|东亚 East Asia 国家代码:|
十六世纪起，自欧洲渡海东来的西班牙、葡萄牙、荷兰等势力开始直接与东亚文明交流；海上贸易网络的建立，以及西洋作物和热兵器的输入，相当程度影响了中、日两国的食物供应能力和战争型态，间接对两国尔后的历史轨迹造成虽不明显、实极重大的影响。例如，海上贸易和“铁炮”（火枪）的引进及运用，相当大程度影响了十六世纪日本内部地区势力的消长，相当大程度地左右了日本战国时代群豪争霸的结果。又例如番薯等新作物的种植虽缓和了华夏民族领域可耕地开发饱和的问题，却因食物供给的改变造成中国人口自十八世纪起暴增的结果；尔后，过多的人口成为中国至今难以摆脱的沉重包袱。另一方面，与“远东（The Far East）”贸易的需求，提供了欧洲势力在美、非、亚洲各地大力发展殖民主义的诱因；影响所及，给其晚近资本主义及工业革命的兴起，创造了有利的客观条件。
由于上述各国在现代化转型中取得成功，本区域在世界上的政治、经济重要性正日益提升。当前中华人民共和国已取得战略和经贸大国的地位，日本在经贸和科技方面占有领先地位，中华民国和大韩民国也都在世界经贸体系中争得一席之地；此外，上述几个经济体间的分工合作和贸易整合，更在世界贸易组织（World Trade Organization）、亚洲太平洋经济合作组织（Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation）等国际组织的框架下日趋紧密。依此趋势，二十一世纪的东亚，有成为世界一个新经贸核心的潜力。
另一方面，中国与俄国在军事武器、能源、工业器械、日用品等方面的贸易关系十分密切。从中华人民共和国与俄罗斯、哈萨克斯坦、乌兹别克斯坦、吉尔吉斯斯坦和塔吉克斯坦共六国组成上海合作组织（Shanghai Cooperation Organization），以及中俄合作构筑东北亚天然气管线的动作，可以看出中国大陆在正面迎接来自西方的资本主义全球化之际，亦相当重视经营区域性的战略伙伴以及能源安全布局。
东南亚国家联盟（Association of Southeastern Asian Nations，ASEAN、中文简称“东协”，大陆称为“东盟”），以及“东协加三（中华人民共和国、日本、大韩民国）”自由贸易区。
East Asia is a region of the eastern Asian continent; to geographic and political terms, the area includes several sub-regional and political divisions:
* East Asia:
+ Chinese mainland (including the islands near the mainland)
+ Hong Kong SAR
+ Macao Special Administrative Region
+ South China Sea Islands (part of the jurisdiction)
+ In addition, the PRC also claims to have the island of Taiwan and its affiliated islands, including the Penghu Islands and the sovereignty of Diaoyu Island (but still not real jurisdiction).
* Western Pacific island chain, or flower color Islands:
o the actual jurisdiction of Russian Sakhalin and the Kuril Islands
o Japan (also available in Northeast Asia as a narrow, mainly in Hokkaido, Honshu, Shikoku and Kyushu, the four major islands), and the Izu islands, Ogasawara Islands and the actual jurisdiction of the Ryukyu Islands (Okinawa)
o Republic of China
(Including the island of Taiwan and affiliated islands, the Penghu Islands, Kinmen Islands, Wuchiu, Matsu Islands, East Sand Islands, the Nansha Islands in the Pacific islands and in the Island; also claimed the Diaoyu islands and China's sovereignty, not the actual management)
* Korean Peninsula (Northeast Asia can be as narrow):
o Republic of Korea
The following countries or regions, in some cases will also be included in the scope of East Asia:
* Russia's Far Eastern territories (Eastern Siberia)
* Southeast Asia, Vietnam is geographically, culturally belongs to the East Asian cultural circle, sometimes as the scope of East Asia.
Sometimes, the scope of East Asia are broadly defined as Northeast Asia (including East "Siberian", Mongolia, China, Hong Kong, Macau, the Korean Peninsula, the Japanese archipelago, the Ryukyu Islands and Taiwan) and Southeast Asia (including India and Malaysia Peninsula Indonesia and the Philippines Islands) the sum, which is defined in Western academia and the media are common.
East Asia, located in eastern Asia, the Pacific West Coast. The total area of about 12,000,000 square kilometers, accounting for 9% of global land area. Topography from west to east, into three steps: The first level, the Tibetan Plateau, the second stage for the series of basins and plateaus, the third level is low plains, hills and a few islands.
Monsoon climate in eastern coastal areas significantly, is the world's most typical subtropical, temperate monsoon climate zone, that the East Asian monsoon, humid climate mild; western inland region has a continental climate typical of an arid, semi-arid climate zone; Qinghai-Tibet Plateau highlands region climate zones.
