亚洲:   东亚
East Asia
    国家代码:       改朝换代
  东亚是亚洲大陆东部的一个区域;就地理及政治而论,本区包括以下几个次区域及政治区划:
  
   * 东亚大陆:
   o 中华人民共和国:
   + 中国大陆(含近陆岛屿)
   + 香港特别行政区
   + 澳门特别行政区
   + 南海诸岛(部分管辖)
   + 另外,中华人民共和国亦声称拥有台湾本岛及其附属岛屿,包括澎湖群岛和钓鱼台列屿的主权(但皆未实际管辖)。
   o 蒙古国
  
   * 西太平洋岛链或花彩列岛:
   o 俄罗斯实际管辖的库页岛和千岛群岛
   o 日本(也可狭义列为东北亚,主要以北海道、本州、四国和九州四大岛组成),以及伊豆诸岛、小笠原群岛和实际管辖的琉球群岛(冲绳县)
   o 中华民国
   (含台湾本岛及附属岛屿、澎湖群岛、金门群岛、乌丘、 马祖列岛、东沙群岛、南沙群岛中的太平岛和中洲岛;亦宣称拥有钓鱼台列屿及中国的主权,实际未管理)
  
   * 朝鲜半岛(也可狭义列为东北亚):
   o 朝鲜民主主义人民共和国
   o 大韩民国
  
  以下国家或地区,在某些情况下也会被列入东亚的范围:
  
   * 俄罗斯的远东领土(东西伯利亚)
   * 地理上属于东南亚的越南,由于文化上属于东亚文化圈,有时也被列为东亚的范围。
  
  有时,东亚的范围被广义地界定为东北亚(包括东“西伯利亚”、蒙古、中国大陆、香港、澳门、朝鲜半岛、日本列岛、琉球群岛以及台湾)和东南亚(包括中印半岛以及马来群岛、印尼群岛和菲律宾群岛)的总和,这定义在西方学术界和传媒很普遍。
  
  自然地理
  
  东亚地区位于亚洲东部,太平洋西岸。总面积约12,000,000平方公里,约占全球大陆面积的9%。地形西高东低,成三级阶梯:第一级为青藏高原,第二级为系列盆地和高原,第三级为低平原、丘陵和一些海岛。
  
  东部沿海地区季风气候显著,是世界上最典型的亚热带、温带季风气候区,即东亚季风区,气候湿润温和;西部内陆地区温带大陆性气候典型,属干旱、半干旱气候区;青藏高原地区为高地气候区。
  
  主要洋流有黑潮和亲潮。
  
  本区人口超过15亿,占亚洲全体的40%,约当世界全体的四分之一。本区也是世界人口密度最高的地区之一;平均每平方公里约130人,相当于世界人口密度平均值(每平方公里约40人)的3倍。
  
  人文及历史
  民族与上古历史
  
  本区人种以蒙古利亚种为主,集中在沿海及河谷平原。民族分布大致可分为属汉藏语系的汉族和藏族,属阿尔泰语系的蒙古族、满洲族,以及语系有争议的朝鲜族、大和民族等。
  
  自距今约二千年前的上古时代以来,由发源于黄河流域(中原)的华夏文明所建立的中央集权帝国,即为本区最主要的权威。在中华帝国比较强盛的时期,与周边各游牧或定居民族经常透过建立朝贡关系,互通有无;有时则以武力加以驱逐。中华帝国的领域在前3世纪至前1世纪间往南方及西北方大幅扩张,间接或直接造成南洋和中亚地区的民族大迁徙;然后在3、13-14世纪、17等世纪时,遭到北方的游牧民族大举侵入,甚至遭到征服。然而由于华夏文明根深蒂固且华夏民族人口众多,这些曾经侵入或征服中华帝国的民族——例如鲜卑、契丹、女真、蒙古等──后来都因程度不同地采用华夏的典章制度,而被完全或部分融入华夏民族当中。这些民族交流及融合的历史,虽然许多时候充满残酷的杀戮,但最终的结果是扩张了华夏民族的血缘,并丰富了华夏文明的内涵。
  
  此外,东亚其他许多定居的农耕民族,如朝鲜族、越族、大和民族等,自古即深受华夏文明的影响;使用汉字是这些民族的传统文化当中最为显著的共同点,因此这些民族活动的领域也被称为汉字文化圈。
  
