History: history historical
General History: the objective world sports development process, can be divided into natural history and the history of human society both.
Narrow History: place in human society, the development process.
History: the study of history, learning, short history. Correspond with the concept of history, history also has broad and narrow sense.
General History: All the world can be called scientific history.
("We just know that a unique scientific, or historical science." - Marx, Engels)
Narrow sense of history: the study of the development of human society in the past movement of knowledge.
History of science:
Usually we will call the Marxist history of science history, because it is under the guidance of scientific theory of historical materialism, history, and past history fundamentally, many do not go beyond the scope of the history of idealism.
The relationship between history and history:
History, is an objective fact, there is only one truth. However, recorded history, history of knowledge is often subjective as the human sense of change, development of a sound, even with distortion and fabrication. Because of this, the year before Hu said: "History is like a little girl, love how you dress on how dress." Where "history" is, strictly speaking, should narrow the meaning of history. As a result, our best historians of ancient special attention to "the history of Germany" - "good and evil must book", "Analysis of Li Ju Zheng", generally, of seeking truth from facts recorded, fair and objective analysis of argument.
"History" means the official historian of ancient Chinese characters. Zhuanwen write to "" (see photo), Xu Shen in "Shuo Wen Jie Zi" said: "History, notes were also. From another holding. Of being also."
"History" is the term appeared in the late Qing Dynasty.
History of the word in English for the History, in French as Histoire, with two out of the Greek Histria, its original meaning as a "sign asked," "asked with knowledge."
Abroad on the "historical" interpretation of the term
(A) of the nature and development of human society, but also refers to the development of certain things or personal experience.
(B) the fact that, out of date things. Example: This issue has already become history.
(C) the record of past events, history, history; Events.
(D) record and explain the process of human activity as a series of historical events of a discipline.
(E) title. That "the history of Greek Persian War." Ancient Greek historian Herodotus book. The book is nine volumes, the former principal recalled four volumes of Egypt, Babylon, Persia, Lydia, Scythian and Greek local history, after the five-volume description of the causes of war between Greece and Persia, and through, and ends at 479 BC. The book there are many myths and legends mixed, not entirely credible. But this book is the first important European historical writings.
(F) personal resume; experience
(7) on the formation of future events that affect the process of
(8) historical records, conqueror beautify their own tools.
(Ix) the truth of history, often evolving over time.
Function and methods of history
English poet Shelley once wrote: "History is engraved in time and memory on a swing poem."
History, it is often a remarkable similarity again, how similar historical events from the past lessons learned? How to use the wisdom of the ancients meet today's real life? The answer is that the learning of history.
As a result, history will have its most important function - the Society.
What is The World? Committed to the State, committed to the community that the economic world; What Pragmatism, as I shall have learned of that I used for the Practical.
"Look," "Reading Shi Mingzhi" ... ... have emphasized the guiding role of the reality of history, the individual, the nation of human inspiration and help.
When a nation be able to continue to draw strength from the history, and continue, continue to innovate and reflect the ethnic identity, it would be the whole earth, and even a blessing to the universe.
History The general requirement is the emphasis on learning ways to improve efficiency. Specific requirements is to play solid foundation, focused; independent thinking, good question; timely summary of analogy; step by step, the efficiency of the first.
History learning to master the three kinds of knowledge: knowledge structure section, thematic structure and theory of knowledge, where knowledge is the foundation chapter. Specifically about the following learning methods:
1, the text big, small print, is the main content of textbooks, which "characters" is the top priority of learning. Control characters, first of all remember to remember "dead" back to back "hard." Emphasized that "in understanding the basis of memory," undoubtedly correct, but understanding can not replace memories. Second, to understand deeper. Understanding of knowledge, that is, grasp the historical events of the internal structure and external linkages, distinguish the history and meaning of things, the nature of surface phenomena. Such as Wei Yuan's "Prostitutes" thinking, literally meaning the study of the table and resist Western aggression, the implicit aim is to "power"; second is the hidden links between different concepts, Westernization inherited resistance to school "learning Technology "thinking, and expand the content of learning the West, but the two parties do not understand the root causes of the failure of the two Opium Wars is decadent and backward feudal system, but do not know how to save the nation from peril fundamental way out is to change the system, which To tap the hidden links. "Small print" is an extension and supplement large print, it is more specific, detailed, depending on the circumstances control: knowledge account, condensed into a point; plot description, into rational knowledge; view concluding analysis, and the characters the same master.
2, tables, maps and literature are an important part of learning. Map grasp two points, one with major historical events, phenomena linked to reflect the characteristics of the times and historical trends in the evolution of the map; the second is the figure, the first thing to grasp the content of materials covered. Review of literature is easy to ignore when the contents of teaching literature on the college entrance examination proposition technology continues to improve. On the teaching of literature, one to read, second, analysis of the relationship between the body, three to be able to explain the phenomenon and problems reflect what.
