名著
classic masterpiece
  古典小说
classical novels
  历史小说
a historical novel
  儿童文学
children's literature
  小说评鉴
Novel Pingjian
  乡土小说
native soil novel
  都市小说
city novel
  玄幻武侠
Xuanhuan a person adept in martial arts and given to chivalrous conduct(in olden times)
  言情小说
romantic fiction; sentimental novel
  影视
film and television
  战争小说
outbreak novel
  侦探悬疑
detective cliffhang
 

  童话
fairy tales
  寓言
Fables
  儿童小说
Children's Story
  阅读 儿童小说 作品!!!

  专为少年儿童创作的文学作品。儿童文学特别要求通俗易懂,生动活泼。不但要求作品的主题明确突出,形象具体鲜明,结构单纯,语言浅显精练,情节有趣,想象丰富,还要使其内容、形式及表现手法都尽可能适合于少年儿童的生理心理特点,为他们所喜闻乐见。按不同年龄阶段的读者对象,儿童文学又分为婴儿文学、幼年文学、童年文学少年文学,体裁有儿歌、儿童诗、童话、寓言、儿童故事、儿童小说、儿童散文、儿童曲艺、儿童戏剧、儿童影视和儿童科学文艺等。偏于文学,适合9至99岁阅读,老少均可品味。
  儿童文学是个比较年轻的文学门类,17世纪末、18世纪初是其萌发期,此前主要是口头创作和成人文学中为孩子所喜爱并能部分接受的作品,如《五卷书》、《一千零一夜》等。18世纪中叶,儿童文学有了进一步发展,最有代表性的作品是让·雅克·卢梭的儿童传记性小说《爱弥尔》。19世纪丹麦安徒生等童话问世,标志着世界儿童文学进入第一个繁荣期。20世纪英、苏、美、法、意、瑞典等国家大量优秀作品的涌现,则标志着世界儿童文学进入第二个繁荣期。中国由于几千年的封建统治,儿童及儿童教育问题长期不受重视,故儿童文学出现较迟。有史可考的专为孩子们创作的儿童诗、儿童小说、儿童戏剧等直到晚清才开始陆续问世。儿童文学成为一个独立的文学门类则始于20世纪初、五四新文化运动之后。中国现代儿童文学的奠基之作是叶圣陶创作 、发表于20年代初的童话《稻草人》和稍晚几年问世的冰心的书信体儿童散文《寄小读者》。30年代儿童文学的代表作家是张天翼,他的长篇童话《大林和小林》是中国儿童文学的杰作。40年代创作成就突出的有陈伯吹、贺宜、严文井、金近等,他们的创作活动多始于20、30年代 ,代表作分别为《阿丽思小姐》(陈伯吹)、《野小鬼》(贺宜)、《四季的风》(严文井)、《红鬼脸壳》(金近)。