Major ocean currents are the Kuroshio and Oyashio.
More than 1.5 billion population of the region, accounting for 40% of the whole of Asia, about a quarter when all the world. The area is also the world one of the highest population density; average of about 130 people per square kilometer, the equivalent of the world's average population density (about 40 people per square kilometer) 3 times.
Humanities and History
Nation and ancient history
Elijah the area kind of race to Mongolia, mainly concentrated in the coastal and valley plains. National distribution is a Sino-Tibetan language family can be divided into the Han and Tibetan, Altaic languages are Mongolian, Manchu family, and the controversial Korean language, large and ethnic.
Back some two thousand years ago, since ancient times has been originated in the Yellow River Basin by the (Central China) and Chinese civilization created centralized empire, is the leading authority in this area. Comparison of the prosperous period of the Chinese Empire, the nomadic or _set_tled with the neighboring nation to establish tributary relations through regular exchange of needed goods; sometimes Zeyi force to be expelled. Areas of the Chinese Empire to the first three centuries before the 1st century to the south and the north-west between the substantial expansion of indirect or direct result of the South Pacific and Central Asia, the great national movement; then 3,13-14 century, the 17th century, etc., were to large-scale invasion of northern nomads, and even being conquered. However, due to deep-rooted Chinese culture and Chinese national population, the Chinese Empire has invaded or conquered nation - such as Xianbei, Khitan, Jurchen, Mongolia ─ ─ later due to varying degrees by China's laws and institutions, which were completely or partially them into the Chinese nation. The exchange and integration of national history, although in many cases full of brutal killings, but the end result is the expansion of the Chinese nation's blood, and enriched the connotation of Chinese civilization.
In addition, many other East Asian nation to _set_tle in farming, such as Korean, the more ethnic, big and national, etc., has always been that the influence by the Chinese civilization; use of Chinese characters is the traditional culture of these peoples were the most significant common ground, these national activities area is also known as Chinese cultural circle.
Today originated in the large central region of Honshu and the nation, at about the 5th century, in the Kinki area today to establish a powerful kingdom; Japanese imperial dynasty, the Chinese side to follow a centralized system, the other side to use force to conquer the island nation, gradually developed into a rule of the Japanese islands of the empire.
Pre-modern international relations
China and Japan the influence of the two empires intersection in the Korean Peninsula, the first in modern history has been to war several times here. Generally speaking, however, until the fifteenth century, overseas colonization and trade flourished before the History presents two parallel developments of the situation. Please refer to the white village 〔Battle River, Man Battle Wing Hong An, pirates, Lu Wen Qing length of service or Imjin Patriotic War〕
Since the sixteenth century, from Europe across the sea east of Spain, Portugal, the Netherlands and other forces began to communicate directly with the East Asian civilization; establishment of networks of maritime trade, and Western weapons plants and heat input affect the certain extent in China and Japan Food supply capacity and type of war, indirectly causing the History of the two later while not significant, very significant impact on implementation. For example, the maritime trade and the "Lilium" (rifle) the introduction and use, to a large extent affected the sixteenth century, growth and decline of the Japanese forces within the region, to a large extent to the Warring States Period of Japan Qunhao about the results of hegemony. Another example is the planting of new crops such as sweet potato, although the field of Chinese people to ease the development of saturation of arable land, because of changes in food supply caused by China's population jumped from the eighth century the results; later, China has become too difficult for the population get rid of the heavy burden. On the other hand, the "Far East (The Far East)" trade needs, providing a European force in the United States, Africa and Asia to develop the incentive of colonialism; a consequence, to its recent industrial revolution, capitalism and the rise of create a favorable environment.
In the nineteenth century, the long-term impact of the aforementioned development, has caused the economic and between Europe and East Asia, the huge gap between the level of technological development. By the emerging Western forces of Britain, France, the United States and other powerful military superiority of oppression, this time the three East Asian traditional "kingdom" - the Qing Empire, and North Korea, the Edo Shogunate dynasty - were forced to accept the core of international politics in Europe and trade system, and the historical transition into a new stage of modernization.
East Asia's modernization and nation building
Concept by the impact of European nation-state, as well as contemporary Italian, German nation-building success of the stimulation of industry in the latter half of the nineteenth century after China, Japan, ROK political history, but that is a transformation in the modern context, shape their nation's "founding history."
Japan Zunwangrangyi thoughts, down screen movement, and civil war towards the establishment of centralized and local institutional change, first brought the success of its founding; after the "Meiji Restoration" of the long-term reform, originally belonged to the feudal system of Japan, the transformation in the nineteenth century constitutional monarchy into a German national. Anxious to follow the example of Western imperialism in the mentality and ideology of social Darwinism fueled, Japan actively stretching its forces on the Korean Peninsula, and finally lead to the Sino; outcome of the war, decisively changed the warring parties, as well as North Korea and had Qing the territory of the History of Taiwan (see the era of Japanese rule in Taiwan.)
