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秦代 Qin Period  国号:秦 首都:咸阳 (前221年前207年)   总朝代: 古世

秦朝
秦代
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秦代
  公元前221年,秦始皇完成古中原的统一大业并建立了中国历史上第一个统一的封建王朝。“秦王扫六合,虎视何雄哉!”秦王赵政建都咸阳,成为中国封建王朝中第一个皇帝。秦朝初立便北击匈奴;南下百越。疆域迅速扩展并进一步完善炎黄地图,但因为秦二世而完,所以没能对北方游牧民族进行收复统一。然其当时疆域西部已达到今甘肃、四川;西南到云南、广西;北到阴山。作为一个封建大帝国,在辐员广大的统治区域内,创立了高度集中的中央集权的政治制度。具体为:1.政治方面:确立至高无上的皇权.皇帝拥有至高无上的权利,凡行政、军事、经济等一切大权,均由皇帝总揽;建立从中央到地方的官制和行政机构即三公九卿制。三公分别为丞相(帮助皇帝处理全国的政事)、太尉(负责管理军事)、御史大夫(执掌群臣奏章,下达皇帝召令,兼理国家监察事务),互相没有统属关系,由皇帝掌握最终决断权。地方实行郡县制,皇室任免郡县的主要官吏;2经济方面:实行土地私有制,按亩纳税;统一度量衡,统一货币;统一车轨, 修驰道.3文化方面:书同文,将小篆作为标准文字;焚书坑儒,加强思想控制;以吏为师,严禁私学.秦朝创下的
  
  一套封建国家政治制度在以后中国封建社会的历史中,只有修修补补,基本框架不变。为了巩固统治,秦始皇下令把原来六国的兵器收缴销毁,然后铸成12个铜人。为了加强控制,原六国的贵族被强行迁到咸阳附近居住。秦朝还颁布了严苛的法律,对农民实行什伍编制。统一货币,统一度量衡,统一文字,对于后世影响极大。他接受丞相李斯的主意,除少数几种书籍之外,大量诗书、典籍、诸子百家著述一律烧掉,并将460多名儒生、方士活埋,留下了一个骇人听闻的“焚书坑儒”的历史事件。秦始皇还在全国修筑道路,尤其是开通了通往东方和东南的驰道。
  
  秦始皇自号“始皇帝”的时候,一心想让秦朝的天下千秋万代延伸不休,但他决没想到,仅仅15年之后,才传到第二个皇帝时秦朝就灭亡了。尽管他采取了种种巩固统治的措施,但他的独裁专制、横征暴敛,早已埋下了祸根。他征发了70多万人修造阿房宫,动用大量人力财力修造骊山陵,“孟姜女哭长城”的故事就是对他残酷赋役的控诉。频繁的战争、庞大的官僚机构、连续的大兴土木,动摇了统治基础,人民不堪重负,痛苦到了极点。前209年陈胜吴广农民起义爆发,前207年11月左右,秦朝被推翻。
  
  秦朝是由战国时代后期的秦国发展起来的统一王朝,是中国历史上第一个多民族的统一的中央集权的帝国。秦始皇在历代秦国的国王蚕食其它诸侯国之上,完成了统一六大诸侯国的事业,实现了从分封制到郡县制的转变。他所建立的中央集权制度,及其所采取的旨在巩固统一的措施,为后世帝王所取用。
  
  秦朝急征暴虐,导致速亡。末年陈胜、吴广领导的农民起义,是中国历史上的第一次农民起义,影响极为深远。由于过去的割据局面所造成的影响,反秦过程中重新出现了分裂的倾向。在接踵而来的争夺统治权的楚汉之争(前206~前202年)中,汉胜楚败,使分裂形势得到控制,统一了国家,一个中央集权的王朝就这样建立了。
  
  国号释义
  
  据《史记》记载,秦,本为古部落,其首领非子为周孝王牧马有功,被周孝王赐姓为“嬴”,并赐给了一小块土地秦(今天水陇西县秦亭,一说秦州清水县谷名)。后来秦襄公又救周有功,被封为诸侯,秦始皇统一六国,始建“秦”朝。
  
  秦灭六国年表
  
  秦王政十七年(前230年),韩国降将内史腾率秦军灭韩国,俘韩王安,韩亡。所得韩地置颍川郡。
  
  秦王政十九年(前228年),秦军王翦攻入赵国国都邯郸,赵王迁被迫降秦,赵破。置邯郸郡、钜鹿郡、太原郡公子嘉率宗族百人逃亡代城。
  
  秦王政二十年(前227年),燕国太子丹派荆轲刺杀秦王未遂,秦王立即派王翦领兵攻燕。
  
  秦王政二十一年(前226年),王翦攻破燕都蓟,燕王喜退守辽东,杀太子丹以求和。
  
  秦王政二十二年(前225年),秦军王贲率领10万大军攻打魏国,包围魏都大梁,引黄河鸿沟水灌大梁,3个月后大梁城破,魏王假投降,魏亡。
  
  同年,王翦率领60万大军攻打楚国,屯兵练武、坚壁不战、以逸待劳。
  
  秦王政二十三年(前224年),王翦率领60万大军渡过淮水,围攻楚国楚都寿春。
  
  秦王政二十四年(前223年),楚军斗志涣散、粮草不足,遂从前线撤军。王翦乘机追击,消灭楚军主力,占领楚都寿春,俘虏楚王负刍,楚人复立昌平君为王。王翦又率军渡过长江,平定了江南,置会稽郡,楚亡。
  
  秦王政二十五年(前222年),王贲打下辽东,俘燕王喜;接着打下代城,俘代王嘉。燕、赵彻底灭亡,秦始皇于代地设置雁门郡
  
  秦王政二十六年(前221年),王贲率军南下攻打齐国,齐王建不战而降,齐亡。
  
  至此秦灭六国,一统天下。
  
  专制主义中央集权制度的建立
  
  公元前221年,秦王赵政(前247—前210年在位)统一六国,结束了长期的诸侯割据局面,建立了一个以咸阳为首都的幅员辽阔的国家。这个国家的疆域,东起辽东,西至玉门关、陇西,北抵长城,南达越南北部及中部一带,面积超过500万平方公里。秦王政兼采传说中三皇五帝的尊号,宣布自己为这个国家的第一个皇帝,即始皇帝,后世子孙代代相承,递称二世、三世皇帝。他认为帝王死后以其行为为谥的制度,是“子议父,臣议君”,有损于帝王的尊严,所以宣布取消。他规定皇帝自称曰“朕”,并制定了一套尊君抑臣的朝仪和文书制度。这些都是为了显示皇帝的无上权威,表示秦的统治将万世一系,长治久安。
  
  [秦朝(前221—前206)]
  
  秦朝(前221—前206)
  
  周朝以来建藩建国的封建制度,与皇权专制和统一国家是不相容的,所以必须加以改变。始皇二十六年(前221年),丞相王绾请封诸皇子为燕、齐、楚王,得到群臣的赞同。廷尉李斯力排众议,主张废除分封诸侯的制度,全面推行郡县制度。秦始皇接受了李斯的建议,把全国分成三十六郡,以后又陆续增设至四十余郡。这些郡完全由中央和皇帝控制,是中央政府辖下的地方行政单位。中央集权的制度从此确立。始皇二十八年(前219年)的峄山刻石辞说:“追念乱世,分土建邦,以开争理”;“乃今皇家,壹家天下,兵不复起”。这说明秦始皇认为废分封行郡县是消除各地兵争所必须的。
  
  秦始皇以战国时期秦国官制为基础,把官制加以调整和扩充,建成一套适应统一国家需要的新的政府机构。在这个机构中,中央设丞相、太尉、御史大夫。丞相有左右二员,掌政事。太尉掌军事,不常置。御史大夫是丞相的副贰,掌图籍秘书,监察百官。丞相、太尉、御史大夫以下,是分掌具体政务的诸卿,其中有掌宫殿掖门户的郎中令,掌宫门卫屯兵的卫尉,掌京畿警卫的中尉,掌刑辟的廷尉,掌谷货的治粟内史,掌山海池泽之税和官府手工业制造以供应皇室的少府,掌治宫室的将作少府,掌国内民族事务和外事的典客,掌宗庙礼仪的奉常,掌皇室属籍的宗正,掌舆马的太仆等。丞相、太尉、御史大夫与诸卿议论政务,皇帝作裁决。
  