  发源于今日日本本州中部地区的大和民族,在约5世纪时,于今日的近畿一带建立起一强大的王国;大和王朝一面仿效华夏帝国的中央集权体制,一面以武力征服岛内其他的民族,逐渐发展成统治日本诸岛的帝国。
  
  前现代的国际关系
  
  华夏与大和两个帝国的影响力在朝鲜半岛交会,在前现代史上曾几度于此兵戎相见。然而大体而言,直到十五世纪海外拓殖及贸易兴盛起来以前,两国的历史轨迹呈现平行发展的态势。〔请参阅白村江之战、文永·弘安之役、倭寇、文禄·庆长之役或壬辰卫国战争〕
  
  十六世纪起,自欧洲渡海东来的西班牙、葡萄牙、荷兰等势力开始直接与东亚文明交流;海上贸易网络的建立,以及西洋作物和热兵器的输入,相当程度影响了中、日两国的食物供应能力和战争型态,间接对两国尔后的历史轨迹造成虽不明显、实极重大的影响。例如,海上贸易和“铁炮”(火枪)的引进及运用,相当大程度影响了十六世纪日本内部地区势力的消长,相当大程度地左右了日本战国时代群豪争霸的结果。又例如番薯等新作物的种植虽缓和了华夏民族领域可耕地开发饱和的问题,却因食物供给的改变造成中国人口自十八世纪起暴增的结果;尔后,过多的人口成为中国至今难以摆脱的沉重包袱。另一方面,与“远东(The Far East)”贸易的需求,提供了欧洲势力在美、非、亚洲各地大力发展殖民主义的诱因;影响所及,给其晚近资本主义及工业革命的兴起,创造了有利的客观条件。
  
  到了十九世纪,前述发展的长期影响,已经造成了欧洲与东亚之间经济和科技发展程度的巨大差距。受到新兴西洋势力英国、法国、美国等强大军事优势的压迫,此时东亚的三个传统“王国”——清帝国、江户幕府和朝鲜王朝——均被迫接受以欧洲为核心的国际政治及贸易体系,并步入现代化转型的历史新阶段。
  东亚的现代化与国族建构
  
  受到欧洲民族国家概念的冲击,以及同时代意大利、德意志建国成功的刺激,十九世纪后半业以后的中、日、韩三国政治史,可是说就是一部在现代化转型的背景下,形塑各自国族的“建国史”。
  
  日本的尊王攘夷思潮、倒幕运动,以及朝向建立中央集权的内战和地方制度变革,首先带来其建国的成功;经过“明治维新”的长期改革,原本属于封建体系的日本,在十九世纪末转型成一个德国式君主立宪的国家。在亟欲仿效西方帝国主义的心态,以及社会达尔文主义思想的推波助澜下,日本积极将其势力伸入朝鲜半岛,终于引发甲午战争;战争的结果,决定性地改变了交战双方,以及朝鲜和此前作为清国领土的台湾的历史轨迹(请参阅台湾日治时代)。
  
  日本在二十世纪初期逐渐步上军国主义之途,是其本身政治体制及国际战略形势交互作用的结果。在日清、日俄与一战等战争接连获胜的“激励”下,日本海内外少壮军人逾发骄纵,而贵族或文人政府均无力加以约束,终于酿成中日战争升高以及太平洋战争爆发等惨祸,使日本及相关邻国均付出极为惨痛的代价。战后的日本政体被依照美国理念加以改造,变成一个实施代议民主及实质内阁制的国家。
  
  朝鲜在十九世纪后半叶国际局势的左右下,首先脱离对中国的宗主关系,又被日本强行纳入势力范围,终于在二十世纪初遭到兼并。然而在好不容易独立、却又立刻失去自己国家的重大刺激下,韩国人民经历日本卅多年的殖民统治,反而更加坚定了必须建立自己国家的国族意识;终于在第二次世界大战结束以后,在同盟国列强的共识下恢复了韩国的主权。然而,在美苏冷战背景下于1950年爆发的韩战,造成朝鲜半岛政权的分裂:在苏中共援助下控制半岛北方的朝鲜民主主义人民共和国长期实施不适合其国力的、较为纯粹的共产主义、计划经济;在美英等国支援下控制半岛南方的大韩民国则实施国家资本主义,政治上几度经历军方干政的困扰,终于在1990年代达成民主化。南北双方长期实行不同政、经、社会制度的结果,实质上在朝鲜半岛上创造了两个截然不同的国家;在各方面都存在巨大差异的情形下,朝韩国族的未来统一,势必在现实面遭遇重大的挑战。
  