3, chapter notes are not the focus of knowledge and learning can be used for browsing-type control, but in some special knowledge of the sequence has its important position. Such as "strange war" is the comment content, put it to appease the knowledge structure, we can see that it is the British and French policy of appeasement in the war continued. In short, the knowledge of several textbooks, learning that should be prioritized, and pay attention to their characteristics, can be neglected.
In short, we must remember the basic facts, constantly sum up on this basis, attention will combine theory with historical facts, and constantly improve their analysis and understanding.
AD control dynasties in Chinese history summary table
Start and end dynastic capital of this land
Summer 2070 BC - about pre-1600
Henan Dengfeng Yangcheng
Business ① about before 1600 - before about 1046 mm Zhengzhou
Weeks before the Western Zhou Dynasty about 1046 - Top 771 ② Gao Jing Xi
Eastern Zhou Dynasty 770 - 256 Luoyi former Luoyang, Henan
Pre-Qin 221 - 206 BC Xianyang Xianyang
Han Han ③ 206 BC - AD 25, Xi'an Chang'an
25-220 Eastern Han Luoyang, Henan Luoyang
San Guowei 220-265 Luoyang Luoyang
221-263, Chengdu, Sichuan Chengdu, Sichuan
Wu 222-280 Jianye, Nanjing, Jiangsu
Western Jin Dynasty 265-315 Luoyang Luoyang
Luoyang, Henan Luoyang Jin 315-317
16 Nanjing, Jiangsu China Eastern Jin 317-420 Jiankang
16 States ④ 304-439 - -
Southern Song Dynasty 420-479 Jiankang Nanjing
Qi 479-502 Jiankang Nanjing
Liang 502-557 Jiankang Nanjing
Jian Kang Chen in Nanjing, Jiangsu 557-589
Shanxi Datong Pingcheng Northern Wei 386-534
534-550 Eastern Wei Lin Zhang Ye Pei
Lin Zhang Ye Pei Qi 550-577
Xi'an Chang'an Western Wei 535-557
Northern Zhou 557-581 Xi'an Chang'an
Sui Hing Xi'an 581-618
Xi'an Chang'an Tang 618-907
Ten Girder 907-923 Bian Kaifeng
Later Tang 923-936 Luoyang Luoyang
Houjin 936-946 Kaifeng Kaifeng
Later Han 947-950 Bian Kaifeng
Later Zhou Dynasty 951-960 Kaifeng Kaifeng
Ten ⑤ 902-979 - -
Northern Song Kaifeng Kaifeng 960-1127
Hangzhou Linan Song 1127-1279
Royal Liao 907-1125
(To Beijing) Liaoning
Balin Right Banner
Xingqing House Yinchuan, Ningxia Western Xia 1038-1227
Gold 1115-1234 will Ninga City (Heilongjiang)
Most of Beijing Yuan 1206-1368
Beijing, Nanjing Ming 1368-1644
Taizu - Si cases
Clear that in the year 1616 the establishment of Ming Dynasty 40 years, the country money, a capital in the Early Qing, later moved the capital of Shenyang, in 1636 changed its title to the Qing capital in Beijing ,1644-1912
Republic of China, Nanjing, Jiangsu, Nanjing 1912-1949
The People's Republic of China on Oct. 1, 1949 establishment of the capital Beijing.
① About 14 BC the world Jipan Geng moved the capital to Yin, since business has become Yin.
② 841 BC (the first year of the Western Zhou Republic) for the precise dating of the beginning of Chinese history.
③ including the Wang Mang established the "new" dynasty (AD 8 years -23 years). Wang Mang period, the outbreak of large-scale peasant uprising, the regime established farmers. AD 23, the new regime destruction of Wang Mang. 25 AD, the establishment of the Eastern Han Dynasty.
④ this period, in northern China, there has been some of the feudal regime, including: Chinese (Han Zhao), Cheng (Cheng Han), the former cool, after Zhao (Wei), the former Yan, Former Qin, Later Yan, Later Qin , Xiqin, after the cool, cool South, Northern Liang, Nam Yin, Western Liang, Northern Yan, summer and other countries in history, called "16 States."
⑤ this period, in addition to Later Liang, Later Tang Dynasty, Houjin, after the Han, Later Zhou Dynasty, but also there has been some of the feudal regime, including: Wu, Former Shu, Wu and Yue, Chu, Min, Southern Han, Jingnan (Nanping), Shu , Southern Tang, Northern Han and other countries in history, called "Ten."