  地方行政机构分郡、县两级。郡设守、尉、监(监御史)。郡守掌治其郡。郡尉辅佐郡守,并典兵事。郡监司监察。县,万户以上者设令,万户以下者设长。县令、长领有丞、尉及其他属员。郡、县主要官吏由中央任免。县以下有乡,乡设三老掌教化,啬夫掌诉讼和赋税,游徼掌治安。乡下有里,是最基层的行政单位。里有里典,后代称里正、里魁,以"豪帅"即强有力者为之。此外还有司治安、禁盗贼的专门机构,叫做亭,亭有长。两亭之间,相距大约十里。
  
  早在秦献公十年(前375年),秦国就建立了以“告奸”为目的的“户籍相伍”制度。后来商鞅规定,不论男女,出生后都要列名户籍,死后除名;还“令民为什伍”,有罪连坐。秦律载明迁徙者当谒吏转移户籍,叫做“更籍”。秦王政统治时期,户籍制度趋于完备。秦王政十六年(前231年)令男子申报年龄,叫做“书年”。据云梦秦简推定,秦制男年十五(另一推算是十七)载明户籍,以给公家徭役,叫做“傅籍 ”。书年、傅籍,是国家征发力役的依据。始皇三十一年“使黔首自实田”,即令百姓自己申报土地。土地载于户籍,使国家征发租税有了主要依据。户籍中有年纪、土地等项内容,户籍制度也就远远超过"告奸"的需要,成为国家统治人民的一项根本制度。秦置二十级爵,以赏军功。国家按人们的爵级赐给田宅,高爵者还可以得到食邑和其他特权(见爵制)。爵级载在户籍,所以户籍也是人们身份的凭证。
  
  统治一个大国,需要全国一致而又比较完备的法律制度。出土的云梦秦简提供了自秦孝公至秦始皇时期陆续修成的秦律的部分内容,其中有刑律的律文和解释,有名目繁多的其他律文,还有案例和关于治狱的法律文书(见云梦秦律)。秦始皇统一六国以后,以秦律为基础,参照六国律,制定了全境通行的法律。秦律经过汉朝的损益,成为唐以前历代法律的蓝本。
  
  维持一个大国的统一,还需要强大的军队。秦军以灭六国的余威,驻守全国,南北边塞,是屯兵的重点地区。秦制以铜虎符发兵,虎符剖半,右半由皇帝掌握,左半在领兵者之手,左右合符,才能调动军队。这是保证兵权在皇帝手中的重要制度。秦军是一支前所未有的巨大的镇慑力量。近年发掘的秦始皇陵侧的兵马俑坑,估计其中两坑有武士俑七千件,战车百乘,战骑百匹。武士俑同真人一样高大,所持武器都是实物而非明器。这种车、步、骑兵混合编组的大型军阵,其规模之大,军容之盛,是秦军强大的表征。
  
  秦始皇不但建立了一套专制主义中央集权的统治机构和制度,而且还采用了战国时期阴阳家的终始五德说,以辩护秦朝的法统。终始五德说认为,各个相袭的朝代以土、木、金、火、水等五德的顺序进行统治,周而复始。秦得水德,水德尚黑,所以秦的礼服旌旗等都用黑色;与水德相应的数是六,所以符传长度、法冠高度各为六寸,车轨宽六尺;水德主刑杀,所以政治统治力求严酷,不讲究"仁恩和义";与水德相应,历法以亥月即十月为岁首,等等。秦始皇还确定了一套与皇帝地位相适应的复杂的祭典以及封禅大典,择时进行活动。秦始皇在咸阳附近仿照关东诸国宫殿式样营建了许多宫殿,并于渭水之南修造富丽宏伟的阿房宫。咸阳宫殿布局取法于天上的紫微宫,俨然是人间上帝的居处,天下一统的象征。秦始皇还在骊山预建陵寝,墓室中以水银为百川、江河、大海,机相灌输,上具天文,下具地理。他采取这些措施,和他采用皇帝的名号一样,是要表示他在人间的权力与上帝在天上的权力相当,从而向臣民灌输皇权神秘的观念。皇权神秘观念,是专制主义中央集权制度的思想基础。
  
  皇权的加强和神化,郡县制的全面推行,体现专制皇权的官僚机构和各种制度的建立,法律的完备和统一,皇帝对军队控制的加强等等,这些就是专制主义中央集权制度的主要内容。专制主义中央集权制度,在当时的条件下是维持封建统一所不可少的条件。但是这种政治制度对百姓的束缚极大;而且它对经济文化发展的促进作用也可以转变为阻滞作用,这在封建社会后期更为显著。
  
  防止封建割据的措施焚书坑儒长期分裂局面造成的影响,使秦始皇非常关心六国旧地的动静,担心六国旧贵族图谋复辟。为了防止割据的再现,秦始皇把六国富豪和强宗十二万户迁到咸阳,另一部分迁到巴蜀、南阳、三川和赵地,使他们脱离乡土,以便监视。他把缴获的和没收的武器加以销毁,在咸阳铸成十二个各重千石的钟铜人。又下令“堕坏城郭,决通川防,夷去险阻”,尽可能消灭封建贵族依以割据的手段。为了控制广阔的国土,特别是六国旧境,秦始皇还修建由首都咸阳通到全国各地的驰道,东穷燕齐,南极吴楚。他自己多次顺着驰道巡游郡县,在很多地方刻石纪功,以示威强。为了加强北方的防务,秦始皇三十五年(前 212年),又修筑由咸阳经过云阳(今陕西淳化西北),直达九原(今内蒙古包头西)的直道,堑山堙谷千八百里。在西南地区,还修筑了今四川宜宾以南至云南昭通的五尺道,于近旁设官进行统治。
  
  秦始皇对分裂割据的思想和政治倾向,也进行了斗争。当时的一些儒生、游士,希望复辟贵族割据局面,他们“入则心非,出则巷议”,引证《诗》、《书》、百家语,以古非今。始皇三十四年,丞相李斯请求焚毁《诗》、《书》,消灭私学。他建议“史官非秦记皆烧之。非博士官所职,天下敢有藏《诗》、《书》、百家语者,悉诣守、尉杂烧之。有敢偶语《诗》、《书》者弃市。以古非今者族。吏见知不举者与同罪。令下三十日不烧,黥为城旦。所不去者,医药卜筮种树之书。若欲有学法令,以吏为师”。秦始皇接受了这一建议,于是就发生了焚书事件。第二年,为秦始皇求仙药的方士有诽谤之言,又相邀逃亡,秦始皇派御史侦察咸阳的儒生方士,把其中被认为犯禁者四百六十多人坑死。在早期封建社会的历史条件下,在统一与分裂激烈斗争的年代,秦始皇用焚书坑儒手段来打击贵族政治的思想是可以理解的。但是,焚书坑儒摧残文化,是极其野蛮残暴的事,对于古文献的保存和学术的传授,造成了极大的损失。
  
  [另有说法,当时秦朝迫于匈奴入侵的压力,必须尽快安定国内,儒生、游士要求复辟贵族割据局面,无异于给匈奴趁内乱入侵的机会,故打压儒生私学]
  
  秦始皇施政定制虽已兼采阴阳等家思想,但根本上是以法家思想为依据。焚书坑儒以及"以法为教","以吏为师"等,更突出地反映了他的法家思想。秦始皇以原来秦国的制度为标准,整齐划一全国政治、经济、文化方面的一些制度,企图尽可能消除由于长期分裂割据造成的地区差异,以利统一。战国时期,各国文字的基本结构虽然相同,但字体繁简和偏旁位置却有差异。李斯受命统一文字,他以秦国的文字为基础,参照六国文字,制定小篆,并写成范本,在全国推行。当时还流行一种书法,叫做隶书,比小篆更简便。
  
