的高额税金,亦即依靠于资本阶级对劳动阶级的阶级让步。
  (六)但是,经济全球化的出现和发展,必然地导致了社会福利和社会保障体系的不可逆转的逐步的破坏。经济全球化的发展,使发达国家的资本家可以理所当然的将企业转移到低税金的发展中国家,以逃避国内的重税。在这种情况下,发达国家的社会福利和社会保障体系,必然会因为国内税收的减少而受到冲击和破坏。
  (七)与此同步,由于一部分企业转移到低税金的发展中国家,必然导致国内失业率的上升。而失业率的上升又标志着待雇佣人员的增加,待雇佣人员的增加又意味着资本家雇佣员工时会有较大的选择余地,因而可以用较低的报酬雇到员工。这样,整个被雇佣阶级的工资待遇就会不断恶化,而且经常会面临失业的危险。
  (八)所以,一方面是整个被雇佣阶级的生存环境逐渐恶化;一方面是社会福利和社会保障体系逐渐遭到破坏,而使包括失业人员在内的社会弱势群体的生存环境逐渐恶化——这就是经济全球化给发达国家带来的必然的基本变化。这种变化最终必然导致社会阶级矛盾的激化,并进而导致激烈的暴力的阶级斗争。2005年,法国巴黎发生的所谓“骚乱”,实质上就是这样形成的。可以断言,巴黎的“骚乱”只是整个资本主义发达国家新一轮激烈的阶级斗争开始的标志和信号。因此,发达国家内的阶级斗争风暴已经不可避免,它的出现会因为国际斗争形势的变化而有方式和时间上的复杂变化。但是,种子既已经生长,趋势必不可改变。
  二 发展中国家内的矛盾
  (九)当前经济全球化的实质是发达国家主导的全球化,是发达国家经济扩张的别称。所以,当前经济全球化条件下的世界经济运行,主要体现为:1、发达国家的大量产品涌入发展中国家的市场,并力图逐步垄断其市场;2、发达国家的劳动密集型企业、高污染企业以及企图逃避重税的企业,大量转移至发展中国家;3、发展中国家只有在能源、原材料、初级产品或某些高技术产品的组成原件等有限的产品领域,才占有优势,才可能较大规模的进入发达国家。
  所以,经济全球化的实际情况是:发展中国家越来越深入地成为发达国家的产品市场、能源基地、原材料基地和倾倒工业废品的垃圾场。所以,这种经济全球化实际上是一种“单向度的经济全球化”,它不是发展中国家的经济全球化,而是发达国家的经济全球化,是发达国家经济扩张的别称。
  (十)经济全球化亦即发达国家的经济扩张。这种扩张,在全球资源整合的名义下,使发展中国家的经济越来越成为发达国家经济的附庸,其国民经济体系越来越变得畸形和脆弱,越来越离不开发达国家的“帮助”。于是,在发达国家力度越来越大的“帮助”下,整个发展中国家的经济发展越来越糟糕,国际社会中的两极分化越来越严重,南北差距越拉越大。这就是目前的现实。
  (十一)由于发达国家产品的大量涌入,相比之下,发展中国家的成本较高、价格较高而质量较低的产品迅速失去市场。许多企图打入国际市场去与发达国家的企业一争高下的企业,在残酷的市场竞争下,在其国门之内就被大量涌进来的外国产品挤垮了。(发展中国家形成拥有较强竞争力的“跨国集团”的数量和质量均是极低的)。
  (十二)不仅是发达国家的产品涌入了发展中国家,发达国家的资本家也纷纷把公司、厂矿开到了发展中国家。这样发展中国家的经济命脉就逐渐被发达国家所掌握了。
  (十三)发展中国家民族产业的破产以及被兼并,造成了大量的失业。而失业人员中只有一少部分是可以被外国企业或合资企业雇佣的——因为发达国家企业所需的员工远远少于民族产业所需的员工。这样,发展中国家失业的增加就成了不可避免的现象。
  (十四)失业的增加,同样也带来整个被雇佣阶级工资待遇的下降。
  (十五)发展中国家一般都缺乏比较完备的社会福利和社会保障体系。所以,失业人员和被雇佣阶级的生存环境只能比发达国家成倍地糟糕。这样,发展中国家的阶级矛盾就比发达国家更趋激化,自发的暴力了阶级斗争就比发达国家更容易发生。所以,席卷整个发展中国家的阶级斗争风暴,也将由于发展中国家普遍缺乏缓和其国内阶级矛盾的经济力量,而比发达国家提前发生。
  三 发达国家与发展中国家的矛盾
  (十六)当前经济全球化是发达国家主导的经济全球化,是发达国家经济扩张的别称。这种扩张的初期,会给发展中国家带来某些表面上的繁荣。但是随着其发展和深入,发展中国家的经济命脉便逐步地被发达国家掌握。所以,这种扩张的实质同时又是发达国家对发展中国家经济的兼并,是新的殖民主义行为,而且是更加不负责任的竭泽而渔的殖民主义行为,是用美丽言辞包裹起来的海盗式的殖民掠夺。这是当前国际社会富国越来越富、穷国越来越穷的真正根源。
  (十七)因而,发达国家与发展中国家的矛盾是不可调和的矛盾。
  (十八)当前,战乱不息的中东局势,正是这种矛盾发展的结果。以色列对巴勒斯坦的战争、美国对伊拉克的战争等等,就其实质而言都是发达国家欺压掠夺发展中国家、发展中国家反抗这种欺压掠夺的战争,是基于争夺和控制中东能源重地的战争。
  (十九)这样的战争,今后只会多起来,而不是少下去。发动战争的理由会越趋多样,但是不管有多少种包裹战争本来面目的谎言,都只会使战争的真实性质和后果,越来越真实清楚。
  (二十)当前全世界日趋严重的恐怖主义行为,也是这种矛盾的外在表现。是发展中国家反抗发达国家军事入侵、经济掠夺的一种不对称战争行为。这种行为在形式上是过激的和不合理的,但是究其所发生的根源,却可发现其包含有一定的合理的内核。
  (二十一)总之,发达国家与发展中国家矛盾的深化,正在全球范围内不可逆转的向前发展。
  四 发达国家之间的矛盾
  (二十二)经济全球化的发展,也意味着发达国家在全球范围内的围绕市场和资源的争夺战的发展。
  (二十三)冷战结束以来,以美苏两霸(两极)相互对抗为主要特征的国际旧秩序被打破。政治多极化风潮乘时而起。
  (二十四)政治多极化,本质上是以美国单极独霸为对立面的。
  (二十五)政治多极化,本质上是一种“多霸主”的国际新秩序蓝图。它是列强各国反对美国单极霸主体系的行为纲领。因而,也可以说是包括美国在内的所有列强“争霸”的产物。
  所以,发展中国家并不在“多极”之列,多极只是列强的“多极”。
  (二十六)政治多极化的出现。以中国先秦历史来比拟,便是:春秋五霸时代结束,而战国争雄时代到来。
  (二十七)美国企图保持其超级大国的单极霸主地位,而其它列强国家则企图以确立各自的局部霸权,来否定美国的全球霸权。所以,政治多极化本身又是一个充满斗争的过程。
  (二十八)围绕政治多极化的斗争,本质上是列强之间经济斗争的反映,同时又是服务于列强之间的经济斗争的。2003年伊拉克战争期间,美英西与德法俄的分歧,正是其经济利益相互冲突的产物。
  (二十九)随着经济全球化的不断深入,发达国家围绕市场、资源所进行的争夺,必然会发展为越来越多、越来越严重的政治的和军事的斗争。这是绝对不可避免的。
  (三十)自上世纪美苏冷战以来,由于核武器的出现,大国之间在处理相互关系时保持了最大限度的克制。因此,冷战以来规模较大的战争,基本上都是以强凌弱以大欺小的战争,或者是大国之间的代理战争(即由小国代表大国所进行的战争)。
  (三十一)战争是“用以解决阶级和阶级、民族和民族、国家和国家、政治集团和政治集团之间,在一定发展阶段上的矛盾的一种最高斗争形式”(《毛泽东选集》第155页)。
  “战争是民族和民族、国家和国家、阶级和阶级、政治集团和政治集团之间相互斗争的最高形式”(同上,第166页)。
  (三十二)所以,战争是矛盾不可调和的产物。矛盾不可调和是“因”,发生战争是“果”。
  (三十三)所以,冷战以来,大国之间没有爆发大规模战争的本质原因——是大国之间的矛盾尚存在一定的调和的空间。而惧怕核战争对人类的毁灭性威胁,只是表层的原因。
  (三十四)所以,在矛盾真正不可调和的情况下,核战争对人类的毁灭性威胁,不会成为爆发战争的障碍。
  (三十五)当前关于核战争对人类的毁灭性威胁的宣传,只是一种逻辑上的假想推理。
  通常所谓“现存核武器即可毁灭地球若干次”的说法——首先,是以一个原子弹(或氢弹)爆炸所及有多少平方公里为基础数据;其次,是根据有核国家共有原子武器的总量,推断所有原子武器爆炸所及总共可达多少平方公里;再次,是以所得总数据与地球的总面积相比,看所有原子武器爆炸所及(若干平方公里)达到了地球总面积的多少倍;最后,即据此断定现存核武器可以毁灭地球多少次。——所以,这无疑只是一种理论上的推导,无疑会与现实有相当的距离。——所以,这无疑是一种被夸大了的“威胁”(这种夸大是某些国家核讹诈政策的重要组成部分)。——所以,无疑,这种被夸大了的威胁,在大国矛盾真正不可调和的情况下,根本不可能成为爆发战争的障碍。
  五 诸矛盾的相互影响
  (三十六)以上诸矛盾(发达国家内的矛盾、发展中国家内的矛盾、发达国家与发展中国家的矛盾、发达国家之间的矛盾)的发展,不是孤立的,而是相互影响、相互刺激和相互推动的。——因而是互动的和联动的发展。
  (三十七)发达国家之间的矛盾,跟发达国家与发展中国家的矛盾是相互交织在一起的。发达国家之间所争夺的一个主要内容,就是对发展中国家市场和资源的控制权。同时,发达国家对发展中国家市场和资源的控制,也是在相互争夺中确立和存在的。
  (三十八)发达国家之间的争夺越激烈,发达国家对各自已控制的发展中国家的控制就会越深入。 ——因为争夺越激烈,控制新的区域和领域的难度就越大。而控制新区域新领域的难度的增加,就会迫使发达国家采取一切措施增加自己在已控制区域和领域的收入,并用这些增加的收入来加强其争夺新区域和新领域的力量。所以,发达国家之间的争夺越激烈、矛盾越发展的同时,发达国家与发展中国家的斗争也会越激烈、矛盾也会越加深。反过来,已控制的发展中国家对控制者的反对的加剧,也会迫使发达国家更加去争夺新的区域和领域,因而发达国家之间的矛盾又会因此进一步的加深。