Japan's militarism in the early twentieth century progressive step on the way, is its own political system and the result of interaction between the international strategic situation. Clear in Japan, the Russo-Japanese War and other wars with a series of winning the "incentives", the Japanese sent abroad more than arrogant young soldiers, and nobles, or civilian government are unable to be restrained, and finally lead to increased Sino-Japanese War and Pacific War disaster of outbreaks, both the Japanese and the related neighbors is very painful price to pay. Japan's postwar political system is in accordance with the United States to transform the concept into a real implementation of representative democracy and the state cabinet system.
North Korea in the latter half of the nineteenth century about the international situation, the first from China's sovereign relationship, and be forced into the Japanese sphere of influence, and finally was merged in the early twentieth century. However, in the hard-won independence, but immediately lost a significant stimulation of their own country, Japan, the Korean people experienced thirty years of colonial rule, but more determined to establish their own country's national consciousness; finally in World War II, consensus in the Allied powers restored Korea's sovereignty. However, in the context of the US-Soviet Cold War, the outbreak of the Korean War in 1950, the separatist regime in the Korean peninsula: the assistance of the Soviet Communist control of the northern peninsula, the DPRK is not suitable for long-term implementation of its national power, the more pure communism planned economy; in the U.S. and UK support for the Republic of Korea under the control of the southern peninsula is the implementation of state capitalism, political, military interference in government affairs on the problems experienced several times, finally reaching democratization in the 1990s. Long-established north and south sides of different political, economic and social system results, in essence, on the Korean peninsula created two very different countries; in every case there is a huge difference toward the future of a unified Korean nation, is bound in the real face major challenges encountered.
National Revolutionary Army in the Northern Expedition and the Central Plains War victory, laid in the reconstruction of the central authority on a certain foundation. Then, in the context of World War II, victory in the War of Resistance against Japan, brought to China and the Osiris powers to establish equal relations opportunity. Finally, the success of Communist revolution in 1949, and Jing Guo extended from the mid-1950s to the mid-1970s a number of national mass movement and political mobilization, finally reaching the objective of establishing a "Chinese nation" objective history. In addition, the direct involvement of People's Republic of Korean War, and it plays in the 1970s after the Soviet Union a two-key method between the strategic shift codes are objectively lead to the status of China's global strategy to enhance the results.
In summary, the three modern East Asian nation in the region - China, Japan, South Korea - all in the modernization process of transformation, the pool of suffering, finally formed a few countries today. Although from the perspective of nationalism, China and South Korea are unified country has not been completed; However, in actual international political and economic relations, the various countries within the region or regime, respectively, carried out one after another in different patterns of political, economic, social science and technology, the modernization of the military, etc., in addition to the DPRK, the general were to be successful.
Political and economic
Since these countries to succeed in the modern transformation of the region in the world political and economic importance is rising. The current strategy of the People's Republic has made great power status and economic, trade and technology, Japan occupies a leading position in the Republic of China and the Republic of Korea are also gaining a position in the world trade system; In addition, the division of labor among several economies and trade integration, but also in the WTO (World Trade Organization), Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation (Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation) framework of international organizations such as closer. So trends, the twenty-first century, East Asia, has become the core of a new economic and trade potential.
However, widespread adoption of economic and trade cooperation, several countries in the region still exists between the degree of political differences, and awareness of potential strategic competition. In addition to the Korean Peninsula and the Taiwan Strait political issues, Japan and between China and Korea because of the history of World War II and the formation of national sentiment friction, impact of regional political stability is also a factor. In addition, even if the Cold War has ended, the United States and Russia as strategic a big country in international affairs in the region still retains a considerable degree of influence; Ci level is the relationship to regional affairs and global strategic situation Zhengge, to form a complex international political network.
Traditional economic activities
To traditional economic terms, because the East Asian population is relatively concentrated in the southeast mainland coast, the area of labor-intensive agriculture and handicrafts more developed; with warm and humid subtropical climate, ground rice, silk farming, cultivation of tea, are important hill make a living. The northern temperate climate zone were more likely to grow wheat, millet, sorghum and other crops.
The shortage of arable land, seafood is the Congress and the nation since ancient times, the main source of food; Japanese fishing still is well developed.
Half of the nineteenth century, Taiwan was the world camphor produced major sources of supply; was tea, sugar gradually become an important export. Half of the twentieth century, with the overall economic transformation, the direction of Taiwan's agricultural development gradually to the delicate, banana, wax apple, guava and other items impressive export performance, won the "fruit kingdom" in the title.