  秦始皇废止战国时各国形制和轻重大小各不相同的货币,改以黄金为上币,以镒(二十两)为单位;以秦国旧行的圆形方孔铜钱为下币,文曰半两,重如其文。秦始皇用商鞅时制定的度量衡标准器,来统一全国的度量衡。今见秦朝权量,都刻有始皇二十六年(前 211年)颁布的统一度量衡的诏书。这种权量出土多,分布广,长城以外也有发现,可见统一度量衡是认真有效的。秦始皇还用法律规定了度量衡器误差的允许限度。他规定六尺为步,二百四十步为亩。不过二百四十步为亩的制度实际上只行于旧秦,可能还有旧赵境内,东方许多地区仍以百步为亩,直到汉武帝时期为止。文字、货币、度量衡的统一,为经济、文化的发展提供了便利条件,促进了统一国家的发展。对匈奴和对越人的战争匈奴人分布在蒙古高原上,战国末年以来,常向南方侵犯。全国统一以后,秦始皇派蒙恬率军三十万抗击匈奴。蒙恬于始皇三十二年(前215年)收复河套以南地,即当时所谓“河南地”,第二年进一步斥逐匈奴。秦自榆中(在今甘肃兰州以东,但有异说)向北,在黄河以东、阴山以南的地区内设置三十四县,并在黄河的一段地区因河筑塞。秦还把战国时燕、赵、秦三国长城修复并连接起来,筑成西起临洮(今甘肃岷县)、东迄辽东的古代世界伟大工程之一的万里长城,用来保护北方农业区域。接着,秦又徙民几万家于河套。这对于边地的开垦和边防的加强,起了积极作用。
  
  中国境内的越人分布在华东、华南地区,分为闽越、   、西瓯等部分。闽越在今浙江、福建一带,南越在今广东和广西东部,西瓯在今广东西南部、广西南部以至于云南东南部。越人“断发文身,错臂左衽”依山傍海,从事渔猎和农业。西瓯人主要从事农业生产。
  
  秦王政二十四年(前223年),王翦率秦军灭楚,继续南进,夺得越人一部分土地,置会稽郡(今江苏苏州)。二十六年,秦始皇派尉屠睢发卒五十万,分为五军,进攻镡城(今湖南靖县境)、九嶷(今湖南宁远南)、番禺(今广东广州)、南野(今江西南康境)、余干(今江西余干境),进行了三年不解甲、不弛弩的艰巨战斗。秦军击败了闽越的抵抗,以其地置闽中郡(今福建福州)。攻南越的秦军,也占领了番禺。只有西线的秦军遇到西瓯人顽强的抵抗。为了解决秦军转饷的困难,监禄率卒在湘水、漓水间开凿灵渠(在今广西兴安),沟通了长江和珠江水系的交通。在秦军和西瓯人的战斗中,西瓯君译吁宋和秦军统帅尉屠睢相继战死。三十三年,秦始皇又谪发内郡曾经逃亡的人、赘婿、商人增援,征服了西瓯,在南越、西瓯故地及其相邻地区建置了南海郡(今广东广州),象郡(今广西崇左境)和桂林郡(今广西桂平),并继续征发人民前往戍守。这样,几十万北方农民就留在那里与越人杂居,共同开发珠江流域。
  
  秦代的急政秦始皇的事业,是在残酷地剥削压迫人民的条件下,在短短的十几年中完成的,这使秦的统治具有急政暴虐的特征。秦统一以后的十几年中,秦始皇维持了一支庞大的军队,建立了一个庞大的官僚机构,进行了多次的大规模战争,完成了巨大的国防建设和土木建筑。秦始皇大大增加了对人民的征敛。据估计,当时全国的人口约为一千多万,而当兵服役的人超过二百万,占壮年男子三分之一以上。当兵服役的人脱离了农业生产,靠农民养活,这就出现了男子力耕,不足以供粮饷,女子纺绩,不足以供衣服的严重局面,大大动摇了秦的统治基础。为了强化地主阶级的统治,秦朝又推行严刑峻法以镇压人民,并且把数十万人民变为封建国家的囚徒。
  
  秦始皇使黔首自实田,在全国范围内正式承认土地私有制。地主阶级凭借这个命令,不仅得以合法占有土地,而且可以用各种手段兼并农民的土地。土地被兼并的农民,不得不以“见税什五”的苛刻条件耕种豪民之田。农民生活悲惨,穿牛马之衣,吃犬彘之食,往往在暴吏酷刑的逼迫下逃亡山林,举行暴动。这种种情况说明,急政暴虐激化了社会矛盾,秦始皇在完成统一事业的同时,也造成了秦王朝倾覆的条件。所以西汉时的贾山谈到秦代"群盗满山"的情况时说:秦始皇在世时,他的统治已经在崩溃,虽然他自己并不知道。
  
  秦朝的政区
  
  一.都城咸阳附近关中平原由内史直接管理
  
  二.立国之初,设立36郡。其后南并五岭以南南越地,置南海 桂林 象郡,北取阴山以南地置九原郡。又陆续分析内郡:东海 常山 济北 胶东 河内 衡山等。
  
  秦朝没有采用分封制,而是采用郡县制,最初将全国分为三十六个郡,后来增加至四十六个。部分郡大体位置如下图:
  
  [秦朝诸郡图]
  
  秦朝诸郡图
  
  秦朝诸郡辽东郡、九原郡、云中郡、辽西郡、上郡、太原郡、巨鹿郡、胶东郡、邯郸郡、琅琊郡、北地郡、东海郡、陇西郡、咸阳、南阳郡、汉中郡、九江郡、会稽郡、南郡、衡山郡、蜀郡、巴郡、黔中郡、长沙郡、闽中郡、南海郡、桂林郡、象郡、右北平郡、渔阳郡、广阳郡、上谷郡、代郡、雁门郡、常山郡、济北郡、临淄郡、河东郡、河内郡、东郡、薛郡、三川郡、砀郡、颖川郡、陈郡、泗水郡。
  
  秦朝灭亡
  
  公元前210年秦二世胡亥即位。他进一步加重对农民的剥削和压迫,以“税民深者为明吏”,以“杀人众者为忠臣”。他令农民增交菽粟刍藁,自备粮食,转输至咸阳,供官吏、军队以至于狗马禽兽的需要。他继续修建阿房宫,继续发民远戍。徭役征发的对象进一步扩大,农民的困苦达于极点,大规模的农民起义已经到一触即发的地步。在农民酝酿反秦的时候,潜伏着的六国旧贵族残余势力也在俟机进行分裂活动。始皇帝三十六年(前211年),东郡出现“始皇帝死而地分”的刻辞,就是这种分裂活动的征兆。
  
  陈胜、吴广领导的农民战争秦二世元年(前209年)七月,一队开赴渔阳(今北京密云)的闾左戍卒九百人,遇雨停留在大泽乡(今安徽宿县境),不能如期赶到渔阳戍地。秦法规定“失期当斩”,戍卒们面临着死刑的威胁。于是,在陈胜、吴广的领导下,在大泽乡举起了中国历史上第一次大规模农民起义的旗帜。陈胜,即陈涉,阳城(今地有异说,在河南境内)人,雇农出身;吴广,阳夏(今河南太康)人,也是农民。他们都是戍卒的屯长。为了发动起义,他们在帛上书写“陈胜王”三字,置鱼腹中,戍卒买鱼得书,传为怪异。吴广又于夜晚在驻地旁丛祠中燃篝火,作狐鸣,发出“大楚兴,陈胜王”的呼声。接着,陈胜、吴广杀押送他们的秦尉,率领戍卒,用已被赐死的秦公子扶苏和已故楚将项燕的名义,号召农民反秦。附近农民斩木揭竿纷纷参加起义。起义军分兵东进,主力则向西进攻,连下今豫东、皖北的铚、酂、苦、柘、谯(分别在今安徽宿县,河南永城、鹿邑、柘城,安徽亳县境)诸县。当他们推进到陈(今河南淮阳)的时候,已是一支数万人的声势浩大的队伍了。在起义军的影响下,许多郡县的农民杀掉守令,响应陈胜;特别是在旧楚国境中,数千人为聚者到处可见。一些潜藏民间的六国旧贵族、游士、儒生,也都乘机来归,凭借旧日的地位,在农民军中发挥影响。游士张耳、陈馀甚至劝陈胜派人“立六国后”,被陈胜断然拒绝。陈胜自立为“张楚王”,分兵三路攻秦:吴广为“假王”,西击荥阳;武臣北进赵地;魏人周市攻魏地。吴广军在荥阳被阻,陈胜加派周文西击秦。周文军很快发展到车千乘,卒数十万人,进抵关中的戏(今陕西临潼境),逼近咸阳。秦二世慌忙发修骊山陵墓的刑徒为兵,以少府章邯率兵应战,打败周文军。武臣占领了旧赵都城邯郸后,在张耳、陈馀怂恿下自立为赵王,陈胜勉强予以承认。武臣抗命不救周文,却派韩广略取燕地。韩广在燕地贵族的怂恿下,也自立为燕王。周市进到旧魏南部和旧齐境内。旧齐贵族田儋自立为齐王,反击周市。周市在魏地立旧魏贵族魏咎为魏王,自为魏丞相,并派人到陈胜那里迎接魏咎。旧贵族的势力很活跃,涣散了农民起义队伍。陈胜缺乏经验,决心不够,眼看着分裂局面的形成。陈胜周围也出现了不团结的现象。
  