Ancient China Twenty-Four Histories
Serial number | title | author | Volumes
Sima Qian's Records of the Western Han Dynasty 130 1
2 100 Han Han Ban
Fan Ye, after 3 120 Southern Han
Western Jin Chenshou 4 of the Three Kingdoms 65
130 5 Book of Jin Tang Fang Xuanling etc.
6 Songshu Nan Liang Shen towards 100
7 South Korea Liang Xiao Qi Shunan child was 59
8 Liang Shu Tang Yao Silian 56
9 Chen Shu Tang Yao Silian 36
Qi Wei Wei Shu received 10 114
11 Li Tang Wei is 50 per drug
12 weeks, so the book 50 Fen Tang Ling Hu Germany
13 of the Sui Tang Wei Zheng, etc. 85
14 Nanshi Tang Li Yanshou 80
History of Tang Li Yanshou 100 15 North
16 Old Houjin Liu Xu Tang, 200
17 New Tang Xiu Song, Song Qi 225
18 Old Five Dynasties Song Xue Ju Zheng, etc. 150
19 new Five Dynasties Song Xiu 74
496 20 Sung Yuan Tuotuo etc.
21, 116, etc. History of the Liao Yuan Tuotuo
22, 135, etc. The History of Yuan Tuotuo
23, 210 Yuan Dynasty Ming Lian, etc.
History of the Ming Qing Zhang Tingyu 24 of 332
Note ︰ 1920, Ke Shao Zhimin Writing "new Yuan Dynasty" finalized, Republic of the Decade (1921) president Shichang "new Yuan Dynasty" to "official history", and "Twenty-Four Histories," collectively, the "Twenty-five Histories."
Difficult to learn history, ah.
Chronology of World History
The Emergence of Capitalism 14-15 Century Europe
Late 14th century to establish the Joseon Dynasty
14-16 century European Renaissance
1487-1488 Dias voyage to reach the southern coast of Africa
Voyage of Columbus reached America in 1492
1497-1498 Vasco da Gama arrived in India voyage
1519-1522 Magellan Global Navigation fleet
Early 16th century Indian Mughal Empire
Reformation in Western Europe 1520-1570
1566-1581 Netherlands revolution
1600 established the British East India Company
Indonesia invaded the early 17th century, the Netherlands, France, Britain and the Netherlands began to plunder colonies in North America; Tokugawa shogunate ruled Japan started
1640 bourgeois revolution in Britain began
1688 Glorious Revolution of England, the rule of the bourgeoisie and the establishment of the new aristocracy
17th century Britain and France to become the slave trade in the major countries
1689 Peter I began to reform in Russia
17, half of the time Louis XIV of France began to reform
17 timing system of the latter half of the establishment of Newtonian mechanics
Mid-18th century, Frederick II of Prussia reform
Austria in the late 18th century Queen and Joseph reform Teresia
18th century British industrial revolution began 60 years
1775-1783 American War of Independence
1776 North American Continental Congress issued a "Declaration of Independence," declared independent United States of America
1785 watts of improved steam engine in use
1789.7 French bourgeois revolution began
1792.9 French First Republic was established
1793.6-1794. 7 French Jacobins dictatorship
1794 France Thermidorian
1799 Napoleon launched "Brumaire coup"
Haiti declared independence in 1804
1804 Napoleon proclaimed himself emperor of the French First Empire beginning
1810-1826 Spanish colonial rule in Latin America against the independence movement
1815 Vienna system Establishment
1830 July Revolution in France
1831,1834 uprising of workers in Lyon, France
19 30s Faraday proved that the phenomenon of electromagnetic induction
1836-1848 British Chartist
German workers uprising in Sicily in 1844
1848.2 "Communist Manifesto"
1848-18491848 revolution in Europe
1853-1856 Crimean War
1857-1859 Indian National uprising
Mid-19th century Darwinian theory of biological evolution, creation
1861 reform of serfdom in Russia
1861-1865 U.S. Civil War
First International was established in 1864
1868 Meiji Restoration, Japan began
1870-1871 Franco-Prussian War
70 early 19th century Italian unification finally completed
Completed the ultimate reunification of Germany in 1871
1871.3-5 Paris Commune
19th century 70's second industrial revolution
1881-1899 苏丹马赫迪 major uprising against the British
1882 Triple Alliance Germany, Italy and Austria formed
80 19th century France finally established the rule of Vietnam
1889 establishment of the Second International
Late 19th early 20th century, the major capitalist countries have completed the transition to imperialism
Early 20th century, the colonial system ultimately form the World
Einstein theory of relativity early 20th century
Second Russian Social Democratic Labour Party in 1903 Congress
1905-1908 Indian national liberation movements
Russian Convention of 1907 Anglo-French final form
1910, Japan formally annexed Korea
Bourgeois revolution in Mexico 1910-1917
1914-1918 First World War
(20th century to 20th century, 90s)
1917.11.7 (Russian calendar October 25) October Socialist Revolution in Russia