  (三十九)发达国家越要在已控制的发展中国家增加自己的收入,就越要加大对发展中国家的剥削和掠夺的力度,发展中国家所受的损害就会越大。发展中国家所受的损害越大,其国内情况就越糟糕,国内阶级矛盾就会越严重。反过来,发展中国家国内阶级矛盾越严重,也会使发展中国家与发达国家的矛盾变得越加复杂和深刻。
  (四十)发达国家之间矛盾的加深、发达国家与发展中国家矛盾的加深,都会使发达国家向国外获取利润的空间受到限制。因而,“困于外者必返之于内”——失去于国外的利润部分,必然会从国内补足,必然会用加强国内剥削和减少国内社会福利和社会保障费用的办法来进行弥补。所以,国内的阶级矛盾就会不可避免的加剧。同样,国内矛盾的加剧,也会迫使发达国家加大其对外斗争的力度。因而发达国家之间的矛盾、发达国家与发展中国家的矛盾都会因此更加严重。
  (四十一)所以,综言之,——发达国家内的矛盾、发展中国家内的矛盾、发达国家与发展中国家的矛盾、发达国家之间的矛盾——这几种矛盾都会在相互影响、相互刺激和相互推动中,获得加倍的发展。
  (四十二)所以,
  ①发达国家内的革命风暴和发展中国家内的革命风暴都将不可避免,而且必将提前爆发(另外,流行于当前世界的“腐败潮”也必将起促进的作用)。
  ②发达国家以强凌弱、发展中国家以暴抗暴的战争必将进一步增多、升级和发展。
  ③发达国家之间(特别是军事大国之间)的战争必将爆发;第三次世界大战必将爆发。而且一定会比人们所能想象的爆发时间更早。
  六 结论
  (四十三)发达国家内的矛盾、发展中国家内的矛盾、发达国家与发展中国家的矛盾、发达国家之间的矛盾——这些矛盾在经济全球化条件下的发展和激化,都深深的根植于——经济全球化对全球经济协调的要求越来越强,而各国实际上的经济活动却越来越不协调 ——这一基础性矛盾之上。
  (四十四)经济全球化条件下的“全球经济发展要求”与“各国经济活动”之间的矛盾,实质上也就是经济全球化与政治多极化的矛盾。因为各国在经济活动中的越来越不协调,正是政治多极化的主要表现之一。
  (四十五)经济基础决定上层建筑。人类社会发展的历史,就是一个上层建筑不断适应经济基础的历史。当经济基础发展到封建经济的时代时,奴隶制的上层建筑就不能长时间继续存在。而当经济基础发展到资本主义经济的时代时,资本主义的上层建筑就必然取代封建制的上层建筑。所以,当经济基础对上层建筑提出什么样的变革要求时,上层建筑就必然按照这个要求发生变革。——这是历史的实际,也是历史的规律。
  (四十六)经济全球化属于经济基础的范畴。政治多极化属于上层建筑的范畴。
  (四十七)政治多极化,不是与经济全球化相适应的上层建筑。
  (四十八)经济全球化,要求作为全球生产要素的各国各地区之间有越来越密切的配合和协作。因而,也要求各国在处理相互间经济关系的时候,更多地考虑全球经济发展的大局,而不是以一国的“私利”破坏全球经济发展的“公利”。惟其如此,方有利于世界经济的发展,反之就会阻碍世界经济的健康发展。
  (四十九)所以——经济全球化,要求具有全球协调职能的“政府组织”保证全球经济的健康发展。经济全球化,要求具有全球“一体化”职能的上层建筑与之相适应。经济全球化必将导致全球的政治统一。
  (五十)所以——当前经济全球化时代诸矛盾发展的结果,必然使多个民族国家分裂割据的世界归于一统。广泛发生于发达国家内和发展中国家内的革命风暴,以及发达国家与发展中国家的战争,以及发达国家之间的战争,最终都只有一个归宿,那就是:世界统一。
  (五十一)所以——革命必然爆发、战争必然爆发——第三次世界大战必然爆发、世界必然统一。这是历史的必然,这是科学的真理。任谁也无力阻挡。
  (五十二)所以,对于这个时代来说,和平所以重要,是因为缺乏和平;战争所以重要,是因为只有用战争消灭战争,才能争得人类永久之和平,才能争得世界的统一和人类的新生。
  作文早在广州起义之前的1911年1月,香港同盟会谭人凤来汉与孙武、胡瑛等商讨起义发难地点。胡瑛认为,湖北受限制太多,敌人调兵,朝发夕至,难作持久抵抗。谭则主张广州首先发难,湖北响应。惟孙武力主在武昌发难,他认为,武昌新军集中,内部发动成效显著,为首义打下了稳固的基础;以兵力论,发难非从武昌入手不可。并历数武昌首义的有利条件:张之洞督鄂以来,在武汉建立了钢铁厂、兵工厂、火药厂、造币厂,很有成绩,武汉可谓械精饷足之区;武汉是水陆交通中心,江南有湘赣呼应灵通、粮秣运输的便利,江北有武胜关险要可守,东南半壁,传檄可定;瑞徵当道,主张铁路收归国有,同载泽表里为奸,国人恨之人骨,义旗一举,全省百姓鄱能为我所用。兵力、武器、地势、人情这四个优越条件,是广州无可比拟的。
  1911年4月,广州黄花岗起义失败后,在上海的同盟会中部总会企图策划长江流域起义,派人到武汉与文学社、共进会联系,加速了武汉革命团体准备起义的进程。两个革命团体的有识之士,深感起义责任重大,日益产生了联合起义的思想倾向。经过几个月的多次协商,于1911年8月最终决定联合。这期间,湘鄂粤川等地的保路运动风起云涌,四川尤甚,已发展成保路起义。清廷慌了手脚,四处调兵遣将前往弹压。 9月21日,廷令端方督率鄂军迅速抵川,鄂军第八镇所属第十六协大部分兵力人川,另一部分兵力驻防汉阳、汉口和市外他县,省城内外兵力仅十四个标约七千余人,其中参加文学社、共进会等革命团体和倾向革命的兵士约古三分之一以上。战争打响以后,还会发生官兵反正。形势对武昌首义极为有利。9月24巳。文学社和共进会在武昌胭脂巷11号共进会机关召开有双方负责人和各标营代表六十余人参加的联合会议上,议决了发动起义的计划,并确定了军事上和政治上的负责人选,军事上,文学社负责人蒋翊武被推举为革命军总指挥,共进会负责人孙武被惟举为参谋长。政治上,共进会负责人刘公被推举为政治筹备处总理。起义总指挥部设武昌小朝街85号文学社机关内,政治筹备处设汉口宝善里14号。起义日期走为1911年10月6日(中秋节)。在分途准备中,痛感时间紧迫,起义日期又延至10月11日。这时,在上海的同盟会中部总会担心武汉一地发动起义靠不住,黄兴也有十一省同时发动起义方能取胜的说法。这些消息传到武汉,又使武汉的一些领导人一度迟疑。
  10月9日,孙武在汉口俄租界宝善里14号共进会机关制造炸弹,不慎爆炸。俄国巡捕闻声前往搜查,受伤的孙武与萁他在场的人迅速脱逃,但起义的文件、印信、旗帜等重要机密被搜走。与共进会机关相邻的刘公寓所亦被查抄,刘公之弟刘同等四人被捕。湖广总督闻报搜查和提审情况,深感事态紧急,立即下令全城戒严,按址搜查革命机关,按名册搜捕革命党人。武汉三镇,笼罩在一片白色恐怖中,当日下午5时左右,在武昌小朝街起义总指挥部的蒋翊武、刘复基等军事负责人,得知汉口出事,起义计划暴露,深感已是千钧一发时刻,如不尽快动手。就将坐以待毙,于是断然决定起义提前至当晚十二时发动,以中和门(今起义门)外炮声为号,随即派人火速向新军各兵营革命党人秘密传递起义命令。
  当晚小朝街起义总指挥部被包围,军警破门而入。刘复基慌忙中投弹未炸被捕,彭楚藩亦被捉,蒋翊武因身著长袍玛褂且蓄长辫未被军警注意,乘隙脱逃。党人杨宏胜在给各营送弹药途中被军警跟踪,投弹失误自伤而落入敌手。由于全城戒严,城门紧闭,命令未能按时送达城外炮队,当晚十二时起义计划未能实现。
  10月10日晨,彭楚藩、刘复基、杨洪胜三志士在湖广总督署英勇就义的消息传开,军警的搜捕仍在紧张进行。许多革命党人和发动起来的新军兵士自忖生死存亡在此一举。与其坐以待毙,不如拼死求生。起义形势如箭在弦上,一触即发。晚七时许,驻中和门内第八镇所属工程兵第八营营房里、首先发生兵士哗变,响起了枪声,有几个官佐被击毙,该营党人总代表、新军后队正目(相当于班长)熊秉坤见状,立即率数十名起义士兵奔向中和门附近的楚望台军械库。在本营驻防军械库兵士的策应下,占领了军械库,并打开了库门。起义部队得到军火,士气大振。这时,聚集在楚望台的起义士兵约三百余人。由于孙武负伤住院,蒋翊武在军警搜捕时脱逃,其他起义领导人或殉难,或被捕,现场上群龙无首,无法统一指挥。在场职位最高的熊秉坤,以总代表的身份负责现场指挥,尽力稳住军心。这时,有士兵建议,把起义时躲避起来的左队队官(相当于连长)吴兆麟找来当总指挥。熊秉坤胸怀全局,考虑自己职卑位低,恐难左右局势,给起义带来不良后果,于是欣然顺应士兵要求,惟举吴兆麟当临时总指挥。吴原系日知会会员,后没有参加任何革命组织,但此人干练,有一定的指挥能力。吴不负众望,他立即命令一部分兵力加强楚望台一带的警戒,同时再次派人与城内外其他革命部队联系。城内外得知事起的革命部队纷纷向楚望台集结。
  在各起义部队向楚望台集结的同时,吴兆麟、熊秉坤已率起义部队向湖广总督署(今武昌造船厂) 内,发起迸攻,战斗进行得很艰苦,不克而返。南湖炮队入城,楚望台、蛇山等处的炮击开始以后,战局出现转机。新军各标营更多的士兵起义响应,营以上军官绝大多数见势不妙,保命离营,此刻,湖广总督瑞氵徵、第八镇统制兼防营提督张彪、督办公所总办铁忠命令所属各部队长官制止内部响应并组织可靠兵力保卫督署,全剿起义士兵,致使进攻督署之战,连连受阻。转钟以后,再次组织兵力进攻督署。且兵分三路,在大街小巷展开血战。由于天黑又雨,目标能见度低,炮屡发不中,于是有人冒死冲往督署附近纵火,以火光为标志,提高炮击的命中率。接着,督署签押房被击中。瑞徽和铁忠,见大势已去,慌忙中打破署院后墙逃往长江的一艘兵舰上。张彪仍在其司令部(第八镇司令部在督署附近)顽抗。起义军经过三次进攻,终于在炮队的密切配合下于天明前攻克了总督署及第八镇司令部。张彪在其司令部被攻克前逃往汉口。随后起义军所向披靡,藩台衙门很快亦被起义军占领。
  经过一夜浴血鏖战,到10月11日上午,武昌全城光复。九角十八星革命军旗帜武昌城头上高高飘扬。次日,起义军又收复了汉口和汉阳,武汉三镇全在革命军掌握之中了
  现在,我们的生活十分美好。可你,是否想过,现在的幸福生活来的?这可是战士用自己滚烫滚烫的鲜血换来的。这个代价太大了!今天,让我们来顾过去的点点滴滴吧!