  中国最初的现代化努力,在清帝国的统治阶层和传统官僚结合的强大保守势力制肘,以及的人口问题的拖累下,未能获得显著的成功。1911年爆发的革命,终结了这个由非华夏民族所建立的传统帝国的统治;换言之,这个革命具有民族主义及追求现代化的双重意义。然而,革命之后的中国,随着中央集权权威的崩溃,不久即陷入混乱的局面,无法有效推展任何现代化转型所需的政、经、社会改革,且无力排拒诸多外国势力的干扰。在此状况下,重建对内的权威和对外的主权可以说是二十世纪上半叶中国建国历程中最关键的课题。
  
  国民革命军在北伐战争和中原大战的胜利,在重建中央权威上奠定了一定的基础。接着在世界大战的背景下,对日抗战的胜利,给中国带来了与欧西列强建立平等关系的契机。最后,1949年共产党革命的成功,以及经过从1950年代中期延续到1970年代中期的众多全国性群众运动的政治动员,终于在客观上达成了建立一个“中国国族”的历史目标。此外,中华人民共和国直接参与朝鲜战争,以及它在1970年代以后扮演美苏两强之间关键法码的战略转变,均在客观上导致了中国全球战略地位提升的结果。
  
  最后,中国国共内战的结果,在1950年代冷战态势升高的背景下,形成由国民党所领导的政权在台湾重建其治权的事实。沿用中华民国的国名和宪政体制,以及在美援的支持下,国府在台湾建立了一个实施国家资本主义的一党专政体制;经济自1970年代开始快速发展,政治上则在1990年代达成民主化。此一时期,在台湾的中华民国政权与在中国大陆的中华人民共和国政权之间的关系,从较早军事、意识型态的冲突,到晚近政治疏离、经济合作的态势,错综复杂(请参阅台湾问题);另外,台湾内部也有脱离中国独立建国的声音,以及若干试图发展台湾国族的政治意识(请参阅台湾独立运动)。
  
  综上所述,现代东亚区域内的三大国族——中国、日本、韩国——都在现代化转型的过程中,饱经磨难,才终于形成今日的几个国家。尽管从民族主义的角度出发,中国和韩国都是尚未完成统一的国家;然而在实际的国际政经关系中,本区域内的各个国家或政权,分别以不同的模式陆续开展政治、经济、社会、科技、军事等方面的现代化转型,除朝鲜民主主义人民共和国外,大体上均获得成功。
  政治与经济
  
  由于上述各国在现代化转型中取得成功,本区域在世界上的政治、经济重要性正日益提升。当前中华人民共和国已取得战略和经贸大国的地位,日本在经贸和科技方面占有领先地位,中华民国和大韩民国也都在世界经贸体系中争得一席之地;此外,上述几个经济体间的分工合作和贸易整合,更在世界贸易组织(World Trade Organization)、亚洲太平洋经济合作组织(Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation)等国际组织的框架下日趋紧密。依此趋势,二十一世纪的东亚,有成为世界一个新经贸核心的潜力。
  
  然而在广泛采取经贸合作的同时,区域内几个国家之间依然存在相当程度的政治歧见,以及潜在的战略竞争意识。除了朝鲜半岛和台湾海峡两岸的政治问题以外,日本和中、韩两国因为二战的历史而形成的民族情绪摩擦,也是影响区域政治稳定的一个因素。另外,即使冷战已经结束,美国和俄罗斯作为战略大国,在本区域的国际事务中仍保有相当程度的影响力;此一层关系更是将区域事务与全球战略局势整个联系起来,形成一个错综复杂的国际政治网络。
  传统经济活动
  
  就传统经济而言,因东亚大陆人口相对集中于东南沿海地带,本区劳力密集的农业和手工业较为发达;配合亚热带温暖潮湿的气候条件,平地种植水稻、养殖蚕丝,丘陵种植茶叶等均为重要营生。北方的温带气候区则较多种植麦、黍、高粱等作物。
  
  由于耕地不足,海产自古即为大和民族主要的食物来源;日本渔业至今仍相当发达。
  
  十九世纪下半叶,台湾出产的樟脑曾是世界主要的供应源;后来茶叶、砂糖陆续成为重要的出口品。二十世纪下半叶,随着整体经济转型,台湾农业逐渐往精致方向发展,香蕉、莲雾、芭乐等品项出口成绩不俗,赢得“水果王国”的称号。
  