  秦将章邯军连败周文,周文自杀。章邯又东逼荥阳,吴广部将田臧杀吴广,迎击章邯,一战败死。章邯进到陈,陈胜败退到下城父(今安徽涡阳东南),被叛徒庄贾杀死,陈县失守。陈胜部将吕臣率领一支“苍头军”英勇接战,收复陈县,处决了庄贾。陈胜作为反秦的先驱者,领导起义只有半年就失败了,但是反秦的浪潮却被他激起,继续不断地冲击秦的统治(见陈胜、吴广起义)。
  
  楚汉之战
  
  陈胜起义后,旧楚名将项燕之子项梁和项梁侄项羽在吴(今江苏苏州)杀掉秦会稽郡守,起兵响应。不久项梁率领八千子弟兵渡江北上,队伍扩大到六七万人,连战获胜。闽越贵族无诸和摇也率领族人,跟着秦番阳令吴芮反秦。原沛县亭长刘邦和一部分刑徒逃亡山泽,也袭击沛令起事,归入项梁军中。项梁立楚怀王之孙为楚王。以后,项梁在定陶败死,秦章邯军转戈北上,渡河击赵。这时,代替蒙恬戍守朔方边塞的王离,也率大军由上郡(治今陕西榆林东南)东出,包围了张耳和赵王歇驻守的巨鹿城(今河北平乡境)。楚王派宋义、项羽救赵,派刘邦西入关中。宋义北至安阳,逗留不进。项羽杀宋义,引兵渡漳河,经过激战,解巨鹿之围,被推为诸侯上将军。以后,秦将章邯率二十万人向他投降。刘邦迂回进入武关,到达咸阳附近。那时秦二世已被赵高杀死,继立的子婴贬去帝号,称秦王,汉高祖元年十月(公元前207年)向刘邦投降。刘邦攻占咸阳,秦亡。刘邦废除秦的苛法,只约法三章:“杀人者死,伤人及盗抵罪”,深得秦人拥护。
  
  刘邦入咸阳后,项羽也立即率军入关,驻鸿门,然后进入咸阳,大肆烧杀掠夺。他在诸王并立的既成局面下,自立为西楚霸王,都彭城。并调整诸故王土地,徙置他们于其原据地的边缘,而把自己的亲信封于各国的善地为王。这样就并立着十八个王国,受制于西楚霸王。项羽的这一措施反而恶化了割据形势。不久齐国首先发难,诸侯混战再次爆发。被项羽逼处巴蜀汉中一隅为汉王的刘邦,于汉高祖元年五月(公元前206 年),乘机进入关中,败项羽所封关中三王。接着领军东出,远袭彭城,退守于荥阳、成皋之间,与项羽相持。刘邦巩固了关中后方,又联络反对项羽的力量,转败为胜。汉高祖五年(前202年)十二月,与韩信、彭越等会攻项羽,项羽兵败垓下(今安徽灵璧境),退至乌江(今安徽省和县)自刎,年仅31岁。同年二月,刘邦在定陶即皇帝位(见汉高帝刘邦)。
  
  楚汉之战是由秦末农民战争直接演变而来的。农民战争虽然胜利地推翻了秦朝,但曾经是农民战争领袖的刘邦和项羽,却不得不逐步转化为封建统治权的角逐者。刘邦知人善任,因势利导,终于战胜项羽,登上了西汉统一王朝的皇帝宝座。
  
  秦世系
  
  1、秦仲——2、庄公——3、襄公——4、文公——5、宁公——6、出公——7、武公——8、德公——9、宣公——10、成公——11、穆公——12、康公——13、共公——14、桓公——15、景公——16、哀公——17、惠公——18、悼公(以上据《史记.十二诸侯年表》)——19、厉公——20、躁公——21、怀公——22、灵公——23、简公——24、惠公——25、出子——26、献公 ——27、孝公——28、惠文王——29、武王——30、昭王——31、孝文王——32、庄襄王——33、秦始皇——34、胡亥--35、子婴
  
  始皇帝: 秦始皇二十六 221~ 秦始皇三十七 公元前210年
  
  二世 :秦始皇三十七(七月) 210年~ 二世三年 公元前207年
  
  子婴 :二世三年(八月) 207年~ 二世三年(十月) 公元前207年
  
  秦朝军队构成
  
  秦朝的军队分三个部分,即京师兵、郡县兵、边防兵。京师兵,由于任务不同,分三个系统:郎中令管辖的侍卫官,包括贝(钱财)选、荫任、军功特拜而产生的传中、中郎等,有俸禄,主要负责殿内值勤、从皇帝:卫尉管辖的皇宫警卫兵,由郡县轮番服役的正卒充当,称卫士,主要职责是守卫宫门;中尉管辖的京都成卫兵,成员是轮番服投的内史地区正卒,主要职责是保卫都城的安全。遇特殊情况,京师另设屯兵。郡县兵,指在当地轮流服一年兵役的正卒。由郡尉县尉管辖。平时训练,并兼管地方安全,战时奉调出征、因所处地理环境的不同,又分为材官(步兵)、骑士(骑兵)、楼船士(水军)三类。大体北方、西北方多骑士,山丘陵地带多材官,江谁及沿海多楼船士。有的郡既有材官,又有骑士。
  
  边防兵,指边郡骑士、材官、边郡屯兵和边塞皮卒。边郡骑士或材官,是本地服兵役的正卒。屯兵是集中驻扎的机动作战部队,由朝廷派遣的将军统率,如蒙恬曾长期领兵屯于上郡。戊卒包括轮番服役的各郡正卒和嫡发的官吏、商人及农民。除分散担任警戒、候望任务外,还构筑维修军事工程。兵种区分秦军分为步兵(含弩兵)车兵骑兵和水兵种。步兵称材官,有轻装与重装之分,前者无甲,持弓、弩远射兵器;后者上体着甲,持戈、矛、戟之类长兵器。着甲持弓、弩者称驾兵,是步兵的主力。车兵仍然装备单辕双轮四马木质车,每车3人,皆着盔甲,御者居中,甲士2人分立两侧,持戈矛类长兵器。骑兵称骑上,着短甲,执弓箭,所乘之马有鞍,无鞍蹬。水军称楼船士,具有一定规模。秦始皇陵兵马低坑的布阵表明,步兵数量较多,是主要兵种,车兵仍是重要作战力量,骑兵尚处于从属地位,弯兵且智较大辞容。作战中,车、骑、步、驾大休混编列阵,配合而行。
  
  社会情况
  
  秦的社会组织相当严密,商鞅变法建立了“什伍连坐制”禁止父子兄弟同室而居,凡民有二男劳力以上的都必须分居,独立编户,同时按军事组织把全国吏民编制起来,五家为伍,十家为什,不准擅自迁居,相互监督,相互检举,若不揭发,十家连坐。这种严苛的法律把农民牢牢束缚在土地上,国家直接控制了全国的劳动力,保证了赋税收入。统一后秦国将此推广至全国。类似的保甲制度和户口制度一直到中华民国和中华人民共和国时期仍被当局采用。
  
  秦朝的刑罚
  
  秦朝制定了许多酷刑。据文献记载,刑罚有膑(剜去膝盖),刖(锯脚),宫,榜掠,腰斩,枭首,弃市,戳尸,坑死,凿颠,抽胁,镬烹,车裂,夷三族等。当时的中原地区古人多儒雅仁义,社会是宗族形式结构,不具备法治统治的基础。秦尊韩非的以法治国,这就造成了作奸犯科的人大增,面对条条酷刑,人们怨声载道,这也是加剧秦朝灭亡的另一个不可忽视的重要原因。
  