  在抗日战争史文章中,我看到了炮火连天、浓烟滚滚的战场。一个个满身鲜血、汗流浃背、奋力拼搏的八路军战士们。万山丛中,青纱帐里,中国共产党领导的敌后抗日游击健儿到处逞英豪;雁翎队、敌后武工队、铁道游击队,地道战、地雷战、麻雀战……使骄狂一时的日本侵略者陷入到敌后人民战争的汪洋大海。我还看到了19路军组织的“敢死队”出发前接受长官的指示。接着,“一、二八”的战火首先在闸北燃烧。一个个19路军沉着应战。我还看到抗战1月27日午后,日军准备开火的消息使住在北四川路一带的上海居民纷纷涌向租界避难。最后,蔡延锴军长临前线指挥……
  “淞沪会战”中“八百壮士”的忠贞奖章,“血战台儿庄”的杀敌大刀,“武汉会战”中毙敌3000余人的万家岭大捷中缴获的战利品……抗战初期,国民党数百万军队对日军进攻进行了正面作战,给日军以沉重打击,粉碎了日本军国主义者“速战速决”的美梦。
  “抗日则生,不抗日则死,抗日救国,已成为每个同胞的神圣天职!”“平津危急!华北危急!中华民族危急!只有全民族实行抗战,才是我们的出路。”“坚持抗战,坚持持久战,坚持统一战线,最后胜利必然是中国的。”
  中国共产党,率先吹响抗战的号角。1937年“七七事变”爆发。在中国共产党的积极努力和推动下,国共两党抛弃恩怨再次走到一起,中华民族全面神圣抗战从此以燎原之势燃烧起来。
  这场在1945年9月3日赢得的战争胜利全然不同以往110年前的甲午战争。从1840年开始到抗日战争胜利的105年间,几乎所有的大中小帝国主义国家都侵略过中国,而我们惟一赢得的,就是60年前的那场胜利。那是近100年来积贫积弱的中国第一次在一场生死存亡的民族战争中取得胜利,这场胜利改变了中华民族的历史命运,唤醒了沉睡了几个世纪的中国。
  历史学家陈寅恪曾说:“国可亡,史不可灭”,因为修史“系吾民族精神上生死一大事”。在2005年
  抗日战争胜利60周年之际,我了解这段悲壮而可歌可泣的历史,作为一名中国学生,无疑是责无旁贷,却又是一件难以承载的任务。
  同学们,战士们就是这样抛头颅,洒热血,用汗水和鲜血换来的新中国。让我们勿忘国耻,好好学习,成为祖国的栋梁之才,将来振兴中华!
  革命战士永垂不朽!
  我非常喜欢和平鸽,因为我看到了它们就像是看到了和平。它们把和平的希望带到了每一个孩子的心中,使我的心顿时亮了起来,同时在那片美好的心田上打开了一扇心灵的窗口。
  通过那扇窗口,我看到了广阔的蓝天,天上飞满了传情的和平鸽,把关心与思念带向全国各地,使对方心中像点了暖炉一样温暖、惬意。到处都开着象征着和平的鲜花,世界上的一切都呼唤着和平的美好。
  忽然,一声枪响,打破了和平的宁静。战争开始了,顿时,天上乌云密布,一声又一声的巨响威胁着一朵又一朵娇嫩的和平之花。鸟儿们被烟火熏着,被一颗颗无情的子弹打得遍体鳞伤。此时,小孩的哭声、人们的呼喊声与万灵的叫声交杂成一片。他们渴望和平呀!
  可是,子弹与大炮是无情的,它们还是不停地夺去无辜人的生命。“为什么要开战,让世界恢复和平吧!
  ”所有的人乞求着。可是,那些国家的领导人还是在为私利战斗着。当战斗暂时停止时,我看到了这样一幅悲惨的画面:昔日美丽的城市变得惨不忍睹。有些人抱着自己死去的亲人大哭,有些人则祈祷战争快点儿结束。就这样,一个美好的地方,变成了一座充满杀气的地狱。
  和平鸽飞走了,我的心中也有了一道无法痊愈的伤口。世界人民需要和平,停止战争,让和平永驻人间吧!
  2.不能忘记的过去--反法西斯战争胜利60周年
  六十年前,法国,诺曼底,犹他海滩,一队又一队的美国与英国士兵冒着枪林弹雨向前方的碉堡冲去,一个接着一个的战士倒下了,仍然有人呐喊着向前奔跑,片刻,鲜血染红了整个海滩……
  六十年前,苏联,斯大林格勒,前线,一辆又一辆的卡车载着刚从训练营里出来的新兵,军官在车上喊着:“我们不需要活着的逃兵!”话音刚落,就有一枚弹片击穿他的头颅。新兵们被赶下车,有的人拿到枪支,有的人则只拿着子弹,扩音器里不断地重复一句话:“没有拿到枪的,跟在有枪的后面,有枪的同志牺牲了,没有枪的同志就拿起他的枪,继续冲锋……”
  六十年前,中国,东北,某个村庄,晚上,一名光着膀子的中年人扶正了挂着一把寒光闪闪的大刀的带子,转过身对着一群村民,其中有十几岁的小伙子,也有头发斑白的老者,他们同样背着大刀。那中年人说:“都没让家里人知道吧?”众人都沉默不语,中年人把手一挥,“那走吧。”半个时辰后,日军基地里惨叫声、枪炮声和金属碰撞的声音接连不断,月光映在刀刃上也有了悲愤的色彩,随着刀的挥动不停地闪耀。随着最后一声枪响,再也找不到地面上的月光……
  战争,除了死亡和毁灭,什么都不能带给我们。战争给我们留下了惨痛的记忆,也留下了英雄,为了正义与和平而献身的英雄,我们无法忘记,忘记战争,忘记死亡与毁灭,更不能、不应忘记战争中的英雄们,是他们结束了战争,停止了毁灭,用他们的死亡,代替了别人的死亡。
  战争结束了,就让我们来纪念沉睡的英雄。
  六十年后的今天,法国,诺曼底,犹他海滩,当年在此浴血奋战的老兵,穿上了挂满勋章的军装,走在路上,人们向他们喝彩,为他们欢呼,同时他们也发现,老兵们的笑容如此沉重……
  六十年后的今天,俄罗斯,莫斯科红场,这里是庆祝,或许应该说纪念二战胜利六十周年的主要场所,来自全世界的英雄们,受到各国领导人尊敬、赞颂。
  六十年后的今天,中国,东北,某个小镇,一个班的学生,在一位八十多岁的老人的带领下,来到了一座纪念碑下,老人讲述了当年自己杀敌、幸存、逃脱的经历,依然是激动不已,他唱起了那首令他热血沸腾的歌:“大刀向敌人头上砍去……”学生们流泪了……
  纪念,为了不能忘记的过去。
  抗日战争胜利昭示民族振兴
  抗日战争,是100多年来中国人民反对外敌入侵第一次取得完全胜利的民族解放战争。毛泽东曾以气吞山河之势向世人宣称:中国的抗日战争是“战争史上的奇观,中华民族的壮举,惊天动地的伟业”。抗日战争是中华民族从衰败走向振兴的一个重大历史转折。
  抗日战争的胜利,使中国以其应有的作用和地位走向世界,这是中华民族振兴的良好开端。
  一个民族要走向振兴,就必须挣脱枷锁走向世界,争取国际荣誉,争取国际地位。抗日战争的胜利,大大提高了中国在世界上的声誉。中国人民的浴血抗战不仅受到世界人民的崇敬,更重要的是自身地位空前提高,具体表现在:首先,废除了不平等条约。1942 年10月9日,英美政府分别通知中国政府,声明愿意放弃在华治外法权及其他有关权益。之后,经过谈判,于1943年1月11日完成了中美、中英新约,并于是日分别在华盛顿和重庆签字。英美两国取消不平等条约,促使在中国享有特权的国家仿效。其次,收回了大部分失地。由于战争的胜利,不但收回了抗战以来被日本侵占的大片领土,而且光复了已被日本割占半个世纪的台湾、澎湖列岛,除了香港、澳门外,一切由帝国主义租借或占领的领土均被收回。外国列强攫自中国的殖民地,终又回到祖国怀抱。再次,中国在国际事务中的作用得到加强。1942年1月1日,中国以重要成员国的身份签署了《联合国家宣言》。1942年11月 22日,中国政府作为战争中的三个大国之一与英美共同参加了开罗会议,这次会议是第二次世界大战期间盟国研究与确定对日作战,处理战后日本问题的重要会议。1945年4月25日至6月26日,由中、苏、美、英4国发起,邀请《联合国家宣言》的签字国和参加国的代表,在美国旧金山举行了联合国制宪会议。从此,中国作为联合国的发起国之一而载入史册,中国还成为这个最广泛的国际组织的安全理事会5个常任理事国之一。
  抗日战争期间,中华民族实现了自民国以来一直未能实现的统一与团结,这是民族振兴的重要前提。
  一个民族要走向振兴离不开一个重要的前提,即民族的大团结。抗战前的中国政治舞台上活跃着各种政治势力。除了国共之间的对立和战争外,还有国民党各派系之间,中央政府和各地方实力派之间的斗争,地方实力派相互之间也是你争我夺,混战不已。在山河破碎,大敌当前的情况下,中华民族各种政治力量、各个阶级终于摒弃成见,共同团结在抗日救国的旗帜下,结成广泛的统一战线,共同抗击民族敌人,实现了中华民族的自我振兴。
  国共两大党的合作是全民族团结的关键。国共两党原先处于你死我活的斗争之中,但在民族责任感的驱使下,中国共产党主动改变策略,一再提出团结抗日的主张,并为抗日民族统一战线的实现不惜作出重大让步。国民党开始则顽固坚持“攘外必先安内”的反共政策,但在国内外各种力量的作用下,终于接受建立抗日民族统一战线的主张,同共产党一起战斗,形成中国军队一致团结在抗日大旗下共同对敌的新局面。
  中国共产党在抗日战争中得到锻炼,更加成熟,更加坚强,政治威望空前提高,成为中华民族走向振兴的主要领导力量。
  抗日战争中,中国共产党制定了一系列符合中国实际的路线、方针、政策。卢沟桥的炮声一响,中国共产党立即号召全体党员和全国人民一致奋起,开展神圣的民族自卫战争。不久,中国共产党制订并发表了《抗日救国十大纲领》,提出必须发动全民族参加抗战的完全正确的全面抗战路线。同时,中国共产党还从斗争的实际出发,提出反对教条主义、反对关门主义,坚持把马克思主义普遍原理应用于抗日战争的具体实践。在民族矛盾与阶级矛盾交织作用的情况下,中国共产党坚持抗日民族统一战线中独立自立的原则,表现了一个成熟政党的睿智。
  抗日战争造就了我国一代科技人才,他们是中华民族振兴的宝贵财富。
  大批科技人员聚集战时大后方,埋头苦干,潜心科研,蕴藏在他们身上的巨大的爱国与献身热情,成为推动中华民族科技进步的直接动力。抗日战争造就了整整一代科学人才。李四光、茅以升、竺可桢、周培源、吴大猷、严济慈、卢嘉锡、苏步青、华罗庚等业务骨干逐步成为学科带头人。他们不仅自己潜心钻研,而且重视培养青年科技人才。中央研究院地质研究所所长李四光带领科研人员对广西、湖南西部、湖北西部及江西、福建等地区地质矿产进行实地考察,并采集标本,还绘制出广西二十万分之一的地质图。西南联大物理系教授吴大猷在“研究工作毫不正常”的情况下,写出专著《多原分子之结构及其振动光谱》及19篇论文,进行了光谱学实验。浙江大学校长、著名科学家竺可桢在抗战期间发表了近40篇文章,地理学、气象学、物理学等学科研究都取得较大进展。
  抗日战争胜利的历史昭示我们:中国人民既然能以艰苦卓绝的努力,赢得民族解放战争的胜利,也一定能够在中国共产党的领导下,实现中华民族新的振兴。
  作为一个中国公民,一个皮肤黄如土地、记忆长如隧道的炎黄文明的承继者和享受者,面对某些先辈某段并不遥远的历史......