  本区西部内陆地区气候干燥,农业较不发达,人口相对稀少;不过在内外蒙古辽阔的草原地带,畜牧业、畜产品加工相当兴盛。长期以来,中国若干西北边城与俄罗斯、蒙古、哈萨克等国之间的边境贸易,也十分发达;双方互易有无,延续中古以来“丝路”贸易的传统。
  中华人民共和国的政经概况
  
  中华人民共和国成立以来,由于政治因素,与西方国家之间的贸易几近断绝;在与美苏关系均不良好的时期,由于取得先进技术的管道受限,中国的工业现代化进程相当缓慢。然而,自1978年开始改革开放政策以来,在外来技术和资金投资的刺激和带动下,经济发展日益活络,生产技术也得以加速进步。这段时期投入中国大陆的外资主要来自美国、日本、大韩民国、台湾、香港(包含来自各地的转投资)等地;随着外资的涌入及产业的兴盛,珠江三角洲、长江三角洲及其它东部沿海一带等经济开放区域以及内陆部分城市迅速发展成高度资本化、工业化的地区。
  
  1990年代以来,由于全球产业分工造成的规模经济优势,使得中国在世界贸易体系中扮演愈发重要的角色。中国产业近年来以生产出口导向的制品为主,至2006年时中国大陆的总体国内生产毛额已位列世界第四,仅次于美国、日本和德国;此外,日益蓬勃的营建业和国内市场,也使得中国大陆成为世界原物料、能源等的主要进口国。2001年被接纳加入世界贸易组织标志著中国大陆经贸发展与世界主流体系更为紧密结合的趋势。
  
  另一方面,中国与俄国在军事武器、能源、工业器械、日用品等方面的贸易关系十分密切。从中华人民共和国与俄罗斯、哈萨克斯坦、乌兹别克斯坦、吉尔吉斯斯坦和塔吉克斯坦共六国组成上海合作组织(Shanghai Cooperation Organization),以及中俄合作构筑东北亚天然气管线的动作,可以看出中国大陆在正面迎接来自西方的资本主义全球化之际,亦相当重视经营区域性的战略伙伴以及能源安全布局。
  香港、澳门的政经概况
  
  在英国统治时期,香港发展成一个世界商业、金融活动汇集的国际要港。中国大陆改革开放以来,香港顺势成为中国内地迎接外来投资,以及原物料产品转运的最主要窗口;随着香港与中国内地的经济整合,珠江三角洲地区乃被带动而发展成中国大陆另外一个产业高度开发的地区。香港当前的经济活动以航运、物流、金融、旅游和服务业为主,并开始致力于高科技研究。中国另一个较早国际化的城市澳门,经济尚称发达,经济以旅游和服务业为主。
  日本的政经概况
  
  二战战后,日本首先靠供应韩战前线的军需品重建其经济。1960年代以后,经济迅速发展,企业得以累积大量的资本。1970年代以后,日本资本、技术密集的精密制造业已十分发达,外销的汽车、家用电器等类产品席卷全球市场,一度严重威胁到美国的同类产业。随着经济快速成长,东京—横滨、大阪—神户等商业中心一一发展成为高度资本化的大都会区。
  
  这段时期日本制造业在技术改进和产品外销等方面所取得的重大成就,奠定了日本在世界名列前矛的雄厚经济基础。虽然经历美日贸易摩擦、泡沫经济破灭等打击,导致1990年代以来的日本经济发展趋势呈现停滞,今日的日本仍为世界领先的经济体,国内生产毛额排名世界第二,仅次于美国。当前日本的产业以服务业、航运、金融、高科技研发等为主。
  
  日本的战略两难:后冷战时期的美日安全保障同盟与日中政治摩擦。
  韩国的政经概况
  
  冷战、军人政权、民主化。对日关系、国家统一问题。
  
  大韩民国与中华民国、新加坡、香港并称“亚洲四小龙”;经济现代化自1970年代以来取得显著的成功。韩国近年来的主力产业为电子、通讯产品以及汽车制造业;尤其液晶显示器在全球供应网络当中拥有极高的市场占有率。
  中华民国的政经概况
  
  从原先的威权统治,到今天的民主化、本土化,目前有外交孤立、中国统一、台湾独立等问题。与中华人民共和国的关系:军事对抗→三不政策→开放交流→政治僵局。
  
  以农业发展工业、进口替代、加工出口、产业结构转型。中华民国的近年来的主力产业为电子、通讯产品,以及汽车的代工生产;尤其以电脑零组件在全球供应网络当中拥有极高的市场占有率。另外也有跨海峡双边经贸合作。
  朝鲜的政经概况
  