  官吏制度
  
  中央官制
  
  三公:丞相、太尉、御史大夫
  
  九卿:卫尉(皇宫保卫)、郎中令(警卫)、太仆(宫廷车马)、廷尉(司法)、典客(外交)、奉常(宗庙礼仪)、宗正(皇室内部事务)、少府(山河湖海税收和制造业)、治粟内史(财政税收)
  
  御史大夫:掌图籍章奏,监察、弹劾百官,辅佐丞相处理事务
  
  地方官制
  
  郡:郡守
  
  郡尉
  
  郡监
  
  县:县令
  
  县尉
  
  县丞
  
  乡:三老
  
  游徼
  
  啬夫(小乡)
  
  有秩(大乡)
  
  亭:亭长
  
  里:里正
  
  经济状况
  
  商鞅变法以后,秦国的经济体制就全面转入“耕战”。即重视农业生产和对外战争,以农业生产支持对外战争,以军功授爵赐予土地。同时由国家法令具体指导农业生产。但统一全国后类似的制度似乎并未取得显著效果。
  
  文化与科学
  
  [秦二世刻于青铜上的布告使用小篆]
  
  秦二世刻于青铜上的布告使用小篆
  
  秦二世刻于青铜上的布告使用小篆一般认为,战国时期的秦国文化落后于山东六国,有“秦,虎狼也”的说法。
  
  秦国统一中国后,采取了一系列措施巩固其统治,其中包括著名的“书同文”,即将战国时期各国使用的不同的书写体统一为后世所称的小篆,相传该字体为秦国丞相李斯发明。
  
  前213年,秦统一八年,太子师博士齐人淳于越在一次朝廷会议上提出恢愎周朝的分封制,“无辅拂,何以相救哉?”丞相李斯反对,并提出措施:“……天下敢有藏《诗》、《书》者弃市。以古非今者族。吏见知不举者与同罪。令下三十日不烧,黥为城旦。所不去者,医药卜筮种树之书。若有学(法令)[者],以吏为师”。秦始皇采纳之,下令各郡、县立即查禁所有《诗》、《书》和诸子百家的书籍,30天内全部焚烧。此即“焚书”。淳于越谏阻焚书,被杀。
  
  次年,方士卢生等人求仙再次不得,惧怕处罚而出逃,又有方士儒生议论朝政。秦始皇大怒,下令搜捕咸阳城内的方士儒生,后来的审问过程中,方士儒生互相告发,共有460余人受到株连,秦始皇下令将此460余人全部坑杀。此即“坑儒”。此后又发生了两次坑儒事件。
  
  “焚书坑儒”是秦朝为了国家政权安定统一的所执行的政策, 也是对当时中国文化的一次摧残。“焚书”政策针对当时的书册文物,只保留对民生以及执政所需的,大量对秦政权无益的珍贵文献从此失传,春秋战国的百家言论在这段时期受到严重的摧残;“坑儒”政策也是第一个被中国历史所纪录的国家政权对知识分子大规模的逮捕行为(儒家称之为“迫害”)。
  
  但同时也有观点认为“焚书坑儒”对文化的影响并不是很大,主要原因如下:
  
  .所谓焚书,目的是为禁“以古非今者”,对私藏书籍的惩罚措施并不严厉。
  
  .所焚书籍为民间藏书,博士官的藏书不包括在内,而当时民间的《诗》、《书》其实并不多。而在项羽击败秦军主力进入咸阳后火烧阿房宫却使秦国官方珍藏的大批珍贵典籍被焚毁。
  
  .秦至秦二世而亡,真正执行的时间不超过十年,影响不会太大。“焚书坑儒”为何如此出名,关键在后世的“独尊儒术”使儒家思想占据了此后近两千年中国国家意识形态的统治地位。
  
  卢生者,方士也,也不是我们通常所说的儒生。当然在当时的情况下,可能会有一些儒生受到牵连,但是“焚书坑儒”是不准确的,有夸张的成份在里面。很多人有这做为秦始皇的罪名,是不成立的。就像上面有人说的,真正对中国的文化起到破坏的焚了书的,不是秦始皇,是那个没有脑子的项羽。方士,在当时也就是道教的先驱吧,那些炼丹,求仙这流,这些人,是儒者也看不起的,但是为什么儒家要为这些人说好话,那是后世的宣传了,为了统治阶级应用。
  
  有关秦朝的经典
  
  1.秦始皇
  
  秦始皇(公元前259~前210年),首位完成中国统一的秦王朝的开国皇帝。后人称之为“千古一帝”。姓赵氏,名政。汉族,秦庄襄王之子。13岁即王位,22岁在故都雍城举行了成人加冕仪式,从此正式登基“亲理朝政”,39岁完成了统一中国的历史大业,称帝。前247年,秦王赵政即位,因年幼朝政由太后和相国吕不韦及嫪毐掌管。前238年(秦王政九年),22岁的秦王政亲理朝政,除掉吕、嫪等人,重用李斯、尉缭,自公元前230年至前221年,先后灭韩、赵、魏、楚、燕、齐六国,完成了统一全国的大业,建立了中国历史上第一个统一的、多民族的、专制主义中央集权制国家——秦朝。秦王赵政自认为自己的功劳胜过之前的三皇五帝,给自己起名“皇帝”。一生中有功也有过,与汉武帝并称为“秦皇汉武”。
  
  2.秦兵马俑
  
  秦始皇是第一个统一中国的皇帝,他的陵墓在西安城东30公里处。1974年2月,当地农民在秦始皇陵东侧1.5公里处打井时偶然发现了与真人真马一样大小的兵马俑。从此,一个埋藏了两千多年的地下军阵被挖掘出来,并建成博物馆。秦兵马俑坑是秦始皇的陪葬坑,由一号、二号、三号坑和兵马俑坑组成。展出的陶质陪葬武士俑和兵马俑共计8000个,排列成阵,气势壮观。俑分将军俑、铠甲俑、跪射俑、骑兵俑、武士俑、车兵俑、(驭手,兵士)弓弩俑、马俑等。坑内还出土有数万件实战兵器,馆内展出秦始皇大型彩绘铜车马。被称为"世界第八大奇迹"的秦兵马俑展示了古长安往日的辉煌,也是长安何已会成为丝路起点的一个写照。
  
  3.过秦论
  
  《过秦论》,论秦之过也。原文分为上、中、下三篇。载于《新书》第一卷,《文选》卷五十一,另见于《史记·秦本纪》、《史记·陈涉世家》及《汉书》。全文着重从各个方面分析秦王朝的过失,故名为《过秦论》。本文旨在总结秦速亡的历史经验,以作为汉王朝建立制度,巩固统治的借鉴。作者贾谊(前200-前168),世称贾太傅、贾长沙、贾生。洛阳(今河南洛阳东)人。西汉初期的政论家、文学家。
  
  4.秦风
  
  秦风:诗经国风中的内容。
  
  秦诗产生的时代,大致说来是自春秋初至秦穆公(死于前622年)这一百五、六十年间的诗。
  
  秦风共有十首诗。包括:
  
  车邻 驷驖 小戎 蒹葭 终南 黄鸟 晨风 无衣 渭阳
  
  权舆
  
  5. 秦时明月
  
  得源于王昌龄的七绝“秦时明月汉时关”。
  
  秦时明月汉时关,万里长征人未还。
  
  但使龙城飞将在,不教胡马度阴山。
  
  此诗是王昌龄的七绝中,最为人瞩目的一首。许多人说这诗是神品。开头第一句,就非同凡响。“秦时明月汉时关”似乎难以为人理解,怎么秦时的明月,“关”却是汉时的呢?但此句,妙就妙在这里,寓意深远就在这里。这一句是说,把守汉时的关口的军人,而看到的是和秦时相同的明月,而时间已经飞逝去了。接下来承接上句的是“万里长征人未还”,就延伸了第一句的意思。
  