  中华人民共和国建立后的儿童文学称中国当代儿童文学。1949~1966年为第一个黄金时代,新老作家佳作迭出,如张天翼的小说《罗文应的故事》和童话《宝葫芦的秘密》,冰心的小说《小橘灯》,杲向真的小说《小胖和小松》,徐光耀的小说《小兵张嘎》,严文井的童话《唐小西在“下次开船港”》 ,贺宜的童话《小公鸡历险记》,陈伯吹的童话《一只想飞的猫》,金近的童话《狐狸打猎人的故事》,洪汛涛的童话《神笔马良》,孙幼军的童话《小布头奇遇记》,葛翠琳的童话《野葡萄》,阮章竞的童话《金色的海螺》,柯岩的儿童诗《小兵的故事》等。文化大革命10年中,儿童文学园地备受摧残,呈现一片凋零景象。1976年10月之后,中国儿童文学进入又一个黄金时代,称中国新时期儿童文学。至1992年的16年中,创作的数量和质量远远超过了中华人民共和国建立后的17年,各个年龄阶段读者的各种体裁儿童文学佳作大量涌现,比较突出的有郑渊洁、孙幼军、周锐等的童话,曹文轩、张之路、沈石溪等的儿童小说,金波、圣野等的儿童诗,郭风、吴然等的儿童散文,郑文光、叶永烈等的儿童科学文艺作品等。
  供少年儿童阅读的文学作品的总称。包括童话、寓言、诗歌、戏剧、小说、科学幻想故事、历史故事等多种形式。内容和形式均适合不同年龄的少年儿童的特点。要求接近儿童心理,充满智慧和幻想,富于思想性、知识性、故事性和趣味性,有益于向少年儿童进行思想教育和知识教育。儿童文学常以少年儿童为描写对象,但也可以写成人。
  儿童文学的写作有五方面的要求“1、教育性。儿童文学与成人文学有很大的不同,即它对教育性特别强调。儿童的可塑性很大,古人曾用素丝来作譬喻,说它:“染于苍则苍,染于黄则黄”。由于儿童的年龄特征,使其易受周围环境的影响,所以儿童文学特别注意教育性。2、形象性。抽象的说教是儿童不容易也不乐意接受的。对儿童进行教育要借助各种各样的生动形象;儿童年龄越小,越依赖于形象化的手段。儿童小说要求和戏剧一样富于动作性,更多的以动作来表现人物的性格和心理活动。儿童诗需要更多的“比”、“兴”,以加强形象性。儿童文学作品的语言要有声有色,娓娓动听。儿童文学应调动一切艺术手段,创造出千姿百态的艺术形象来。3、趣味性。儿童知识、生活经验不丰富,理解力薄弱,对那些复杂的整理不易理解,对成人的生活经验和某些思想感情也难以体会。他们对于自己没有兴趣的内容就不喜欢看,甚至不看。优秀的儿童文学作品,就是在轻松愉快地说笑中,在有趣的故事情节中,潜移默化地给孩子们讲述一个深刻的道理或做一些有益的启示。4、故事性。儿童文学的故事情节,要求结构单纯,情节紧凑、生动。强调故事性,并不是单纯追求情节离奇,不从生活出发,不写人,只写事。儿童文学主要是写人,刻画人物的性格、心理、思想。它的主人公不一定都是人,也可以使其他动物、植物,甚至无生物。这些在作品中都是人格化了的。不论写人还是写其他东西,他们的思想、性格都要着重借助故事情节表现出来,不宜多用静止的冗长的环境描写和心理描写。5、知识性。儿童文学作品中应巧妙地穿插一些知识性的东西,以增加作品的艺术魅力,满足少年儿童的好奇心和求知欲。
  儿童文学应为儿童所喜爱,对儿童有益。既要做到是和儿童的情趣易为儿童所接受,又要有助于儿童的成长。
  从儿童文学的研究的角度看, 停留在“教育”的角度来谈论儿童文学显然是很不够的。如果不抓住“审美”的角度,如果不深入“艺术”的堂奥,那么儿童文学与一般的思想教育、知识教育等又有什么区别呢
  现代意义上的儿童文学正是现代社会为满足儿童的独特精神需要和成长需要而专为儿童创作和提供的特殊文学品种