  高度极权统治。国家统一问题。六方会谈、导弹试射、核武试爆。
  
  朝鲜民主主义人民共和国的计划经济,经济并不发达,以传统农业和军事工业为主。国际禁运、军武输出、边界贸易。
  其他相关地区
  
  越南当前正仿效中国的改革模式,实施革新开放政策,以吸引外资为主;2006年世界贸易组织通过接纳越南加入的文件,标志著越南融入资本主义全球经贸体系的重要转变。2007年1月11日越南正式加入WTO。
  
  蒙古缺乏现代化工业基础,经济仍以畜牧业为主。
  
  东南亚国家联盟(Association of Southeastern Asian Nations,ASEAN、中文简称“东协”,大陆称为“东盟”),以及“东协加三(中华人民共和国、日本、大韩民国)”自由贸易区。


  East Asia is a region of the eastern Asian continent; to geographic and political terms, the area includes several sub-regional and political divisions:
  * East Asia:
  o People:
  + Chinese mainland (including the islands near the mainland)
  + Hong Kong SAR
  + Macao Special Administrative Region
  + South China Sea Islands (part of the jurisdiction)
  + In addition, the PRC also claims to have the island of Taiwan and its affiliated islands, including the Penghu Islands and the sovereignty of Diaoyu Island (but still not real jurisdiction).
  o Mongolia
  * Western Pacific island chain, or flower color Islands:
  o the actual jurisdiction of Russian Sakhalin and the Kuril Islands
  o Japan (also available in Northeast Asia as a narrow, mainly in Hokkaido, Honshu, Shikoku and Kyushu, the four major islands), and the Izu islands, Ogasawara Islands and the actual jurisdiction of the Ryukyu Islands (Okinawa)
  o Republic of China
  (Including the island of Taiwan and affiliated islands, the Penghu Islands, Kinmen Islands, Wuchiu, Matsu Islands, East Sand Islands, the Nansha Islands in the Pacific islands and in the Island; also claimed the Diaoyu islands and China's sovereignty, not the actual management)
  * Korean Peninsula (Northeast Asia can be as narrow):
  o Korea
  o Republic of Korea
  The following countries or regions, in some cases will also be included in the scope of East Asia:
  * Russia's Far Eastern territories (Eastern Siberia)
  * Southeast Asia, Vietnam is geographically, culturally belongs to the East Asian cultural circle, sometimes as the scope of East Asia.
  Sometimes, the scope of East Asia are broadly defined as Northeast Asia (including East "Siberian", Mongolia, China, Hong Kong, Macau, the Korean Peninsula, the Japanese archipelago, the Ryukyu Islands and Taiwan) and Southeast Asia (including India and Malaysia Peninsula Indonesia and the Philippines Islands) the sum, which is defined in Western academia and the media are common.
  Physical Geography
  East Asia, located in eastern Asia, the Pacific West Coast. The total area of about 12,000,000 square kilometers, accounting for 9% of global land area. Topography from west to east, into three steps: The first level, the Tibetan Plateau, the second stage for the series of basins and plateaus, the third level is low plains, hills and a few islands.
  Monsoon climate in eastern coastal areas significantly, is the world's most typical subtropical, temperate monsoon climate zone, that the East Asian monsoon, humid climate mild; western inland region has a continental climate typical of an arid, semi-arid climate zone; Qinghai-Tibet Plateau highlands region climate zones.
  Major ocean currents are the Kuroshio and Oyashio.
  More than 1.5 billion population of the region, accounting for 40% of the whole of Asia, about a quarter when all the world. The area is also the world one of the highest population density; average of about 130 people per square kilometer, the equivalent of the world's average population density (about 40 people per square kilometer) 3 times.
  Humanities and History
  Nation and ancient history
  Elijah the area kind of race to Mongolia, mainly concentrated in the coastal and valley plains. National distribution is a Sino-Tibetan language family can be divided into the Han and Tibetan, Altaic languages are Mongolian, Manchu family, and the controversial Korean language, large and ethnic.
  Back some two thousand years ago, since ancient times has been originated in the Yellow River Basin by the (Central China) and Chinese civilization created centralized empire, is the leading authority in this area. Comparison of the prosperous period of the Chinese Empire, the nomadic or _set_tled with the neighboring nation to establish tributary relations through regular exchange of needed goods; sometimes Zeyi force to be expelled. Areas of the Chinese Empire to the first three centuries before the 1st century to the south and the north-west between the substantial expansion of indirect or direct result of the South Pacific and Central Asia, the great national movement; then 3,13-14 century, the 17th century, etc., were to large-scale invasion of northern nomads, and even being conquered. However, due to deep-rooted Chinese culture and Chinese national population, the Chinese Empire has invaded or conquered nation - such as Xianbei, Khitan, Jurchen, Mongolia ─ ─ later due to varying degrees by China's laws and institutions, which were completely or partially them into the Chinese nation. The exchange and integration of national history, although in many cases full of brutal killings, but the end result is the expansion of the Chinese nation's blood, and enriched the connotation of Chinese civilization.
  In addition, many other East Asian nation to _set_tle in farming, such as Korean, the more ethnic, big and national, etc., has always been that the influence by the Chinese civilization; use of Chinese characters is the traditional culture of these peoples were the most significant common ground, these national activities area is also known as Chinese cultural circle.