  七月七日,它代表了沉重、沉痛、沉思,它以一种血火勾连的方式,以一种硝烟弥漫、哭声与怒吼交相映衬的方式,以歌唱和诀别的方式,以仆倒、挣扎、继之而起的悲壮姿态存在着。
  七月七日,这一天我应该做点什么,我必须做点什么,因为它之于一个中国公民,就像阵痛之于新生,分娩之于母亲。是的,我将重温历史,让它从宛平城、卢沟桥的那一页开始翻起,从29军37师219团还击的枪声中开始寻找,我的可敬祖辈们奉献和创造的历史荣光。
  七月七日,我必须让浮躁虚华的心在它面前沉静下来,因为我是一个有血有泪、有痛有乐、有屈辱与荣光的中国公民。伴随黎明清风的吹拂,我将捧起一首战斗史诗,一首刚刚被从历史的尘埃中打捞出的无名氏之歌,它是写给当年战斗在最前线的29军的伟大颂词:“卢沟桥、卢沟桥,男儿坟墓在此桥,委屈忍痛和平保,无可避免上刺刀,自卫应战理气壮,挺剑而起是今朝。卢沟桥、卢沟桥,立功报国在此桥!”
  在它的雄壮节奏和音韵鼓动下,我没有理由不亢奋,没有理由不落泪,将一个男人的泪,献给为祖国而战、为和平而战、为理想而战的光荣先辈,这是一种荣耀,是我作为中国公民的莫大荣幸。我期待穿越时空的心灵感知,期待自己被物质文明泡软的心能像他们一样坚强和坚韧、执著而无畏。
  在卢沟桥的石狮注视下,那片历史阵痛之地,国民觉醒之地,战士奋起之地,我们有责任带着一颗负疚的心,去那儿凭吊,去那儿缅怀,用心和魂去抚摸与眺望。
  当夕阳像先辈的背影一样投挂在我们的脸上,当夏日之风裹着刚烈传奇的故事扑面而至,我们要用一颗感恩的心去恭候与迎接,像一座石狮一样向它、向他们致敬,永远,永远.......
  因为这是不能忘却的记忆!
  纪念抗战胜利60周年
  现在,我们的生活十分美好。可你,是否想过,现在的幸福生活来的?这可是战士用自己滚烫滚烫的鲜血换来的。这个代价太大了!今天,让我们来顾过去的点点滴滴吧!
  在抗日战争史文章中,我看到了炮火连天、浓烟滚滚的战场。一个个满身鲜血、汗流浃背、奋力拼搏的八路军战士们。万山丛中,青纱帐里,中国共产党领导的敌后抗日游击健儿到处逞英豪;雁翎队、敌后武工队、铁道游击队,地道战、地雷战、麻雀战……使骄狂一时的日本侵略者陷入到敌后人民战争的汪洋大海。我还看到了 19路军组织的“敢死队”出发前接受长官的指示。接着,“一、二八”的战火首先在闸北燃烧。一个个19路军沉着应战。我还看到抗战1月27日午后,日军准备开火的消息使住在北四川路一带的上海居民纷纷涌向租界避难。最后,蔡延锴军长临前线指挥……
  “淞沪会战”中“八百壮士”的忠贞奖章,“血战台儿庄”的杀敌大刀,“武汉会战”中毙敌3000余人的万家岭大捷中缴获的战利品……抗战初期,国民党数百万军队对日军进攻进行了正面作战,给日军以沉重打击,粉碎了日本军国主义者“速战速决”的美梦。
  “抗日则生,不抗日则死,抗日救国,已成为每个同胞的神圣天职!”“平津危急!华北危急!中华民族危急!只有全民族实行抗战,才是我们的出路。”“坚持抗战,坚持持久战,坚持统一战线,最后胜利必然是中国的。”
  中国共产党,率先吹响抗战的号角。1937年“七七事变”爆发。在中国共产党的积极努力和推动下,国共两党抛弃恩怨再次走到一起,中华民族全面神圣抗战从此以燎原之势燃烧起来。
  这场在1945年9月3日赢得的战争胜利全然不同以往110年前的甲午战争。从1840年开始到抗日战争胜利的105年间,几乎所有的大中小帝国主义国家都侵略过中国,而我们惟一赢得的,就是60年前的那场胜利。那是近100年来积贫积弱的中国第一次在一场生死存亡的民族战争中取得胜利,这场胜利改变了中华民族的历史命运,唤醒了沉睡了几个世纪的中国。
  历史学家陈寅恪曾说:“国可亡,史不可灭”,因为修史“系吾民族精神上生死一大事”。在2005年
  抗日战争胜利60周年之际,我了解这段悲壮而可歌可泣的历史,作为一名中国学生,无疑是责无旁贷,却又是一件难以承载的任务。
  同学们,战士们就是这样抛头颅,洒热血,用汗水和鲜血换来的新中国。让我们勿忘国耻,好好学习,成为祖国的栋梁之才,将来振兴中华!
  革命战士永垂不朽!战争是暴徒
  
  有关战争的名言
  用兵之道,攻心为上,攻城为下;心战为上,兵战为下。(三国·诸葛亮)
  是故百战百胜,非善之善者也;不战而屈人之兵,善之善者也。(春秋·孙武)
  得道者多助,失道者寡助。(战国·孟子)
  天时不如地利,地利不如人和。(战国·孟子)
  胜负兵家之常,善用兵者能因败为成。(晋·张方)
  惟有死者方可看到战争结束。(希腊·柏拉图)
  正义没有武力是无能;武力没有正义是暴政。(法国·巴斯卡)
  兵民是胜利之本。(毛泽东)
  敌进我退,敌退我追,敌驻我扰,敌疲我打。(毛泽东)


  War between the political groups, ethnic (tribal), with the national struggle between the highest form of conflict is a dispute the highest and most violent of means, usually the quickest most effective solution.
  Can also be interpreted as the use of violent means on the order of destruction and maintenance, collapse and reconstruction. All times of war, no exceptions.
  Since the emergence of mankind, it has not stopped; war with the social revolution, bringing a new pattern. The ancient war between various tribes, to promote national integration and state formation, is also the direct cause of great national movement; country's internal war between different ethnic groups, to promote national independence and the birth of new countries; country's internal political groups war, to bring about regime change, as civil war.
  Comparison of war and armed conflict against the form of war showed, first, the cruelty, both by all available means to attack the other side of violence; two devastating against time to destroy the other party the expense of the party; third purpose until the other side to achieve the objective; Fourth, persistence, conventional war, it lasted for years or decades, modern high-tech war going on for several months to several years. Any war have been the planning and preparation.
  War-related terms for the war zone, combat vehicles, combat, tactical, battle, battlefield, prisoners of war, strategic, tactical reconnaissance, war, war reparations, war crimes.
  See
  Peace - Justice - social revolution
  Military - strategist
  War - campaign - fighting
  Cold War - the arms race
  Civil war
  Military confrontation - armed conflict
  Weapons - weapons
  China's history of war
  Competitive struggle
  List of World War
  The nature of war
  Is the opposing sides in order to achieve certain political, economic purposes of the armed struggle. War in class society, is used to solve the class and class, ethnic and national, state and national, political groups and the conflict between political groups the highest forms of struggle. It is the continuation of politics by violent means, is politics with bloodshed.