  6.《大秦帝国》
  
  孙皓晖著
  
  重现金戈铁马战国七雄的风姿,开创千古风流大秦帝国的霸业
  
  战国三百多年的纷争,打破了古典联邦王国时代的窒息封闭,这是一个名将辈出,大才如云,英主迭起的时代。大秦帝国正是产生于这个时代,一步一步,统一了中国…… 
  
  在整理这批从海外回到祖国的秦简的过程中,我们发现了两个迄今历史资料上从未记载过的新郡名称,这个发现将可能改写目前‘秦朝48郡’的考证。”湖南大学岳麓书院副院长陈松长兴奋地说。
  
  这两个新发现的郡,一个叫州陵郡,一个叫清河郡。秦朝是中国历史上确立“郡县制”最早的朝代,“郡县制”对中国在2000多年的封建社会中形成中央集权制国家起到重要作用。
  
  记者看到,在已经清理完毕的秦简当中,有一枚保存完好的秦简中清晰地出现了“丙辰朔己卯南郡叚守贾报州陵郡”等字眼。
  
  “在目前整理的部分秦简里面,‘州陵守,州陵叚守’至少出现过三次。‘守’一般都是郡守一级的,这说明州陵在秦代是一个郡名。”陈松长教授介绍说。
  
  另外一枚秦简当中,则清晰地写着“清河叚守”的字眼。陈松长说:“虽然没有清河郡的名字,但是有清河叚守,‘守’是郡一级的官,那么,清河也应该是郡名。”
  
  湖南大学岳麓书院的专家查考后发现,上述两处郡名并不在目前历史学界确定的“秦朝48郡”名单之内。历史资料记载,清河、州陵两郡出现在汉朝。一个疑问出现了:这次抢救回来的到底是秦简还是汉简?
  
  专家们通过两个证据确定了这些简出自秦朝。一个证据是从简的质地上和书写风格上分析,应该是秦简;另外一个重要的证据是纪年,保存完好的简当中清晰的刻有“二十五年,六月朔,六月,丙辰”等文字,这个记载只和秦朝干支纪年法是相对应的,因此这是秦简,不是汉简。
  
  岳麓书院抢救性回购的这批秦简,不但新发现了州陵郡和清河郡,简文中还发现了“苍梧”“洞庭”等里耶秦简中出现过的秦代郡名。对于秦汉史研究而言,这批秦简和里耶秦简将互相补充,互相解释,互相印证,成为珍贵的实物资料。
  
  湖南大学党委宣传部干部李璀介绍说,目前,岳麓书院的众多专家仍然在进行秦简的初步整理工作,这些文物还将陆续向世人揭示新的历史信息。
  
  香港电影《秦朝》
  
  片名:秦朝
  
  地区:中国香港(ATV)
  
  类型:情景喜剧
  
  片长:60集
  
  首播:2000年
  
  监制:张坚庭
  
  演员:姜大卫 恬妞 张同祖 孙佳君
  
  剧情介绍
  
  由亚洲电视耗资二千万元,英皇电影集团负责制作的六十集大型处境喜剧《秦朝》,由监制张坚庭摔领的台前幕后班底,阵容强劲,云集港台红星大汇演的创意喜剧,担保带给观众无尽惊喜。
  
  由于<秦朝>剧情是围绕经营酒吧的一家人和来自不同阶层的酒客,日常遭遇到的喜、怒、哀、乐趣事为题,主景场地亦移师到跑马地一间真实酒吧拍摄,一班演员演出投入,对白精警,爆笑连场。
  
  秦朝度量衡
  
  计算物品长短的器具叫度,测量物品容积的器具叫量,测量物体轻重的器具叫衡。通过对秦代多种度量衡器的反复测量计算,得知秦的一尺长23.1厘米,秦的一升为202毫升,秦的一斤相当于今天的250克。


  The Qin Dynasty (Chinese: 秦朝; pinyin: Qín Cháo; Wade–Giles: Ch'in Ch'ao; IPA: [tɕʰǐn tʂʰɑ̌ʊ̯]) was the first ruling dynasty of Imperial China, lasting from 221 to 206 BC. The Qin state derived its name from its heartland of Qin, in modern-day Shaanxi. The Qin's strength had been consolidated by Lord Shang Yang in the 4th century BC, during the Warring States Period. In the early third century BC, the Qin accomplished a series of swift conquests; the state subjugated the Chu, remnants of the Zhou Dynasty, and various other states to gain undisputed control of China.
  
  During its reign over China, the Qin Dynasty achieved increased trade, improved agriculture, and military security. This was due to the abolition of landowning lords, to whom peasants had formerly held allegiance. The central government now had direct control of the masses, giving it access to a much larger workforce. This allowed for the construction of ambitious projects, such as a wall on the northern border, now known as the Great Wall of China. The Qin Dynasty also introduced several reforms: currency, weights and measures were standardized, and a better system of writing was established. An attempt to purge all traces of the old dynasties led to the infamous burning of books and burying of scholars incident, which has been criticized greatly by subsequent scholars. The Qin's military was also revolutionary in that it used the most recently developed weaponry, transportation, and tactics, though the government was heavy-handed and bureaucratic.
  
  Despite its military strength, the Qin Dynasty did not last long. When the first emperor died in 210 BC, his son was placed on the throne by two of the previous emperor's advisers, in an attempt to influence and control the administration of the entire country through him. The advisors squabbled among themselves, however, which resulted in both their deaths and that of the second Qin emperor. Popular revolt broke out a few years later, and the weakened empire soon fell to a Chu lieutenant, who went on to found the Han Dynasty.[note 1] Despite its rapid end, the Qin Dynasty influenced future Chinese regimes, particularly the Han, and from it is derived the European name for China.
  
  History
  
   Origins and early development
  
  Feizi, a descendant of the ancient political advisor Gao Yao, was granted rule over Qin City.[note 2] During the rule of King Xiao of Zhou, the eighth king of the Zhou Dynasty, this area became known as the state of Qin. In 897 BC, under the regency of Gonghe, the area became a dependency allotted for the purpose of raising and breeding horses. One of Feizi's descendants, Duke Zhuang, became favoured by King Ping of Zhou, the thirteenth king in that line. As a reward, Zhuang's son, Duke Xiang, was sent eastward as the leader of a war expedition, during which he formally established the Qin.
  
  Qin state first sent a military expedition into central China in 672 BC, though it did not engage in any serious incursions due to the threat from neighbouring tribesmen. By the dawn of the fourth century BC, however, the neighbouring tribes had all been either subdued or conquered, and the stage was set for the rise of Qin expansionism.
  
   Growth of power
  
  Lord Shang Yang, a Qin statesman, introduced a number of militarily advantageous reforms from 361 BC until his death in 338 BC, and also helped construct the Qin capital, Xianyang. This latter accomplishment commenced in the mid-fourth century BC; the resulting city greatly resembled the capitals of other Warring States.
  
  Marble bust of statesman Shang Yang
  
  Of Shang Yang's reforms, the most notable one was advocating the philosophy of Legalism, which encouraged practical and ruthless warfare. In contrast, during the Zhou Dynasty and the ensuing Warring States Period, the prevalent philosophy had dictated war as a gentleman's activity; military commanders were instructed to respect what they perceived to be Heaven's laws in battle. For example, during the Warring States Period, Duke Xiang of Song[note 3] was at war with the state of Chu, and had an opportunity to attack the enemy force, commanded by Zhu, while they were crossing a river. Instead, however, he waited for them to finish crossing, and allowed them to marshal their forces. He was decisively defeated in the ensuing battle, and when, later, his advisors admonished him for such excessive courtesy to the enemy, he retorted, "The sage does not crush the feeble, nor give the order for attack until the enemy have formed their ranks." The Qin disregarded this military tradition, taking advantage of their enemy's weaknesses. A nobleman in the state of Wei accused the Qin state of being "avaricious, perverse, eager for profit, and without sincerity. It knows nothing about etiquette, proper relationships, and virtuous conduct, and if there be an opportunity for material gain, it will disregard its relatives as if they were animals." It was this Legalist thought combined with strong leadership from long-lived rulers, openness to employ talented men from other states, and little internal opposition that gave the Qin such a strong political base.
  
  Map of the Warring States. Qin is shown in pink
  
  Another advantage of the Qin was that they had a large, efficient army[note 4] and capable generals. They utilised the newest developments in weaponry and transportation as well, which many of their enemies lacked. These latter developments allowed greater mobility over several different terrain types[note 5] which were most common in many regions of China. Thus, in both ideology and practice, the Qin were militarily superior.
  