  Today originated in the large central region of Honshu and the nation, at about the 5th century, in the Kinki area today to establish a powerful kingdom; Japanese imperial dynasty, the Chinese side to follow a centralized system, the other side to use force to conquer the island nation, gradually developed into a rule of the Japanese islands of the empire.
  Pre-modern international relations
  China and Japan the influence of the two empires intersection in the Korean Peninsula, the first in modern history has been to war several times here. Generally speaking, however, until the fifteenth century, overseas colonization and trade flourished before the History presents two parallel developments of the situation. Please refer to the white village 〔Battle River, Man Battle Wing Hong An, pirates, Lu Wen Qing length of service or Imjin Patriotic War〕
  Since the sixteenth century, from Europe across the sea east of Spain, Portugal, the Netherlands and other forces began to communicate directly with the East Asian civilization; establishment of networks of maritime trade, and Western weapons plants and heat input affect the certain extent in China and Japan Food supply capacity and type of war, indirectly causing the History of the two later while not significant, very significant impact on implementation. For example, the maritime trade and the "Lilium" (rifle) the introduction and use, to a large extent affected the sixteenth century, growth and decline of the Japanese forces within the region, to a large extent to the Warring States Period of Japan Qunhao about the results of hegemony. Another example is the planting of new crops such as sweet potato, although the field of Chinese people to ease the development of saturation of arable land, because of changes in food supply caused by China's population jumped from the eighth century the results; later, China has become too difficult for the population get rid of the heavy burden. On the other hand, the "Far East (The Far East)" trade needs, providing a European force in the United States, Africa and Asia to develop the incentive of colonialism; a consequence, to its recent industrial revolution, capitalism and the rise of create a favorable environment.
  In the nineteenth century, the long-term impact of the aforementioned development, has caused the economic and between Europe and East Asia, the huge gap between the level of technological development. By the emerging Western forces of Britain, France, the United States and other powerful military superiority of oppression, this time the three East Asian traditional "kingdom" - the Qing Empire, and North Korea, the Edo Shogunate dynasty - were forced to accept the core of international politics in Europe and trade system, and the historical transition into a new stage of modernization.
  East Asia's modernization and nation building
  Concept by the impact of European nation-state, as well as contemporary Italian, German nation-building success of the stimulation of industry in the latter half of the nineteenth century after China, Japan, ROK political history, but that is a transformation in the modern context, shape their nation's "founding history."
  Japan Zunwangrangyi thoughts, down screen movement, and civil war towards the establishment of centralized and local institutional change, first brought the success of its founding; after the "Meiji Restoration" of the long-term reform, originally belonged to the feudal system of Japan, the transformation in the nineteenth century constitutional monarchy into a German national. Anxious to follow the example of Western imperialism in the mentality and ideology of social Darwinism fueled, Japan actively stretching its forces on the Korean Peninsula, and finally lead to the Sino; outcome of the war, decisively changed the warring parties, as well as North Korea and had Qing the territory of the History of Taiwan (see the era of Japanese rule in Taiwan.)
  Japan's militarism in the early twentieth century progressive step on the way, is its own political system and the result of interaction between the international strategic situation. Clear in Japan, the Russo-Japanese War and other wars with a series of winning the "incentives", the Japanese sent abroad more than arrogant young soldiers, and nobles, or civilian government are unable to be restrained, and finally lead to increased Sino-Japanese War and Pacific War disaster of outbreaks, both the Japanese and the related neighbors is very painful price to pay. Japan's postwar political system is in accordance with the United States to transform the concept into a real implementation of representative democracy and the state cabinet system.
  North Korea in the latter half of the nineteenth century about the international situation, the first from China's sovereign relationship, and be forced into the Japanese sphere of influence, and finally was merged in the early twentieth century. However, in the hard-won independence, but immediately lost a significant stimulation of their own country, Japan, the Korean people experienced thirty years of colonial rule, but more determined to establish their own country's national consciousness; finally in World War II, consensus in the Allied powers restored Korea's sovereignty. However, in the context of the US-Soviet Cold War, the outbreak of the Korean War in 1950, the separatist regime in the Korean peninsula: the assistance of the Soviet Communist control of the northern peninsula, the DPRK is not suitable for long-term implementation of its national power, the more pure communism planned economy; in the U.S. and UK support for the Republic of Korea under the control of the southern peninsula is the implementation of state capitalism, political, military interference in government affairs on the problems experienced several times, finally reaching democratization in the 1990s. Long-established north and south sides of different political, economic and social system results, in essence, on the Korean peninsula created two very different countries; in every case there is a huge difference toward the future of a unified Korean nation, is bound in the real face major challenges encountered.