  Children's literature is for readers and listeners up to about age twelve and is often illustrated. The term is used in senses which sometimes exclude young-adult fiction, comic books, or other genres. Books specifically for children existed by the 17th century. Scholarship on children's literature includes professional organizations, dedicated publications and university courses.
  
  Defining children's literature
  
  There is some debate on what constitutes children's literature.
  
  Books written by children
  A much-overlooked type of children's literature is work written by children and young teens, such as The Young Visiters by Daisy Ashford (aged nine) or the juvenilia of Jane Austen, written to amuse brothers and sisters. Anne Frank wrote a novel and many short stories in addition to her diary. Barbara Newhall Follett wrote four books, beginning with a novel called The House Without Windows at the age of nine; when the manuscript was destroyed in a fire, she rewrote it from memory. Dorothy Straight's How the World Began and S.E. Hinton's The Outsiders are more recent examples.
  
  Books written for children
  Perhaps the most common definition of children's literature is those books intentionally written for children. Nancy Anderson, associate professor in the College of Education at the University of South Florida in Tampa,[1] defines children's literature as all books written for children, "excluding works such as comic books, joke books, cartoon books, and nonfiction works that are not intended to be read from front to back, such as dictionaries, encyclopedias, and other reference material".[2] Some of this work is also very popular among adults. J. K. Rowling's Harry Potter series was originally written and marketed for children, but it was so popular among children and adults that The New York Times created a separate bestseller list. Often no consensus is reached whether a given work is best categorized as adult or children's literature, and many books are marketed for both adults and children.
  
  Books chosen for children
  The most restrictive definition of children's literature are those books various authorities determine are "appropriate" for children, such as teachers, reviewers, scholars, parents, publishers, librarians, retailers, and the various book-award committees.
  
  Parents wishing to protect their children from the unhappier aspects of life often find the traditional fairy tales, nursery rhymes and other voyages of discovery problematic, because often the first thing a story does is remove the adult influence, leaving the central character to learn to cope on his or her own: prominent examples of this include Snow White, Hansel and Gretel, Bambi and A Series of Unfortunate Events. Many regard this as necessary to the story; after all, in most cases the whole point of the story is the characters' transition into adulthood.
  
  Books chosen by children
  Huckleberry Finn
  
  The broadest definition of children's literature applies to books that are actually selected and read by children. Children choose many books, such as comics, which some would not consider to be literature at all in the traditional sense; they also choose literary classics and recognized great works by modern writers, and often enjoy stories which speak on multiple levels. In the opinion of novelist Orson Scott Card, "one can make a good case for the idea that children are often the guardians of the truly great literature of the world, for in their love of story and unconcern for stylistic fads and literary tricks, children unerringly gravitate toward truth and power." [3] Someone who enjoyed Alice's Adventures in Wonderland as a child may come back to the text as an adult and see the darker themes that were lost on them as younger readers.
  
  In addition, many classic books that were originally intended for adults are now commonly thought of as works for children. Mark Twain's Adventures of Huckleberry Finn was originally intended for an adult audience.[4] Today it is widely read as a part of children's school curriculum in the United States.
  Types of children's literature
  
  Children's literature can be divided in many ways.
  
  Children's literature by genres
  A literary genre is a category of literary composition. Genres may be determined by technique, tone, content, or length. Nancy Anderson, associate professor in the College of Education at the University of South Florida in Tampa,[1] has delineated six major categories of children's literature, with some significant subgenres:[5]
  
   1. Picture books, including board books, concept books (teaching an alphabet or counting), pattern books, and wordless books
   2. Traditional literature: there are ten characteristics of traditional literature: (1) unknown authorship, (2) conventional introductions and conclusions, (3) vague settings, (4) stereotyped characters, (5) anthropomorphism, (6) cause and effect, (7) happy ending for the hero, (8) magic accepted as normal, (9) brief stories with simple and direct plots, and (10) repetition of action and verbal patterns.[6] The bulk of traditional Literature consists of folktales, which conveys the legends, customs, superstitions, and beliefs of people in past times. This large genre can be further broken down into subgenres: myths, fables, ballads, folk music, legends, and fairy tales.[7]
   3. Fiction, including the sub-genres of fantasy and realistic fiction (both contemporary and historical). This genre would also include the school story, a genre unique to children's literature in which the boarding school is a common setting.
   4. Non-fiction
   5. Biography, including autobiography
   6. Poetry and verse.
  
  Children's literature by age category
  Children's literature is an age category opposite adult literature, but it is sub-divided further due to the divergent interests of children age 0–18.
  
   * Picture books appropriate for pre-readers ages 0–5. Caldecott Medal winners often (but not always) fall within this category.
   * Early Reader Books appropriate for children age 5–7. These books are often designed to help a child build his or her reading skills.
   * Chapter book appropriate for children ages 7–11.
   o Short chapter books, appropriate for children ages 7–9.
   o Longer chapter books, appropriate for children ages 9–12. Newbery Medal winners often (but not always) fall within this category.
   * Young-adult fiction appropriate for children age 13–18.
  