  Everyone
  Yearning for peace
  The origin of war
  War appeared in the late primitive society. According to archaeological evidence indicating that the first war in the early Stone Age. This shows, the human population from the original to the present, about 23 million years Di history, the history of war to a Wan Nian Hai Bu (Shu Shang Ling Yi argument million years). War is primitive clan or tribal alliances between tribes, to fight for the survival of the land, rivers, forests and other natural wealth, even to rush marriage, blood revenge and ethnic conflict, and then evolved into a primitive state of war. This war is a war with the class society is essentially different. It does not have a political purpose and class oppression, the nature of slavery, war captives, not kill, is eaten. Later, with the productivity and development of animal husbandry replaced matriarchy patriarchy, agriculture, handicrafts, with the development of commodity production, with surplus production of goods, with private property owners and slaves there, bud private ownership, class, to "the ancient tribes of the tribal war, has begun to degenerate into looting of livestock on land and sea, the slave and the ongoing looting of treasures, into a normal make a living." ("Karl Marx and Engels Military Collection" II, p. 413) become more frequent in the war, driven by the disintegration of primitive mankind entered the slave society. Since then, the war became a political tool, the highest means of class struggle. Private ownership, class oppression, and economic conflicts of interest, as the basic causes of war. Predatory and anti-exploitation, oppression and anti-oppression, aggression, and aggression, hegemony and counter hegemony, expansion and anti expansion of the war, has become a special class society, an inevitable phenomenon. 80 to the 20th century, in a 3500 years of recorded time, there were over 14,531 world wars. Imperialism, hegemony is the root of modern war. In the present and future, the factors that lead to war are diverse, chief of which are competing spheres of influence, territorial disputes, boundary disputes, plundering of strategic resources, competition for the market, ideological struggles, religious conflicts, ethnic conflicts, etc., these factors is the direct result of modern warfare.
  Classification of the war
  War, war and injustice into justice, war, war is a political purpose by the decision. Just war include: the slave uprising peasants, the peasants the revolutionary war, class war of liberation, wars of national liberation, anti-aggression, self-defense, war and so on. Just war is a fight for the interests of the people, the community plays a huge role in promoting the development of historical development of the locomotive. In contrast, an unjust war include: hegemony of war, counter-revolutionary war, colonial wars, imperialist war, a war of aggression, etc., is to safeguard the interests of the exploiting class and the reactionary class politics, and contrary to the fundamental interests of the people community development, is push people into disasters of war. If the Japanese invasion of China, from the "918 Incident" to the Japanese surrender, in 14 years time, causing the Chinese people tremendous disaster, the Chinese military and civilian casualties number more than 3,500 people, China's official property damage and war consumed more than 1,000 billion U.S. dollars, 500 billion U.S. dollars in indirect economic losses. Support a just war against an unjust war, this is our fundamental attitude towards the war.
  Future war, will be the main local war, but the world does not eliminate the danger of war. Warfare will continue to conventional war-based, but can not rule out the possibility of using nuclear weapons. War, the general trend is to continue to develop in the direction of high-tech. With the emerging high-tech weapons will be the emergence of new branches may arise from the "space forces" to the "days of war" and by "deep-sea combat troops" in the deep sea or submarine warfare; "robot equipped with force" Intelligent robots will be war; electronic warfare, information war will show their talents; visible confrontation, intense infrared countermeasure race. This trend, the war will change the traditional style and methods of warfare; war sudden, destructive brutality, destruction and war will be an unprecedented increase consumption; the war depends on the overall national strength increased, war, security task more difficult; operational command, operational coordination, communication support will be more complex and difficult. Above all, strong demand to create new theory of war, strategy and tactics. High-tech war on people of the military, politics, culture and scientific knowledge, can command a higher demand. Familiar with modern scientific knowledge and technology wise and brave people who will control the determinants of high-tech victory.
  World war the possibility of being stopped, but did not eliminate risk. As long as people of the world work together to develop the forces of peace and war, the power constraints, we can delay or stop the new world war. War is bound to extinction. Only people around the world work together to achieve communism, to completely eliminate the root causes of the war, the war dead, so that mankind has entered the permanent peace of heaven.
  Chinese ancient books called the war for the war, war, sign, cutting, soldiers. Warring States period, Bingshu "Wu" already has a "war". History of the war and its causes generated a variety of different views. Naturalism War scholars believe that war is rooted in the natural environment and human biological nature, and that war is natural and eternal phenomenon. Religious war commentators say that war is God's punishment, and with supernatural power to explain the causes of war. Racist believes that the causes of war is the difference between the pros and cons of national. Geo Politics of Modern scholars believe that the war is based on the geographical environment, that is, competition for living space and natural resources will certainly arise. Malthusian view that, overpopulation and hunger is the real reason for war. Historical materialism that the war never had neither, nor is eternal, and war is the social productive forces and production relations developed to a certain stage of the product, is in private ownership is produced, Sui Zhao class and the state of formation, Chuxianyapo and oppressed only appear. There are various types of war history, including aggression and self-defense war; just wars and unjust wars, traditional war and modern warfare; local wars and world wars and many other types.
  World War II Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor the United States, followed by the United States declared war on Japan
  Humanity today is in a new era of technological revolution. The rapid development of science and technology, the global deepening of social interaction and expansion of the war occurred, the development has a significant effect. Not only the traditional cold war weapon of war by the transition to a hot weapon of war, but also the impact of the war range from local to global expansion. Correspondingly, the peace force to stop the war and also the continuous development of technical means, war is also from the purely military aptitude political, economic and technical development.
  In human history, war has always been spread, and form a unique human history chapter. According to statistics, from the earth 5,000 years since the emergence of civilization, the human has undergone more than 15,000 war, there are several million people were killed in the war, in which more than 5,000 years, the human race 500 years of living in a peaceful environment. In other words, every 100 years, humans have at least 90 years of living in a state of war.
  Since the 90s of the 20th century, the world took place more than 100 war, which involved more than 90 countries ... ...
  The typical first-generation warfare - two signs Caesar Britain. Characterized by the use of knives, arrows, spears and other cold weapons and heavy armor close combat.
  The typical second-generation war - the Napoleonic Wars. Characterized by the invention of firearms, gunpowder, smooth-bore type device into the war.
  The typical third-generation warfare - two world wars. Characterized by tanks, aircraft, ships, and modern transportation have all been used.
  The typical fourth-generation warfare - United States dropped atomic bombs on Hiroshima, Japan, characterized by destructive consequences of a total disaster.
  The typical fifth-generation war - the Gulf War. Characterized by information technology, electronic, through the surgical precision strikes, launch high-precision long-range, large Click injury and defensive weapons, assault force, the new physical principle weapons.
  On a new prospective study of world war
  Young scholar Liu weeks in the "prophecy on the future of mankind," a paper presented on the World Unity and the Third World War in the forward-looking predictions. The prophecy reads as follows:
  Predictions about the future of mankind
  (A) of the world's future and unity of the human newborn. If not attributable to human extinction, it has to become new.
  (B) the advent of economic globalization, the world unified by a vague vision, becomes a more and more clear close-range and irreversible historical trend.
  (C) when the world can unity and reunification, decided on the contradictions of economic globalization and the development of these contradictions.
  (D) the principal contradiction of economic globalization:
  With the continuous deepening of economic globalization, the international trend of economic activity continued to strengthen, the economic activities between countries in the interaction, interdependence and increasingly interconnected. Therefore, countries in the coordination of economic activities has become increasingly important and more urgent. This means that under the conditions of economic globalization, economic development coordination between countries have become increasingly demanding.
  On the other hand, with the deepening of economic globalization, the market is increasingly reflected in the global market, so competition is increasingly reflected in the global competition. Competition, globalization, the inevitable conflict between the capital countries growing more and more profoundly. Because of the deepening conflict intensified, the basis for coordination between countries is getting weaker. Therefore, the form sometimes Hui reflected in some countries to form some kind of alliance between operators to increase coordination, but the essence of such coordination allied countries, but yes coordination between Li Yong allies with the Union Wai national struggle. Therefore, global coordination, this coordination of the local nature of the increase, not to increase the performance of global coordination, but to reduce the performance of global coordination. Country some regional organizations (such as NATO, EU, ASEAN) role of Jia Jiang, which is precisely with the United Nations (Quan Qiu Xing Zuzhi) the role of the weakened, this era of economic globalization is the deterioration of global coordination Zuihao Note. So, on the one hand the times of economic globalization on the global coordination of economic development, more requirements, on the one hand is the world's economic activities are more inconsistent. This is the contradiction of economic globalization and development of various major foundation.
  Specifically, the main contradiction of economic globalization are the following:
  A contradiction in developed countries
  (E) developed countries mostly in the relatively complete social welfare and social security system as a regulator of social class contradictions effective tools in the social class relations guarantee the Xiangdui harmony. However, social welfare and social security system, complete, and mainly relied on government's heavy taxes on businesses. Is mainly dependent on the capital class to pay the high taxes to the government, which relies on the capital class, the class of the working class concessions.
  (6) However, the emergence and development of economic globalization will inevitably lead to social welfare and social security system, progressive and irreversible damage. Development of economic globalization, so that capitalists can be taken for granted in developed countries will be transferred to the low corporate taxes in developing countries, in order to avoid heavy domestic taxes. In this case, the developed countries, social welfare and social security system, which is bound to be the Internal Revenue's 减少 impact and 破坏.
  (7) and this synchronization, as part of the corporate shift to low taxes in developing countries, will inevitably lead to rising domestic unemployment. Marked rise in the unemployment rate has increased staff to be hired, to be servants of the capitalists employ to increase mean there will be greater choice, and thus can hire lower paid staff. In this way, the hired class wages will continue to deteriorate and they often face the risk of unemployment.
  Second, the conflicts in developing countries
  (Ix) the current nature of economic globalization is the globalization of the developed countries, the developed countries, another name for economic expansion. Therefore, the current conditions of economic globalization, the world economy is operating, mainly reflected as follows: 1, developed countries, the influx of a large number of product markets in developing countries, and seek to gradually monopolize the market; 2, developed countries, labor-intensive enterprises and high polluting enterprises as well as an attempt to avoid heavy taxation of enterprises, large transfer to developing countries; 3, the developing countries only in energy, raw materials, primary products or some other high-tech products in the composition of the original limited product areas, only an edge, it may large-scale access to developed countries.
  Therefore, economic globalization and the reality is: the developing countries more and more deeply into a developed country market, and the energy base of raw material base and the dumping of industrial waste landfill. So, that economic globalization is actually yes a "one-way degree of economic globalization", it is not the developing countries of economic globalization, Er Shi developed the economic globalization, the developed countries, another name for economic expansion.
  (10) economic globalization, the economic expansion that is developed. This expansion, in the name of the global resource integration, so that economies of developing countries becoming more and more developed economies of the client, its national economic system become more and more deformed and fragile, more and more inseparable from the developed countries "Help." Thus, the intensity increasing in the developed countries, "help", the whole economic development of developing countries is getting worse, the international community is growing polarization, the gap between north and south. This is the current reality.