  National Revolutionary Army in the Northern Expedition and the Central Plains War victory, laid in the reconstruction of the central authority on a certain foundation. Then, in the context of World War II, victory in the War of Resistance against Japan, brought to China and the Osiris powers to establish equal relations opportunity. Finally, the success of Communist revolution in 1949, and Jing Guo extended from the mid-1950s to the mid-1970s a number of national mass movement and political mobilization, finally reaching the objective of establishing a "Chinese nation" objective history. In addition, the direct involvement of People's Republic of Korean War, and it plays in the 1970s after the Soviet Union a two-key method between the strategic shift codes are objectively lead to the status of China's global strategy to enhance the results.
  In summary, the three modern East Asian nation in the region - China, Japan, South Korea - all in the modernization process of transformation, the pool of suffering, finally formed a few countries today. Although from the perspective of nationalism, China and South Korea are unified country has not been completed; However, in actual international political and economic relations, the various countries within the region or regime, respectively, carried out one after another in different patterns of political, economic, social science and technology, the modernization of the military, etc., in addition to the DPRK, the general were to be successful.
  Political and economic
  Since these countries to succeed in the modern transformation of the region in the world political and economic importance is rising. The current strategy of the People's Republic has made great power status and economic, trade and technology, Japan occupies a leading position in the Republic of China and the Republic of Korea are also gaining a position in the world trade system; In addition, the division of labor among several economies and trade integration, but also in the WTO (World Trade Organization), Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation (Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation) framework of international organizations such as closer. So trends, the twenty-first century, East Asia, has become the core of a new economic and trade potential.
  However, widespread adoption of economic and trade cooperation, several countries in the region still exists between the degree of political differences, and awareness of potential strategic competition. In addition to the Korean Peninsula and the Taiwan Strait political issues, Japan and between China and Korea because of the history of World War II and the formation of national sentiment friction, impact of regional political stability is also a factor. In addition, even if the Cold War has ended, the United States and Russia as strategic a big country in international affairs in the region still retains a considerable degree of influence; Ci level is the relationship to regional affairs and global strategic situation Zhengge, to form a complex international political network.
  Traditional economic activities
  To traditional economic terms, because the East Asian population is relatively concentrated in the southeast mainland coast, the area of labor-intensive agriculture and handicrafts more developed; with warm and humid subtropical climate, ground rice, silk farming, cultivation of tea, are important hill make a living. The northern temperate climate zone were more likely to grow wheat, millet, sorghum and other crops.
  The shortage of arable land, seafood is the Congress and the nation since ancient times, the main source of food; Japanese fishing still is well developed.
  Half of the nineteenth century, Taiwan was the world camphor produced major sources of supply; was tea, sugar gradually become an important export. Half of the twentieth century, with the overall economic transformation, the direction of Taiwan's agricultural development gradually to the delicate, banana, wax apple, guava and other items impressive export performance, won the "fruit kingdom" in the title.
  The West inland dry climate, agriculture in the less developed, relatively small population; but the vast grassland areas, including Mongolia, livestock, livestock products flourished. Over the years, a number of northwest border town of China and Russia, Mongolia, Kazakhstan and other countries border trade between, but also very well developed; the two sides without reciprocity, continuing since the Middle Ages "Silk Road" trade tradition.
  Republic of China's political and economic overview