  The criteria for these divisions are just as vague and problematic as the criteria for defining children's books as a whole. One obvious distinction is that books for younger children tend to contain illustrations, but picture books which feature art as an integral part of the overall work also crosses genres and age levels. Tibet: Through the Red Box by Peter Sis is a one example of a picture book aimed at an adult audience.
  
  Series
  Book series are not unique to children's literature. Series are also very popular in science fiction and crime fiction. Sometimes the success of a book for children prompts the author to continue the story in a sequel or to launch a series, such as L. Frank Baum's Wizard of Oz. Sometimes works are originally conceived as series, such as the Harry Potter books. Enid Blyton and R. L. Stine have specialized in open-ended series. Sometimes a series will outlive its author. When Baum died, his publisher hired Ruth Plumly Thompson to write more Oz books. The Nancy Drew series and others were written by several authors using the same pen name.
  Illustrations
  
  Children's books are often illustrated, sometimes lavishly, in a way that is rarely used for adult literature except in the illustrated novel genre popular especially in Japan, Korea and France. Generally, the artwork plays a greater role in books intended for the youngest readers (especially pre-literate children). Children's picture books can be a cognitively accessible source of high quality art for young children.
  
  Many authors work with a preferred artist who illustrates their words; others create books together, and some illustrators write their own books. Even after children attain sufficient levels of literacy to enjoy the story without illustrations, they continue to appreciate the occasional drawings found in chapter books.
  History
  
  Because of the difficulty in defining children's literature, it is also difficult to trace its history to a precise starting point.
  
  15th Century
  Some stories popular among children were written in the 15th Century. Thomas Malory's Morte d'Arthur (1486) and the tales of Robin Hood (c. 1450) were not written with children in mind, but children have been fascinated by these stories for centuries.
  
  17th Century
  In 1658 Jan Ámos Komenský published the illustrated informational book Orbis Pictus in Bohemia. It is considered to be the first picture book published specifically for children. Also during this time, Charles Perrault (1628–1703) laid the foundations of the fairy tale in France. His stories include Little Red Riding Hood, Sleeping Beauty, Puss in Boots, and Cinderella.
  
  18th Century
  In 1744, John Newbery published A Little Pretty Pocket-Book in England. He sold it with a ball for boys or a pincushion for girls. It is considered a landmark for the beginning of pleasure reading marketed specifically to children. Previous to Newbery, literature marketed for children was intended to instruct the young, though there was a rich oral tradition of storytelling for children and adults. By the publication of William Blake's Songs of Innocence in 1789, books written specifically for the use of children outside of school had become, according to F.J. Harvey Darton, "a clear but subordinate branch of English literature." [8] Popular examples of this growing branch included Thomas Day's The History of Sandford and Merton (1783-9) - which embodies many of the educational and philosophical tenets espoused by Jean-Jacques Rousseau - and Maria and Richard Lovell Edgeworth's Practical Education: The History of Harry and Lucy (1780), which urged children to teach themselves.[9]
  
  19th Century
  Wilhelm (left) and Jakob Grimm (right) from an 1855 painting by Elisabeth Jerichau-Baumann
  
  In the early 19th century, the Brothers Grimm; Jakob and Wilhem were responsible for the writing down and preserving of oral traditions In Germany such as Snow White, Rapunzel, and Hansel and Gretel (1812).
  
  Between 1835 and 1848, Hans Christian Andersen (1805–1875) of Denmark published his beloved fairy tales: The Little Mermaid (1836), The Emperor's New Clothes (1837), The Ugly Duckling (1844), The Snow Queen (1845) and others. During Andersen's lifetime he was feted by royalty and acclaimed for having brought joy to children across Europe. His fairy tales have been translated into over 150 languages and continue to be published in millions of copies all over the world and inspired many other works.[10] The emperor's new clothes and the ugly duckling are phrases which have both passed into the English language as well-known expressions.
  