  Finally, the Qin empire had a geographical advantage due to its fertility and strategic situation, protected by mountains that made the state a natural stronghold.[note 6] Its expanded agricultural output helped sustain Qin's large army with food and natural resources; the Wei River canal built in 246 BC was particularly significant in this respect.
  
   Conquest of other state
  
  During the Warring States Period preceding the Qin Dynasty, the major states vying for dominance were Yan, Zhao, Qi, Chu, Han, Wei and Qin. The rulers of these states styled themselves as kings, rather than using the titles of lower nobility they had previously held. However, none elevated himself to believe that he had the "Mandate of Heaven," as the Zhou emperors had claimed, nor that he had the right to offer sacrifices—they left this to the Zhou rulers.
  
  A Chinese lacquerware box with the "Panyu" name on its surface, one piece of evidence that the Qin Dynasty governed the area of Guangzhou before the Nanyue Kingdom did.
  
  Before their conquest in the fourth and third centuries BC, the Qin suffered several setbacks. Shang Yang was executed in 338 BC due to a grudge by the leader King Wu over a student who had been executed because of Shang Yang's insistence that law applied even to nobility. There was also internal strife over the Qin succession in 307 BC, which decentralised Qin authority somewhat. Qin was defeated by an alliance of the other states in 295 BC, and shortly after suffered another defeat by the state of Zhao, due to the fact that the majority of their army was then defending against the Qi. The aggressive statesman Fan Sui, however, soon came to power as prime minister even as the problem of the succession was resolved, and he began an expansionist policy that had originated in Jin and Qi, which prompted the Qin to attempt to conquer the other states.
  
  The Qin were swift in their assault on the other states. They first attacked the Han, directly east, and took the city of Yangdi in 230 BC. They then struck northward; the state of Zhao surrendered in 228 BC, and the northernmost state of Yan followed, falling in 226 BC. Next, Qin armies launched assaults to the east, and later the south as well; they took the Wei city of Daliang (now called Kaifeng) in 225 BC and forced the Chu to surrender by 223 BC. Lastly, they deposed the Zhou Dynasty's remnants in Luoyang and conquered the Qi, taking the city of Linzi in 221 BCE.
  
   Dominion of China
  
  Marble statue of Qin Shihuang located near his burial place
  
  When the conquests were complete in 221 BC, the leader of the Qin, King Zheng,[note 7] who had first assumed the throne of the Qin state at age 13, became the effective ruler of China. He assumed his position as king with the abdication of his prime minister, Lu Buwei. He took on the name Qin Shihuang Di (Chinese: 秦始皇帝), meaning "First Emperor of the Qin".[note 8] The newly declared emperor ordered all weapons not in the possession of the Qin to be confiscated and melted down. The resulting metal was sufficient to build twelve large ornamental statues at the Qin's newly declared capital, Xianyang.
  
  In 214 BC Qin Shihuang secured his boundaries to the north with a fraction (100,000 men) of his large army, and sent the majority (500,000 men) south to seize still more land. Prior to the events leading to Qin dominance over China, they had gained possession of much of Sichuan to the southwest. The Qin army was unfamiliar with the jungle terrain, and it was defeated by the southern tribes' guerrilla warfare tactics with over 100,000 men lost. However, in the defeat Qin was successful in building a canal to the south, which they used heavily for supplying and reinforcing their troops during their second attack to the south. Building on these gains, the Qin armies conquered the coastal lands surrounding Guangzhou,[note 9] and took the provinces of Fuzhou and Guilin. They struck as far south as Hanoi. After these victories in the south, Qin Shihuang moved over 100,000 prisoners and exiles to colonize the newly conquered area. In terms of extending the boundaries of his empire, the First Emperor was extremely successful in the south.
  
  However, while the empire at times was extended to the north, the Qin could rarely hold on to the land for long. The tribes of these locations, collectively called the Hu by the Qin, were free from Chinese rule during the majority of the Dynasty. Prohibited from trading with Qin Dynasty peasants, the Xiongnu tribe living in the Ordos region in northwest China often raided them instead, prompting the Qin to retaliate. After several campaigns and much effort, the region was conquered and agriculture was established; the peasants, however, were discontented and later revolted. The succeeding Han Dynasty also expanded into the Ordos due to overpopulation, but depleted their resources in the process. Owen Lattimore said of both Dynasties' attempts to conquer the Ordos, "conquest and expansion were illusory. There was no kind of success that did not create its own reaction." Indeed, this was true of the dynasty's borders in multiple directions; modern Xinjiang, Tibet, Manchuria, Inner Mongolia, and regions to the southeast were foreign to the Qin, and even areas over which they had military control were culturally distinct.
  
   Fall from power
  
  An edict in bronze from the reign of the Second Qin Emperor
  
  Three assassination attempts were made on Qin Shihuang's life, leading him to become paranoid and obsessed with immortality. He died in 210 BC, while on a trip to the far eastern reaches of his empire in an attempt to procure an elixir of immortality from Daoist magicians, who claimed the elixir was stuck on an island guarded by a sea monster. The chief eunuch, Zhao Gao, and the prime minister, Li Si, hid the news of his death upon their return until they were able to alter his will to place on the throne the dead emperor's most pliable son, Huhai, who took the name of Qin Er Shi. They believed that they would be able to manipulate him to their own ends, and thus effectively control the empire. Qin Er Shi was, indeed, inept and pliable. He executed many ministers and imperial princes, continued massive building projects (one of his most extravagant projects was lacquering the city walls), enlarged the army, increased taxes, and arrested messengers who brought him bad news. As a result, men from all over China revolted, attacking officials, raising armies, and declaring themselves kings of seized territories.
  
  During this time, Li Si and Zhao Gao fell out among themselves, and Li Si was executed. Zhao Gao decided to force Qin Er Shi to commit suicide due to Qin Er Shi's incompetence. Upon this, Ziying, a nephew of Qin Er Shi, ascended the throne, and immediately executed Zhao Gao. Ziying, seeing that increasing unrest was growing among the people[note 10] and that many local officials had declared themselves kings, attempted to cling to his throne by declaring himself one king among all the others. He was undermined by his ineptitude, however, and popular revolt broke out in 209 BC. When Chu rebels under the lieutenant Liu Bang attacked, a state in such turmoil could not hold for long. Ziying was defeated near the Wei River in 207 BC and surrendered shortly after; he was executed by the Chu leader Xiang Yu. The Qin capital was destroyed the next year, and this is considered by Derk Bodde, as well as other historians, to be the end of the Qin empire.[note 1] Liu Bang then betrayed and defeated Xiang Yu, declaring himself Emperor Gaozu[note 11] of the new Han Dynasty. Despite the short duration of the Qin Dynasty, it was very influential on the structure of future dynasties.
  
   Culture and society
  
   Domestic life
  
  The aristocracy of the Qin were largely similar in their culture and daily life. Regional variations in culture were considered a symbol of the lower classes. This idea stemmed from the Zhou and was seized upon by the Qin, as such variations were seen as contrary to the unification that the government strove to achieve.
  
  Commoners and rural villagers, who made up over 90% of the population, very rarely left the villages or farmsteads where they were born. Common forms of employment differed by region, though farming was almost universally common. Professions were hereditary; a father's employment was passed to his eldest son after he died. The Lüshi Chunqiu[note 12] gave examples of how, when commoners are obsessed with material wealth, instead of the idealism of a man who "makes things serve him", they were "reduced to the service of things".
  
  Peasants were rarely figured in literature during the Qin Dynasty and afterwards; scholars and others of more elite status preferred the excitement of cities and the lure of politics. One notable exception to this was Shen Nong, the so-called "Divine Father", who taught that households should grow their own food. "If in one's prime he does not plow, someone in the world will grow hungry. If in one's prime she does not weave, someone in the world will be cold." The Qin encouraged this; a ritual was performed once every few years that consisted of important government officials taking turns with the plow on a special field, to create a simulation of government interest and activity within agriculture.
  
   Architecture
  
  Warring States-era architecture had several definitive aspects. City walls, used for defense, were made longer, and indeed several secondary walls were also sometimes built to separate the different districts. Verticality in federal structures was emphasised, to create a sense of authority and absolute power. Architectural elements such as high towers, pillar gates, terraces, and high buildings amply conveyed this.
  