  (11) as developed countries, the influx of products, compared to higher costs in developing countries, higher prices and lower quality products is rapidly losing its market. Many attempts to enter the international market to and competes with companies in developed countries and enterprises in a brutal market competition, in its door was within a flood of foreign products to squeeze the. (Developing countries have a more competitive form of "multinational corporations" the quantity and quality are very low).
  (12) is not only the influx of products developed in developing countries, the capitalists have also developed the company, factories and mines open to developing countries. That the economic lifelines of the developing countries by the developed countries to gradually mastered.
  (13) the bankruptcy of national industries in developing countries and by acquisition, resulting in mass unemployment. Of the workers, only a small number of foreign companies can be hired or joint ventures - as enterprises in developed countries is far less than the required staff needed to staff of national industry. Thus, the increase in unemployment in developing countries has become an inevitable phenomenon.
  (14) the increase in unemployment, also brought the entire class wages were a decline in employment.
  (15) developing countries generally lack the more complete social welfare and social security system. Therefore, the unemployed and the living environment of the class were hired only multiplied worse than in developed countries. This class of developing countries more than developed countries on the intensification of conflicts, violence was a spontaneous class struggle more vulnerable than the developed countries. Therefore, swept through the storm of class struggle in developing countries, developing countries will also be a general lack of ease because of its internal class contradictions of economic power, but occurred earlier than in developed countries.
  The contradiction between the three developed and developing countries
  (16) the current economic globalization, developed countries led economic globalization, the developed countries, another name for economic expansion. The early stages of this expansion, will give developing countries some superficial prosperity. But with the development and deepening of the economic lifelines of the developing countries will gradually be developed to master. Therefore, the essence of this expansion is the developed countries while developing economies in the merger, the new colonialism, but more irresponsible Terra Tragedy of colonialism, is wrapped with beautiful words pirate style colonial plunder. This is currently the international community to the rich getting richer, poor getting poorer in real source.
  (17) Thus, the contradiction between developed and developing countries can not reconcile the contradictions.
  (18) At present, the endless war in the Middle East situation, it is this contradictory result of the development. Israel Palestine war, the U.S. war in Iraq, etc., are developed in terms of its real bully looting developing countries, developing resistance to this oppressive plunder of war, is based on the fight and control the energy powerhouse of the war in the Middle East .
  (19) such a war, the future will be increased, rather than the less continue. Reasons for the war will become more diverse, but no matter how many parcels lies real face of war, only makes the true nature and consequences of the war, more and more real clear.
  (20) currently growing acts of terrorism around the world, is an outward manifestation of this contradiction. Military invasion of the developing countries against developed countries, economic exploitation of an asymmetric war. This behavior is radical in form and unreasonable, but study the root causes of its occurrence, but can be found to contain a certain degree of rational kernel.
  (21) In short, the deepening conflict between developed and developing countries, are global and irreversible progress.
  The contradiction between the four countries
  (22) development of economic globalization, also means that the developed countries in worldwide markets and resources around the development of the battle.
  (23) since the end of the Cold War to the Soviet Union two Pa (bipolar) against each other as the main feature of the old international order was broken. When the sky wave by political polarization.
  (24) political multi-polarization, in essence, is the opposite of U.S. unipolar hegemony.
  (25) political multi-polarization, is essentially a "more dominant," a blueprint for a new international order. It is the powers of States opposed to the U.S. unipolar hegemony system behavior program. Therefore, it can be said that all powers including the U.S. "hegemony" of the product.
  Therefore, developing countries are not in the "multipolar" list, the multi-polar powers only a "multipolar."
  (26) the emergence of political multi-polarization. Qin Chinese history to match, that is: Age and Evolution of the end of the Warring States era of cracks at the arrival.
  (27) The United States attempted to maintain its unipolar superpower hegemony, while other powers are attempting to establish their own country's local hegemony, to deny the U.S. global hegemony. Therefore, political multi-polarization is itself a contested process.
  (28) around the struggle of political multi-polarization, is essentially a reflection of economic struggle between great powers, while serving the economic struggle between great powers. During the 2003 Iraq war, British West differences with Germany, France and Russia, is the product of conflicting economic interests.
  (29) With the continuous deepening of economic globalization, the developed countries to the market and the competition for resources, will inevitably develop into more and more, more and more serious political and military struggle. This is absolutely inevitable.
  (30) since the last century since the Cold War, the emergence of nuclear weapons, big powers in dealing with mutual relations have maintained the utmost restraint. Therefore, large-scale war since the Cold War, basically bully the big bullying the small war or proxy war between the major powers (that is, from a small country carried out on behalf of the war powers).
  (31) war was "to resolve classes and class, ethnic and national, state and national, political groups and political groups, to a certain stage of development of the highest forms of struggle as a conflict" ("Selected Works of Mao Zedong" p. 155).
  "War is the nation and the nation, state and national, class and class, political groups and political groups among the highest form of struggle" (ibid., p. 166).
  (32) Therefore, war is the product of irreconcilable contradictions. Irreconcilable conflict is the "cause" of war is "fruit."
  (33) Therefore, the Cold War has not broken out among the major powers because the nature of large-scale war - the conflict between great powers, there are still some room for reconciliation. The fear of a devastating nuclear war threat to humanity, only the surface reasons.
  (34) Therefore, in an irreconcilable contradiction between the real case of nuclear war, devastating threat to humanity, will not become an obstacle to the outbreak of war.
  (35) present on the nuclear war threat to mankind's destructive propaganda, just a logical hypothetical reasoning.
  Five contradictory interaction of various
  (36) above are contradictory (the contradictions within developed countries, developing countries, conflicts between developed and developing countries, conflicts, contradictions between the developed countries) the development, not in isolation, but interact, mutual stimulation and synergistic. - And therefore the development of interactive and linkage.
  (37) the contradiction between the developed countries, with the contradiction between developed and developing countries are intertwined. Contention between the developed one of the main content is on developing markets and resources control. Meanwhile, the developed countries to developing countries to control markets and resources, but also in the mutual struggle for the establishment and existence.
  (39) the more developed countries, developing countries should have the control to increase their income, the more developing countries to increase the intensity of exploitation and plunder, the greater will be the damage to the developing countries. The greater the damage to the developing countries, their domestic situation more worse, domestic class contradictions will be more serious. Conversely, the more serious in developing countries domestic class contradictions, but also the contradiction between developing and developed countries will become increasingly complex and profound.
  (40) to deepen the conflict between the developed countries, the deepening conflict between developed and developing countries will make a profit to foreign countries the space is limited. Therefore, "trapped within the outer choosing the return of the" - loss of profits in foreign parts, bound from China make up, bound with a strengthening of domestic exploitation and reduce the domestic social welfare and social security costs of the approach to be up. Therefore, the domestic class contradictions will inevitably increase. Similarly, the intensification of internal conflicts, will force developed countries to increase the strength of its external struggles. Thus the conflict between the developed countries, the contradiction between developed and developing countries will become more serious.
  (41) Therefore, summary, - the contradiction between developed countries, developing countries, conflicts between developed and developing countries, conflicts, contradictions between the developed countries - these types of conflicts will be of mutual affect, stimulate and promote each other, access to double development.
  (42) Therefore,
  ① the revolutionary turmoil in developed countries and developing countries will be inevitable revolutionary crisis, and will surely break out in advance (also popular in today's world of "corruption Tide" will also play a catalytic role).
  ② bullying developed countries, developing countries, counter-violence of the war will further increase, promotion and development.
  ③ developed countries (especially military power) should the outbreak of war will; Third World War will break out. And be better than people can imagine the outbreak sooner.
  6 Conclusion
  (43) conflicts in developed countries, developing countries, conflicts between developed and developing countries, conflicts, contradictions between the developed countries - these conflicts under the conditions of economic globalization and intensification of development, are deeply deep rooted in - the coordination of economic globalization and the requirements of the global economy growing, while the country's economic activity is in fact more and more inconsistent - on top of this basic contradiction.
  (44) under the conditions of economic globalization, "the development requirements of the global economy" and "national economic activity," the contradiction between, in essence, economic globalization and political multi-polarization of the conflict. Because the countries in the economic activities become increasingly incompatible, it is mainly one of political multi-polarization.
  (45) economic base determines the superstructure. History of the development of human society is constantly adapting to economic base of a superstructure of history. When the economic foundation to the times when the feudal economy, the superstructure of slavery can not long continue to exist. When the economic foundation to the era of the capitalist economy, the capitalist superstructure is bound to replace the feudal superstructure. So, when the economic base of the superstructure, what change made the request, the superstructure will inevitably occur in accordance with the requirements change. - This is a historical reality, but also the laws of history.
  (46) Economic globalization is the economic base of the area. The scope of political multi-polarization part of the superstructure.
  (47) political multi-polarization, economic globalization is not compatible with the superstructure.
  (48) economic globalization, global production factor requirements as between countries and regions have become increasingly close cooperation and collaboration. Therefore, also requires countries to deal with mutual economic relations, more consideration to the overall global economic development, rather than a country's "interests" undermine global economic development, "the public interest." Only in this way, side of the world economy, otherwise it will hinder the healthy development of world economy.
  (49) So - Economic globalization requires global coordination functions of the "government organizations" to ensure the healthy development of the global economy. Economic globalization requires global "integration" functions of the corresponding superstructure. Economic globalization will inevitably lead to political unity of the world.
  (50) So - the current era of economic globalization, the development of various contradictory results, is bound to divide the nation-state carved out a number attributed to dominate the world. Widespread in developed and developing countries within the revolutionary turmoil and war in the developed and developing countries, and war between countries, ultimately there is only one destination, and that is: to unify the world.
  (51) So - revolution inevitable outbreak of war would inevitably break out - the outbreak of World War III inevitable, inevitable world unity. This is a historical necessity, this is a scientific truth. Can anyone able to stop.
  (52) Therefore, for this era, the peace so it is important, because of the lack of peace; war so important because only by war, wars and to win the human permanent peace, to win the world unity and human newborn.