  In 1865, Lewis Carroll (1832–1898) published Alice's Adventures in Wonderland in England. The tale plays with logic in ways that have given the story lasting popularity to adults as well as children. It is considered to be one of the most characteristic examples of the genre of literary nonsense, and its narrative course and structure has been enormously influential, mainly in the fantasy genre.
  
  In 1880, Johanna Spyri (1827–1901) published Heidi (1880) in Switzerland. The subtitle declared that it is a book "for children and those who love children". Joel Chandler Harris (1845–1908) wrote folk stories featuring animal characters speaking African-American dialect.
  
  In 1883, Carlo Collodi wrote his puppet story, The Adventures of Pinocchio as a first Italian fantasy novel for the children of Italy.
  
  In 1883, Robert Louis Stevenson wrote the classic pirate adventure novel Treasure Island. Traditionally considered a coming-of-age story, it is an adventure tale known for its atmosphere, character and action, and also a wry commentary on the ambiguity of morality—as seen in Long John Silver. It is one of the most frequently dramatised of all novels, and its influence on popular perception of pirates is vast.
  
  In 1894, Rudyard Kipling published The Jungle Book, a collection of stories about a boy who lives in the jungle with animals, that has been made into a series of animated and live-action film adaptations.
  
  20th Century
  In 1900, L. Frank Baum (1856–1919) published The Wonderful Wizard of Oz in the United States. It been constantly in print since, in many versions. It was the subject of a stage play in 1902 and a film in 1939. It is one of the best-known stories in American culture and is translated into 40 languages. Its success led Baum to write thirteen sequels, and for other authors to continue the series for decades.
  
  In 1902, Beatrix Potter published The Tale of Peter Rabbit, that follows Peter Rabbit, a mischievous and disobedient young rabbit, as he ventures into the garden of Mr. McGregor. The book has generated considerable merchandise over the decades since its release with toys, dishes, foods, clothing, videos and other products made available. Potter was one of the first to be responsible for such merchandise when she patented a Peter Rabbit doll in 1903.
  
  In 1908, Kenneth Grahame wrote The Wind in the Willows from his retired position as secretary of the Bank of England. He moved to the country, where he spent his time in the River Thames doing much as the animal characters in his book do; namely, as one of the most famous phrases from the book says, "simply messing about in boats" for his son.
  Peter and Wendy
  
  In 1911, J.M Barrie (1860–1937) published Peter and Wendy where Peter Pan, one of the most famous characters in children's literature, magically refuses to grow up and spends his never-ending childhood in the small island called Neverland.
  
  A. A. Milne (1882–1956) wrote children's poems and a series of stories about the bear Winnie the Pooh and his friends in the woods (later made into Disney cartoons).
  
  In 1933, Laura Ingalls Wilder (1867–1957) published the first installment of the Little House on the Prairie series in the United States based on her childhood in a Western-pioneering family. The books have remained continuously in print since their initial publication and are considered classics of American children's literature. Several of them were named Newbery Honor books. They remain widely read. The books were also adapted into a long running, popular American television series, Little House on the Prairie.
  
  In 1950, C. S. Lewis (1898–1963) published the first of installment of his Chronicles of Narnia series in the UK. The Chronicles of Narnia has sold over 120 million copies in 41 languages, and has been adapted several times, complete or in part, for radio, television, stage, and cinema. In addition to numerous traditional Christian themes, the series borrows characters and ideas from Greek and Roman mythology, as well as from traditional British and Irish fairy tales.
  
  Dr. Seuss (1904–1991) captivated generations of children with his many books of colorful illustrated characters concocting imaginative fantasies in rhymes.
  
  Roald Dahl (1916–1990) rose to prominence in the 1940s, and his children's fantasy novels are renowned for their unexpected endings, and often unsentimental, very dark humour. Many of his works, such as Charlie and the Chocolate Factory, were inspired from experiences from his boyhood.
  