   Philosophy and literature
  
  The written language of the Qin was logographic, as that of the Zhou had been. As one of his most influential achievements in life, prime minister Li Si standardized the writing system to be of uniform size and shape across the whole country. This would have a unification effect on the Chinese culture for thousands of years. He is also credited with creating the "lesser-seal" (Chinese: 小篆, Pinyin: xiǎozhuàn) style of calligraphy, which serves as a basis for modern Chinese and is still used in cards, posters, and advertising.
  
  During the Warring States Period, the Hundred Schools of Thought comprised many different philosophies proposed by Chinese scholars. In 221 BC, however, the First Emperor conquered all the states, and governed them using a single philosophy, Legalism. At least one school of thought, Mohism, was eradicated, though it is not known exactly why; despite the Qin's state ideology and Mohism being similar in certain regards, it is possible that Mohists were sought out and killed by the state's armies due to paramilitary activities.
  
  Confucius's school of thought, called Confucianism, was also influential during the Warring States Period, as well as throughout much of the later Zhou Dynasty and early imperial China.[note 13] This school of thought had a so-called Confucian canon of literature, known as the "six classics": the Odes, Documents, Ritual, Music, Spring and Autumn Annals, and Changes, which embodied Chinese literature at the time.
  
  During the Qin Dynasty, Confucianism was suppressed, along with all other non-Legalist philosophies, by the First Emperor; early Han Dynasty emperors did the same. Legalism, the state-adopted school of thought, denounced the feudal system and encouraged severe punishments, particularly when the emperor was disobeyed; individual rights were devalued when they conflicted with the government's or the ruler's wishes, and merchants and scholars were considered unproductive, fit for elimination. One of the more drastic measures employed to accomplish the eradication of the old schools of thought was the infamous burning of books and burying of scholars incident, which almost singlehandedly gave the Qin Dynasty a bad reputation among later scholars. The First Emperor, in an attempt to consolidate power, ordered the burning of all books on non-Legalist philosophical viewpoints and intellectual subjects. This decree was passed in 213 BC, and also stipulated that all scholars who refused to submit their books to be burned would be executed by premature burial. Only texts considered productive by Legalists were preserved, most on pragmatic subjects, such as agriculture, divination, and medicine. However, controversy remains on the so-called “burning of books and burying of scholars”. Nowadays, many Sinologists argued that the “burying of scholars” recorded in Grand Historian is a slander to the First Emperor and not a truth.
  
   Government and military
  
  Qin Dynasty composite bow arrows (top) and crossbow bolts (bottom)
  
  Credit: Liang Jieming
  
  The Qin government was highly bureaucratic, and was administered by a hierarchy of officials, all serving the First Emperor. The Qin put into practice the teachings of Han Fei, allowing the First Emperor to control all of his territories, including those recently conquered. All aspects of life were standardized, from measurements and language to more practical details, such as the length of chariot axles. Zheng and his advisers also introduced new laws and practices that ended feudalism in China, replacing it with a centralized, bureaucratic government. Under this system, both the military and government thrived, as talented individuals could be more easily identified in the transformed society. Later Chinese dynasties emulated the Qin government for its efficiency, despite its being condemned by Confucian philosophy. Such a system, however, could be manipulated by power-hungry individuals; one example of such an occurrence was documented in the "Records of Officialdom". A commander named Hu ordered his men to attack peasants, in an attempt to increase the number of "bandits" he had killed; his superiors, likely eager to inflate their records as well, allowed this.
  
  Qin Shihuang also improved the military, despite the fact that it had already undergone extensive reforms. The military used the most advanced weaponry of the time. The invention of the sword during the Warring States Period was a huge boon. It was first used mostly in bronze form, but by the third century BC, the Qin were using stronger iron swords. The demand for metal this produced resulted in improved bellows. The crossbow had been introduced in the fifth century BC and was more powerful and accurate than the composite bows used earlier. It could also be rendered ineffective by removing two pins, which prevented enemies from capturing a working crossbow.
  
  The Terracotta army.
  
  The Qin also used improved methods of transportation and tactics. The state of Zhao had first replaced chariots with cavalry in 307 BC, but the change was swiftly adopted by the other states due to the fact that cavalry had greater mobility over the terrain of China.
  
  The First Emperor developed plans to fortify his northern border, to protect against the nomadic Mongols. The result was the construction of the Great Wall of China,which was built by joining and strenghthening the walls made by the feudal lords, which would be expanded and rebuilt multiple times by later dynasties, also in response to threats from the north. Another monument built during Qin Shihuang's rule was the Terracotta army, intended to protect the emperor after his death. As opposed to the Great Wall, which is visible from space,[note 14] the Terracotta army was inconspicuous due to its underground location, and was not discovered until 1974.
  
   Religion
  
  Floating on high in every direction,
  
  Music fills the hall and court.
  
  The incense sticks are a forest of feathers,
  
  The cloudy scene an obscure darkness.
  
  Metal stalks with elegant blossoms,
  
  A host of flags and kingfisher banners.
  
  The music of the "Seven Origins" and "Blossoming Origins"
  
  Are intoned as harmonious sounds.
  
  Thus one can almost hear
  
  The spirits coming to feast and frolic.
  
  The spirits are seen off to the zhu zhu of the musics,
  
  Which purifies and refines human feelings.
  
  Suddenly the spirits ride off on the darkness,
  
  And the brilliant event finishes.
  
  Purified thoughts grow hidden and still,
  
  And the warp and weft of the world fall dark.
  
  Han shu, p. 1046
  
  The dominant religious belief in China during the reign of the Qin, and, in fact, during much of early imperial China, was focused on the shen (roughly translating to "spirits"), yin ("shadows"), and the realm they were said to live in. The Chinese offered sacrifices[note 15] in an attempt to contact this other world, which they believed to be parallel to the earthly one. The dead were said to simply have moved from one world to the other. The rituals mentioned, as well as others, served two purposes: to ensure that the dead journeyed and stayed in the other realm, and to receive blessings from the spirit realm.[note 16]
  
  Religious practices were usually held in local shrines and sacred areas, which contained sacrificial altars. During a sacrifice or other ritual, the senses of all participants and witnesses would be dulled and blurred with smoke, incense, and music. The lead sacrificer would fast and meditate before a sacrifice to further blur his senses and increase the likelihood of perceiving otherworldly phenomena. Other participants were similarly prepared, though not as rigorously.
  
  Such blurring of the senses was also a factor in the practice of spirit intermediaries, or mediumship. Practitioners of the art would fall into trances or dance to perform supernatural tasks. These people would often rise to power as a result of their art—Luan Da, a Han Dynasty medium, was granted rule over 2,000 households. Noted Han historian Sima Qian was scornful of such practices, dismissing them as foolish trickery.
  
  Divination—to predict and/or influence the future—was yet another form of religious practice. An ancient practice that was common during the Qin Dynasty was cracking bones or turtle shells to gain knowledge of the future. The forms of divination which sprang up during early imperial China were diverse, though observing natural phenomena was a common method. Comets, eclipses, and droughts were considered omens of things to come.
  
   Sovereigns of Qin Dynasty
  
  Posthumous names / title Chinese family names and given names Period of Reign
  
  Convention: "Qin" + posthumous name
  
  Zhaoxiang (昭襄 Zhāoxiāng) Ying Ze (嬴則 qíng zé) or Ying Ji (嬴稷 yíng jì) 306 BC–250 BC
  
  Xiaowen (孝文 Xiàowén) Ying Zhu (嬴柱 yíng zhù) 250 BC
  
  Zhuangxiang (莊襄 Zhuāngxiāng) Ying Zichu (嬴子楚 yíng zi chǔ) 249 BC–247 BC
  
  Shi Huangdi (始皇帝 Shǐ Huángdì) Ying Zheng (嬴政 yíng zhèng) 246 BC–210 BC
  
  Er Shi Huangdi (二世皇帝 Èr Shì Huángdì) Ying Huhai (嬴胡亥 yíng hú hài) 210 BC–207 BC
  
  Ziying was often referred using personal name or
  
  Qin Wang Ziying (秦王子嬰 qín wáng zi yīng)
  
  Did not exist Ying Ziying (嬴子嬰 yíng zi yīng) 206 BC


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