  April 1911, after a failed uprising in Guangzhou Huanghuagang, Central League in Shanghai Yangtze River basin planning will always attempt to revolt, sent to Wuhan and Literary Society, will be linked together to speed up preparations for the Wuhan uprising in the process of revolutionary groups. The insight of two revolutionary groups, feel a heavy responsibility intifada, the uprising ever had a joint mindset. After several months of repeated consultations, the final decision in August 1911 the joint. During this period, Hunan, Hubei, Guangdong, Sichuan and other places of the Paul movement surged, particularly in Sichuan, Paul has developed into a revolt. Qing panic, around their plans to suppress. September 21, Ting-chu Dulv Hubei army so quickly arrived in Sichuan, Hubei and Eighth Army forces most of the town who owned the 16th Association of Sichuan, another part of the troops stationed in Hanyang, Hankou and his county outside the city, forces inside and outside the provincial capital Only 14 standard about seven thousand people, to participate in literary community, together will other revolutionary groups and tendencies about the ancient revolutionary soldiers more than one third. The war started, soldiers will happen anyway. Extremely favorable situation on the Wuchang Uprising. September 24 had. Literary Society and together will be together Wuchang rouge Lane on the 11th will be held with authorities on both sides and the standard of more than 60 business representatives attended the joint meeting, the resolution of the uprising of the plan and determine the military and political responsible person, the military, Jiang Yiwu head of the Literary Society was elected as the revolutionary army commander, who together will be responsible for Sun Wu was cited as chief of staff, however. Politically, the hand will be elected head of the public Liu Preparatory Office of the Prime Minister for political. Wuchang uprising headquarters located on the street 85 small body of literature within social, political, Baoshan Preparatory Office, located in Hankou 14. Uprising date go to October 6, 1911 (Mid-Autumn Festival). In the separately prepared, the pain of time, the uprising has extended the date of October 11. Then, in the middle of Shanghai's Alliance always worry about a place in Wuhan uprising unreliable, there are 11 provinces while Xing uprising can only win the argument. The news spread to Wuhan, Wuhan, some of the leaders of the once so hesitant.
  Night, the street uprising small headquarters was surrounded, police broke into the house. Liu Fu-based hurriedly arrested in the bomb did not blow, Peng Chufan also caught, Jiang Yiwu Ma gown by wearing a robe and build long braids are not police attention, Chengxi escape. Yang Hongsheng partisan camps in the delivery of ammunition to the police while being tracked, self-inflicted mistakes bomb fall into an opponent. Since martial law throughout the city, gates closed, artillery command do not get the service outside the city, the night 12:00 uprising not been possible.
  October 10 morning, Pengchu Fan, Liu Fu-based, Yang Hongsheng three Patriots in Hubei and Hunan Governor spread the news of the Department of heroic martyrdom, military and police raids are still underway. Mobilized many of the revolutionaries and the New Army soldiers said to myself in this life and death in one fell swoop. With nothing and die, as desperate to survive. Uprising situation ready to go, explosive. Night 7 pm, in the eighth gate in the town-owned engineering and eighth camp barracks, the first occurrence of soldiers mutiny, a gunshot rang out, a few commissioned officers were killed, the chief representative of the partisan camp, after the New Army Team project (equivalent to class president) Xiong Bingkun rushed immediately towards the rate of dozens of insurgents in and around the door Chu Lookout armory. Armory soldiers stationed in the camp of coordinated action, the occupation of the armory, and opened the garage door. Mutinous troops are in arms, lift. At this time, gathered in the hope that Taiwan insurgents Chu about three hundred people. As Sun Tzu injured patient, Jiang Yiwu escape when the police raid, the other leaders of the uprising, or martyrdom, or arrested at the scene on the rudderless, not unity of command. Xiong Bingkun the presence of the highest posts, the total charge of the scene as a representative of the command, try to stabilize the morale of the troops. At this time, there are soldiers proposal to avoid the uprising left up teams of officers (equivalent to captain) Zhaolin get as commander in chief. Xiong Bingkun whole situation in mind, consider their own position lower base level, converting about the situation, to have negative consequences for the uprising, was pleased to comply with the soldiers request, but give Zhaolin as temporary commander. Wu informed the members of the Japanese original, the latter did not participate in any revolutionary organization, but this person capable, have a certain ability to command. Wu expectations, he immediately ordered the troops to strengthen Chu Lookout as part of the warning area, while re-sent with other revolutionary forces inside and outside the city link. Inside and outside the city since the revolution in military affairs that have to build Chu Lookout.
  Forces in the uprising, while Chu Lookout assembly, Zhao-Lin Wu, Xiong Bingkun rate of mutinous troops had to Hubei and Hunan Governor Department (now Wuchang Shipyard), the launch into the attack, the battle very hard, but not be able to return. South Lake artillery into the city, Chu Lookout, Snake Hill and other places of the shelling began, the war situation in a turnaround. The standard New Army uprising in response to the soldiers doing more, doing more than most Xianshibumiao officer, life insurance from the camp, at the moment, Hubei and Hunan Governor signs Bac Switzerland, the eighth control and anti-business town, Admiral Zhang Biao, General Office hall supervision Iron Zhong order to stop their internal response to the Executive Force and organized forces to defend Dushu reliable, full-suppressing insurgents, resulting in offensive Dushu war, encountered many obstacles. After the transfer clock, re-organized attack on Du Shu forces. And soldiers in three columns, bloody battle in the streets started. As the darkness it rain, low visibility targets, guns are not repeated in the hair, so it was risking impulse to Dushu fire near to the fire as the symbol to improve the hit rate of bombardment. Then, Du Shu Qian Yafang hit. Rui Zhong Hui and iron, see the hopeless situation, hurriedly fled in breaking the back wall of the Department of Hospitals of a warship on the Yangtze River. Zhang Biao is still its headquarters (the eighth town near the headquarters in Du Shu) recalcitrant. After the rebels attacked three times, finally artillery in close collaboration with the Governor at dawn before the capture of the town of Department and the headquarters of the eighth. Zhang Biao in his command fled to Hankow before being tackled. The rebels then invincible, Fan Tai Yamen been quickly occupied by the rebels.
  After a night of bloody fight lasting to the morning of October 11, Wuchang was liberated. 9 Point 18 star Revolutionary Army flag flying high above the head of Wuchang City. The next day, the rebels then recovered Hankou and Hanyang, Wuhan three all in the hands of the Revolutionary Army
  Now, our life was good. Can you ever wondered, now a happy life here? This is hot, but soldiers with their own hot blood. Price is too high! Today, let's care over the past bit by bit it!
  "Battle of Shanghai" in "Eight Hundred Heroes" loyalty medal, "bloody Taierzhuang" The sword kills, "Battle of Wuhan" in the 3000 death of 10,000 enemy Ridge Victory booty seized in ... ... Japanese War, millions of Kuomintang army fighting the Japanese attack was positive, giving the Japanese a heavy blow smashed the Japanese militarists, "quick" dreams.
  "Japanese are, not in the resistance is dead, the anti-Japanese national salvation, has become the sacred duty of each fellow!" "Pingjin critical! North necessity! Chinese critical! Only the whole nation to implement the resistance, is our way out." "Insisted War adhere to a protracted war, insisted the united front, the final victory must be China. "
  Communist Party of China, the first war of the horn sounded. 1937, "Marco Polo Bridge Incident" broke out. The active efforts of the Chinese Communist Party and the promotion, the two parties come together once again abandon the grudge, the sacred war of resistance from the nation to burn to Negative effect and Precaution.
  This in the September 3, 1945 to win victory in the war completely different from the past 110 years of Sino-Japanese War. From the beginning to the Sino-Japanese War victory in 1840 of 105 years, almost all medium and small imperialist countries invaded China, and we only won that 60 years ago that success. It was nearly 100 years the poor and weak the first time in a life and death in China's national war victory, the victory changed the historical fate of the Chinese nation, wake up the sleeping for centuries in China.
  Chen Yinke historian said: "The State may die, history can not be destroyed" because the repair history "line of life and death of a major event in the spirit of my nation." 2005
  60th anniversary of Sino-Japanese War, I understand the history of this tragic and epic, as a Chinese student, no doubt the duty of carrying but is a difficult task.
  Students, soldiers is such shed blood, sweat and blood in exchange for the new China. Let us not forget national humiliation, study hard and become a pillar of the motherland, will rejuvenate the Chinese nation!
  Immortal revolutionary fighter!
  I like the dove of peace, because I see them like to see peace. They brought the hope for peace of mind of each child, so my heart lit up immediately, while that piece of good hearts to open up a window of the soul.
  Through the door that window, I saw the broad blue sky, sky full of doves have language, the concern and thoughts brought to the country, so that the other hearts as warm as the point of the heater, cozy. Everywhere a symbol of peace, open flowers, everything in the world are calling for peace and good.
  Suddenly, a gunshot shattered the tranquility of peace. The war began, suddenly, the sky clouded over, I heard another tremendous noises it a threat to a delicate flower of peace. Birds were smoked with smoke, were those many bullets mercilessly beaten black and blue. At this point, children crying, people's cries and sounds of spirits, mingled into one. They want peace ah!
  However, the bullets and the guns are ruthless, they are kept away innocent lives. "Why go to war to restore peace in the world now!
  "All the people begging for the. However, those countries of the leaders and fighting for self-interest with. Dang fighting Zanshitingzhi time, I Kan Dao Le's Huamian such a tragedy: former beauty of the city Biande miserable. Some people hold Ziji dead relatives crying, others pray for the end of the war come on. In this way, a wonderful place, full of murderous look into a hell.
  Peace dove flew away, my heart also has an incurable wound. People of the world want peace, stop war, to world peace forever now!
  2. Not forget the past - the 60th anniversary of victory over fascism
  Sixty years ago, France, Normandy, Utah Beach, another team, a team of U.S. and British soldiers braving a hail of bullets and rushed to the front of the bunker, one by one the soldiers fell, still people shouting the forward run, a moment stained with blood ... the beach ...
  Sixty years ago, the Soviet Union, Stalingrad, the front, a truck carrying another one just out of boot camp training, officers in the car shouting: "We do not need a deserter living!" Had hardly faded , there is a shrapnel penetrated his skull. Recruits who were driven off, some people get guns, some people only took the bullets, loudspeaker repeated phrase: "did not get the gun with a gun in the back, there are guns comrades died, no guns comrades took up his gun, continued to charge ... ... "
  Sixty years ago, China, Northeast China, a village in the evening, a middle-aged man righting the Guangzhuobangzai Hanguang shiny sword hanging from a ribbon, turned toward a group of villagers, including teenagers The young man, grizzled old man also, they are also carrying machetes. That middle-aged man said: "Let no one knew it at home?" All the people were silent, middle-aged wave of his hand, "that go." After half an hour, the Japanese base, screams, guns sound and the sound of metal crash after another, the moonlight reflected in the blade also has the color of anger, with the knife waving constantly shining. With the last gunshot, could not find the moonlight on the ground ... ...
  War, but death and destruction, what can bring us. War left us with a painful memory, but also left a hero, dedicated to justice and peace heroes, we can not forget, forget war, forget the death and destruction, can not and should not forget the heroes of the war, is They ended the war, stop the destruction, with their death, instead of someone else's death.
  The war is over, let us commemorate the sleeping hero.
  Six years later, France, Normandy, Utah Beach, then in the bloody battles of the veterans, wearing uniforms covered with medals, walking on the road, people to cheer them, cheer them, and they also found that veterans They smile so heavy ... ...