  Since the 1990s, the global division of labor resulting from economies of scale, making China the world trading system in the increasingly important role to play. China's industrial production in recent years, mainly export-oriented products to mainland China in 2006 the overall gross domestic product, has been ranked fourth in the world after the United States, Japan and Germany; In addition, the booming construction industry and domestic market, but also made China become the world's raw materials, energy and other major importing countries. 2001 was admitted to the World Trade Organization, China marked the mainstream of economic development and world trends in system more closely.
  On the other hand, China and Russia in military weapons, energy, industrial equipment, daily necessities and other aspects of trade relations are very close. From the Republic of China, Russia, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan of six-nation Shanghai Cooperation Organization (Shanghai Cooperation Organization), and the Sino-Russian cooperation in Northeast Asia natural gas pipeline to build the action, we can see that China is in the positive to meet the globalization of capitalism from the West on the occasion, also attached considerable importance to the strategic business partners and regional energy security layout.
  Hong Kong, Macao's political and economic overview
  In the period of British rule, Hong Kong developed into a world business, international financial activities to Hong Kong together. Since the reform and opening up in China, Hong Kong, mainland China advantage of the opportunity to meet foreign investment, as well as the main raw material product transfer window; as Hong Kong's economic integration with Mainland China, the Pearl River Delta region is being driven and developed into other industries in Mainland China highly developed areas. The economic activities in shipping, logistics, finance, tourism and service-oriented, high-tech research and start working. Another Chinese city of Macau earlier international economy are fairly well-developed economy based on tourism and service industries.
  Japan's political and economic overview
  World War II World War, Korean War, the Japanese front-line first by the supply of munitions to rebuild its economy. After the 1960s, rapid economic development, enterprises can accumulate a large amount of capital. After 1970, the Japanese capital and technology-intensive manufacturing sector has been highly developed precision, the export of automobiles, household appliances and other products swept the global market, once a serious threat to the United States of similar industries. With the rapid economic growth, Tokyo - Yokohama, Osaka - Kobe and other commercial centers one by one to become highly capitalized in the metropolitan area.
  During this period in Japanese manufacturing products for export and other technological improvements and significant achievements with regard to lay the top in the world of Japan's strong economic base spear. Although the experience of the US-Japan trade friction, combat and other economic bubble burst, leading to the Japanese economy since the 1990s has stagnated the development trends of today's Japan is still the world's leading economies, gross domestic product, ranks second only to the United States. The current Japanese industry to services, shipping, finance, high-tech R & D based.
  Japan's strategic dilemma: post-Cold War US-Japan security alliance and Japan-China political friction.
  South Korea's political and economic overview
  Cold War, the military regime, and democratization. Japan relations, national reunification.
  Republic of Korea and the Republic of China, Singapore, Hong Kong and said the "Asian Tigers"; economic modernization since the 1970s, achieved remarkable success. South Korea's main industries in recent years, electronic, telecommunications and automotive industry; particular LCD in global supply network which has a high market share.
  Republic of China's political and economic overview
  From the previous authoritarian rule, to today's democratic, localized, there are diplomatic isolation, the reunification of China, Taiwan independence and other issues. Relationship with the PRC: Three No policy of military confrontation → → → open exchange of political deadlock.
  Agricultural development of industry, import substitution, export processing and industrial restructuring. Republic of China in recent years, the main industry, the electronics, communications products, and automotive OEM production; especially computer components in the global supply network which has a high market share. There is also a cross-Strait economic and trade cooperation.
  North Korea's political and economic overview
  A high degree of totalitarian rule. National reunification. The six-party talks, missile tests, nuclear tests.
  Korea's planned economy, the economy is not developed, traditional agriculture and the military-industrial-based. International embargo, the military force output, the border trade.
  Other related areas
  Follow the example of Vietnam is currently China's reform model, the implementation of reform and opening up policies to attract foreign-based; in 2006 by the World Trade Organization accepted Vietnam's accession to the file, marking the Vietnam into the global capitalist economic system, an important change. January 11, 2007 Vietnam officially joined the WTO.
  Mongolia's lack of modern industrial base, the economy is still the main livestock.
  ASEAN (Association of Southeastern Asian Nations, ASEAN, the Chinese referred to as "ASEAN", the mainland as "ASEAN"), and the "ASEAN plus three (Republic of China, Japan, the Republic of Korea)," Free Trade Area.
 

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