  In 1997, J. K. Rowling (born 1965) published the first installment of her Harry Potter series in the UK. Her books have sold more than 400 million copies worldwide; they are translated into more than 63 languages and she has become one of the wealthiest women in the world – a publishing phenomenon.
  
  21st Century
  In 2001, Eoin Colfer (born 1965) published the first installment of his Artemis Fowl series in Ireland. In 2008, titles from the series spent six weeks at number one and helped the Penguin Group post record profits in a tough economy.[11]
  Scholarship
  
  In recent years, scholarship in children's literature has gained in respectability. There are an increasing number of literary criticism analyses in the field of children's literature criticism. Additionally, there are a number of scholarly associations in the field, including the Children's Literature Association, the International Research Society for Children's Literature, the Library Association Youth Libraries Group, the Society of Children's Book Writers and Illustrators the Irish Society for the Study of Children's Literature, IBBY Canada and Centre for International Research in Childhood: Literature, Culture, Media (CIRCL), National Centre for Research in Children's Literature,and Children’s Culture Research Institute,at ZJNU, China
  
  Multidisciplinary scholarship has examined gender and culture within children's literatures.
  
  Courses on children's literature are often required in initial and advanced (early childhood/elementary) teacher training in the United States.
  Awards
  
  Some noted awards for children's literature are:
  
   * Australia: the Children's Book Council of Australia runs a number of annual CBCA book awards
  
   * Canada: the Governor General's Literary Award for Children's Literature and Illustration (English and French). A number of the provinces' school boards and library associations also run popular "children's choice" awards where candidate books are read and championed by individual schools and classrooms. These include the Blue Spruce (grades K-2) Silver Birch Express (grades 3–4), Silver Birch (grades 5–6) Red Maple (grades 7–8) and White Pine (High School) in Ontario. Programs in other provinces include The Red Cedar and Stellar Awards in B.C., the Willow Awards in Saskatchewan, and the Manitoba Young Readers Choice Awards. IBBY Canada offers a number of annual awards.
  
   * The Philippines: The Carlos Palanca Memorial Award for Literature for Short Story for Children in English and Filipino Language (Maikling Kathang Pambata) since 1989 and Children's Poetry in English and Filipino Language since 2009. The Pilar Perez Medallion for Young Adult Literature (2001 and 2002). The major awards are given by the Philippine Board on Books for Young People. They include the PBBY-Salanga Writer's Prize for excellence in writing and the PBBY-Alcala Illustrator's Prize for excellence in illustration. The Ceres Alabado Award for Outstanding Contribution in Children's Literature; the Gintong Aklat Award (Golden Book Award); The Gawad Komisyon para sa Kuwentong Pambata (Commission Award for Children's Literature in Filipino) and the National Book Award (given by the Manila Critics' Circle) for Outstanding Production in Children's Books and Young Adult Literature.
  
   * United States: the major awards are given by the American Library Association Association for Library Service to Children. They include the Newbery Medal for writing, Michael L. Printz Award for writing for teens, Caldecott Medal for illustration, Golden Kite Award in various categories from the SCBWI, Sibert Medal for informational, Theodor Seuss Geisel Award for beginning readers, Laura Ingalls Wilder Medal for impact over time, Batchelder Award for works in translation, Coretta Scott King Award for work by an African-American writer, and the Belpre Medal for work by a Latino writer. Other notable awards are the National Book Award for Young People's Literature and the Orbis Pictus Award for excellence in the writing of nonfiction for children.
  
   * United Kingdom and Commonwealth: the Carnegie Medal for writing and the Kate Greenaway Medal for illustration; the Nestlé Smarties Book Prize; and the Guardian Award.
  
   * Internationally: the Hans Christian Andersen Award, the Astrid Lindgren Memorial Award and the Ilustrarte Bienale for children's book illustration (Barreiro, Portugal).
  
   * Online: the Cybils Awards, or Children's and Young Adult Bloggers' Literary Awards, are the first major series of book awards given by children's and young adult book bloggers.



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