  Six years later, Russia, Moscow's Red Square, where a celebration, perhaps we should say commemorate the sixtieth anniversary of victory in World War II, the main site for heroes from around the world, respected by world leaders, praise.
  Six years later, China, Northeast China, a small town, a class of students in a more than 80 years old, led to a monument, the old recounted his killing the enemy, survivors, escape experience, still excited, he sang the song to his passionate song: "sword decapitated head to the enemy ... ..." Students were in tears ... ...
  Memorial, in order to not forget the past.
  War Victory clear to revitalize the nation
  Sino-Japanese War, is over 100 years the Chinese people against foreign aggression in the first total victory in war of national liberation. Mao Zedong declared to the world trend Majestic Zeng Yi: China's Anti-Japanese War was "the history of wars, the Chinese nation's feat, tremendous undertaking." War of the Chinese nation from decline to revitalization of a major historical turning point.
  Japanese War, the Chinese their due role and status of the world, this is a good start for the Chinese nation.
  Revitalization of a nation to go, we must break free of the shackles of the world, to win international honor for international status. Japanese War, China has greatly enhanced the reputation in the world. Chinese people's bloody war of resistance not only by the people of the world's esteem, is more important is their position higher than ever before, in particular in: First of all, the abolition of unequal treaties. October 9, 1942, British and American governments have informed the Chinese Government declared its willingness to give up extraterritorial rights in China and other related rights. Later, after negotiations, on January 11, 1943 completed the United States, Britain and the New Testament, and so on were signed in Washington, and Chongqing. British and American abolition of unequal treaties, to promote in China privileged countries to follow suit. Second, the recovery of most of the lost ground. Since the victory of the war, since war is not only to recover the vast territory occupied by Japan, but recovered half a century has been Japan's Cession of Taiwan, Penghu Islands, in addition to Hong Kong, Macau, the all rented or occupied by the territory of imperialism are be withdrawn. Foreign powers grab from China's colony, and finally returned to the motherland. Third, China's role in international affairs has been strengthened. January 1, 1942, China has signed an important member of the identity of the "Declaration by United Nations." November 22, 1942, the Chinese government as the war in one of the three major British and American co-participated in the Cairo meeting, the meeting was established during World War II allies of the war against Japan and to address the issue of post-war Japan important meeting. 1945 年 25 April to 26 June, the Chinese and the Soviet Union, the United States and Britain launched four countries invited to "Declaration by United Nations" of the signatories and representatives of participating States, held in San Francisco, the Constituent Assembly of the United Nations. Since then, China as one of the initiators of the United Nations go down in history, China has become the most extensive international organization of the Security Council five permanent members.
  During the Sino-Japanese War, the Chinese nation since the Republic has not been able to achieve unity and solidarity, which is an important prerequisite for national rejuvenation.
  Indispensable to the revitalization of a nation to an important premise that the great unity of the nation. Anti-Japanese War in China before the political arena, the political forces active in. In addition to confrontation and war between the KMT and CPC, there are factions among the KMT, the central government and local power struggles between school, local powers are also among the scrambling, endless infighting. In a broken, the current enemy situation, the Chinese political forces, each class has finally abandon their prejudices and united together under the banner of the anti-Japanese national salvation, to form a broad united front against a common enemy nation to achieve the Chinese nation self-revitalization.
  KMT-CPC cooperation of the two major parties is the key to the whole nation united. The two parties in the life and death struggle against the original, but driven by a sense of responsibility in the nation, take the initiative to change the strategy of the Chinese Communist Party, has repeatedly put forward the idea of unity and resistance, and the realization of the anti-Japanese national united front at a major concession. While the KMT began to stubbornly adhere to "stabbing outside Home Safe," the anti-communist policy, but the role of various forces at home and abroad, and eventually accepted the idea of the establishment of anti-Japanese national united front, with fighting with the Communist Party to form the Chinese armed forces for unity in the anti-Japanese Tai's common enemy the situation.
  Communist Party of China in the Sino-Japanese War in training, more mature and stronger, the unprecedented increase of political prestige, to become the main leaders of the Chinese nation to revitalize the force.
  War created a generation of technology professionals in China, they are the precious wealth of the Chinese nation.
  Large number of scientific personnel from wartime rear area, work hard, painstaking research, embedded in them patriotism and devotion to the great enthusiasm of the Chinese science and technology for promoting the direct driving force. War created a whole generation of scientific talent. Li Siguang, Mao Yisheng, Zhu Kezhen, Zhou Pei-Yuan, Wu Ta-you, Yanjici, Lu Jiaxi, Su Buqing, Hua and other backbone gradually become academic leaders. They not only its own concentration study, but also to train young talent. Academia Sinica Institute of Geology, researchers led by director Li Siguang Guangxi, Hunan West, western Hubei and Jiangxi, Fujian and other areas of geology and mineral site visits, and collect specimens, but also to map out the geological map of Guangxi 1/200000. Department of Physics, Professor Wu Ta-Southwest in the "research without normal" circumstances, to write a monograph, "more of the original elements of the structure and vibrational spectra" and 19 papers were spectroscopy experiments. Zhejiang University, the famous scientist Impact and during the war nearly 40 published articles, geography, meteorology, physics and other academic studies have made great progress.
  History shows us that the Buddha's: Chinese people as capable of arduous efforts, to win the victory of national liberation war, certainly Nenggou 共产党 in China under the leadership of the Chinese nation Xin revitalization.
  As a Chinese citizen, a yellow skin, such as land, such as tunnel Yan Huang memory long succession of civilization and the enjoyment of those who, faced with some of the ancestors is not far away a certain period of history ......
  July 7, it represents a heavy, painful, meditation, collusion of blood and fire it in a way, in a smoke filled the air, crying and anger against the background of diplomatic approach to the way of singing and farewell to fallen , struggle, followed by the sky's tragic gesture there.
  July 7, the day I should do something, I must do something, because it is based on a Chinese citizen, just as painful for the newborn, delivery of the mother. Yes, I will review the history of it from the Wanping City, the Marco Polo Bridge beginning of that page flips, 219 teachers from 29 Jun 37 shots in the regiment began to fight back to find my ancestors were respectable history of dedication and creativity glory.
  July 7, I have to give impetuous heart of vanity before it quiet down, because I am a blood and tears, there is pain there is music, there is humiliation and glory of the Chinese citizens. With the dawn of the blowing breeze, I will Pick up an epic battle, one has just been retrieved from the dust of history out of the anonymous songs, it was written for the year to 29 at the front line fighting the military's great song words: "Marco Polo Bridge, Marco Polo Bridge, man named graves in this bridge, grievances pain peace Paul, inevitably the bayonet, self-defense fight Qi Zhuang, Tingjian the sky is the eras. Marco Polo Bridge, the Marco Polo Bridge, meritorious service to serve the country in this bridge! "
  In its majestic rhythm and phonology and encouragement, I have no reason not to excited, there is no reason not to cry, tears of a man, dedicated to fight for the homeland, fighting for peace, fighting for the ideals and honor our ancestors, it is an honor, is my great honor as a Chinese citizen. I look forward to the soul through time and space perception, looking forward to his heart was softened material like them strong and tough, persistent and fearless.
  Lions watched in Lugouqiao, painful patch of history, the land, the National Awakening, the soldiers rose in place, we have a responsibility with a guilty heart, to go there to pay homage to the memory of there, heart and soul to the touch and overlooking .
  When setting sun cast the same as the ancestors of the back of hanging on our faces, when the summer winds blow on one's face wrapped in legends and festivals of to, we use a thankful heart to await and greet, as to it like a lion, pay tribute to them, never, never .......
  Because it is unable to forget the memories!
  Commemorate the 60th anniversary of War
  Now, our life was good. Can you ever wondered, now a happy life here? This is hot, but soldiers with their own hot blood. Price is too high! Today, let's care over the past bit by bit it!
  "Battle of Shanghai" in "Eight Hundred Heroes" loyalty medal, "bloody Taierzhuang" The sword kills, "Battle of Wuhan" in the 3000 death of 10,000 enemy Ridge Victory booty seized in ... ... Japanese War, millions of Kuomintang army fighting the Japanese attack was positive, giving the Japanese a heavy blow smashed the Japanese militarists, "quick" dreams.
  "Japanese are, not in the resistance is dead, the anti-Japanese national salvation, has become the sacred duty of each fellow!" "Pingjin critical! North necessity! Chinese critical! Only the whole nation to implement the resistance, is our way out." "Insisted War adhere to a protracted war, insisted the united front, the final victory must be China. "
  Communist Party of China, the first war of the horn sounded. 1937, "Marco Polo Bridge Incident" broke out. Communist Party of China's positive efforts and promotion, the two parties come together once again abandon the old scores, the sacred war of resistance from the nation to burn up to Negative effect and Precaution.
  This in the September 3, 1945 to win victory in the war completely different from the past 110 years of Sino-Japanese War. From the beginning to the Sino-Japanese War victory in 1840 of 105 years, almost all medium and small imperialist countries invaded China, and we only won that 60 years ago that success. It was nearly 100 years the poor and weak the first time in a life and death in China's national war victory, the victory changed the historical fate of the Chinese nation, wake up the sleeping for centuries in China.
  Chen Yinke historian said: "The State may die, history can not be destroyed" because the repair history "line of life and death of a major event in the spirit of my nation." 2005
  60th anniversary of Sino-Japanese War, I understand the history of this tragic and epic, as a Chinese student, no doubt the duty of carrying but is a difficult task.
  Students, soldiers is such shed blood, sweat and blood in exchange for the new China. Let us not forget national humiliation, study hard and become a pillar of the motherland, will rejuvenate the Chinese nation!
  Immortal revolutionary fighter! Mob war
  Quotes about war
  Military forces of the Road, hearts and minds is, attacking the city for the next; mental warfare, the soldiers fighting for the next. (Three Zhuge Liang)
  Therefore in victorious, the good and also non-good; without fighting the enemy, who is also good for good. (Spring and Autumn Sun Wu)
  Spiritual leader more help, Unjust finds scant support. (Warring States Mencius)
  Day as location, location not as good as people. (Warring States Mencius)
  The outcome of the regular military strategists, soldiers who can use failure as a result become. (Jin Zhang Fang)
  Only the dead before they can see the end of the war. (Greece, Plato)
  Justice without force is impotent; force without justice is tyranny. (France Pascal)
  Military people are the victory. (Mao Zedong)
  The enemy advances, we retreat, the enemy retreats, we pursue the enemy harass the enemy tires, we attack. (Mao Zedong)



评论 (0)