The West inland dry climate, agriculture in the less developed, relatively small population; but the vast grassland areas, including Mongolia, livestock, livestock products flourished. Over the years, a number of northwest border town of China and Russia, Mongolia, Kazakhstan and other countries border trade between, but also very well developed; the two sides without reciprocity, continuing since the Middle Ages "Silk Road" trade tradition.
Republic of China's political and economic overview
Since the 1990s, the global division of labor resulting from economies of scale, making China the world trading system in the increasingly important role to play. China's industrial production in recent years, mainly export-oriented products to mainland China in 2006 the overall gross domestic product, has been ranked fourth in the world after the United States, Japan and Germany; In addition, the booming construction industry and domestic market, but also made China become the world's raw materials, energy and other major importing countries. 2001 was admitted to the World Trade Organization, China marked the mainstream of economic development and world trends in system more closely.
On the other hand, China and Russia in military weapons, energy, industrial equipment, daily necessities and other aspects of trade relations are very close. From the Republic of China, Russia, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan of six-nation Shanghai Cooperation Organization (Shanghai Cooperation Organization), and the Sino-Russian cooperation in Northeast Asia natural gas pipeline to build the action, we can see that China is in the positive to meet the globalization of capitalism from the West on the occasion, also attached considerable importance to the strategic business partners and regional energy security layout.
Hong Kong, Macao's political and economic overview
In the period of British rule, Hong Kong developed into a world business, international financial activities to Hong Kong together. Since the reform and opening up in China, Hong Kong, mainland China advantage of the opportunity to meet foreign investment, as well as the main raw material product transfer window; as Hong Kong's economic integration with Mainland China, the Pearl River Delta region is being driven and developed into other industries in Mainland China highly developed areas. The economic activities in shipping, logistics, finance, tourism and service-oriented, high-tech research and start working. Another Chinese city of Macau earlier international economy are fairly well-developed economy based on tourism and service industries.
Japan's political and economic overview
World War II World War, Korean War, the Japanese front-line first by the supply of munitions to rebuild its economy. After the 1960s, rapid economic development, enterprises can accumulate a large amount of capital. After 1970, the Japanese capital and technology-intensive manufacturing sector has been highly developed precision, the export of automobiles, household appliances and other products swept the global market, once a serious threat to the United States of similar industries. With the rapid economic growth, Tokyo - Yokohama, Osaka - Kobe and other commercial centers one by one to become highly capitalized in the metropolitan area.
During this period in Japanese manufacturing products for export and other technological improvements and significant achievements with regard to lay the top in the world of Japan's strong economic base spear. Although the experience of the US-Japan trade friction, combat and other economic bubble burst, leading to the Japanese economy since the 1990s has stagnated the development trends of today's Japan is still the world's leading economies, gross domestic product, ranks second only to the United States. The current Japanese industry to services, shipping, finance, high-tech R & D based.
Japan's strategic dilemma: post-Cold War US-Japan security alliance and Japan-China political friction.
South Korea's political and economic overview
Cold War, the military regime, and democratization. Japan relations, national reunification.
Republic of Korea and the Republic of China, Singapore, Hong Kong and said the "Asian Tigers"; economic modernization since the 1970s, achieved remarkable success. South Korea's main industries in recent years, electronic, telecommunications and automotive industry; particular LCD in global supply network which has a high market share.
Republic of China's political and economic overview
From the previous authoritarian rule, to today's democratic, localized, there are diplomatic isolation, the reunification of China, Taiwan independence and other issues. Relationship with the PRC: Three No policy of military confrontation → → → open exchange of political deadlock.
Agricultural development of industry, import substitution, export processing and industrial restructuring. Republic of China in recent years, the main industry, the electronics, communications products, and automotive OEM production; especially computer components in the global supply network which has a high market share. There is also a cross-Strait economic and trade cooperation.
North Korea's political and economic overview
A high degree of totalitarian rule. National reunification. The six-party talks, missile tests, nuclear tests.
Korea's planned economy, the economy is not developed, traditional agriculture and the military-industrial-based. International embargo, the military force output, the border trade.
Other related areas
Follow the example of Vietnam is currently China's reform model, the implementation of reform and opening up policies to attract foreign-based; in 2006 by the World Trade Organization accepted Vietnam's accession to the file, marking the Vietnam into the global capitalist economic system, an important change. January 11, 2007 Vietnam officially joined the WTO.
Mongolia's lack of modern industrial base, the economy is still the main livestock.
ASEAN (Association of Southeastern Asian Nations, ASEAN, the Chinese referred to as "ASEAN", the mainland as "ASEAN"), and the "ASEAN plus three (Republic of China, Japan, the Republic of Korea)," Free Trade Area.