Revolution broke out in Germany in November 1918.11
1918-1922 upsurge of national liberation movement in India
Ataturk revolution in Turkey 1919-1922
1919.3.1 Korea 31 Sports
1919.3 established the Soviet Republic of Hungary
The establishment of the Communist International
1919.1-6 Paris Peace Conference
1921.11-1922. 2 Washington Conference
1922.10 Mussolini came to power in Italy
1922.12 set up the Soviet Union
1925.10 Locarno Conference
1929-1933 economic crisis in the capitalist world
1931.9.18 Japanese imperialist invasion of China on September 18 Incident
1933.1 Hitler came to power in Germany
1933.3 Roosevelt became President, the implementation of the New Deal
Seventh Congress of the Communist International in 1935
1935-1936 invasion of Ethiopia against the Italian national liberation movements
1936-1939 national revolutionary war against fascism in Spain
1937.7.7 China, Sino-Japanese War began a comprehensive
1938.9 Munich Conference
1939.8 Non-Aggression Pact Soviet Union and Germany
1939.9 outbreak of World War II
1940.6 French surrender
1940 Autumn Battle of Britain
1940.9 Germany, Italy and Japan sign treaty of alliance
1941.6 Soviet-German War broke out
1941.12 Pacific War
Autumn 1941, the Atlantic Charter
Early 1942, "Declaration by United Nations" anti-fascist alliance formed
1942 Battle of Moscow
1942.6 Battle of Midway
1942.7-1943. 2 Battle of Stalingrad
1943.12.1 in the United States and Britain issued the "Cairo Declaration"
1943.11-12 Su Meiying meeting held in Tehran
1944.6 American and British forces landed in Normandy, opening a second front in Europe
1945.2 Su Meiying at the Yalta Conference
1945.5.8 Germany signed the unconditional surrender
1945.9.2 Su Meiying Potsdam Conference held in Japan signed the unconditional surrender
Four or five years of the 20th century scientific and technological revolution began the third
1945.10 The United Nations established
1947 Truman Doctrine, the United States
Partition of India, India, Pakistan's independence
1948, Israel established the first Middle East War
The United States launched the Marshall Plan
North Atlantic Treaty Organization established in 1949
1949.10.1 The People's Republic of China established
1950-1953 Korean War, the U.S. invasion
50 -70 early 20th century capitalist economic development in the history of the early golden era
1954 "on the restoration of peace in Indochina in Geneva Agreement" signed
1955 Bandung Conference held in Asian and African countries
Warsaw Treaty Organization was established
1956 Poznan, Poland, the event, Hungary events
The second Middle East war (Suez War)
1959 victory of Cuban revolution
1960, 17 countries in Africa, the independence of that year called "Year of African independence"
Early 20th century, 60 the formation of the Non-Aligned Movement
60 early 20th century the United States invasion of Vietnam War -1,973
The mid-20th century, 70 G-60 produced
Sixties and seventies of the 20th century rapid economic development of Asian countries and regions
1967 established the European Community
Soviet troops occupied Czechoslovakia in 1968
1971 China's legitimate status in the United Nations be restored
1972.2 U.S. President Richard Nixon visited China, the Shanghai Communique
1973 United States "on ending the war in Vietnam, to restore peace agreement" signed
The Fourth Middle East War
1979 Sino-US relations
The late 20th century collapse in Eastern Europe 80
In 1991 the Soviet Union
Formation of the North American Free Trade Area in 1992
1993 establishment of the European Union
1994 formally established the North American Free Trade Area
1997 financial crisis in Southeast Asia
1999 NATO bombing of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia
2003 U.S. invasion of Iraq
Why Study History:
First, the study of history can satisfy human curiosity. Who am I? I come from? This is not only a philosophical issue, but also the question of history. How to answer these questions, we must study history. Human curiosity is an important driving force of human development, which naturally includes the curiosity of his past.
We made mistakes, for which we delay a full 138 years (1840-1978), then how can we prevent this error from happening again? What we do not study history lines? To tell the way, I think that the dating of modern China, with its fixed into 1840-1949 than into 1840-1978 is more appropriate.
At present, the Chinese nation is in a renaissance, the renaissance, we are able to re-create a Han, Tang, as the prosperity of the Kangxi era, or just to create a Western Jin Dynasty, the early Yuan Dynasty, as the short-term prosperity of the times? We should follow the example of the Han, Tang, Kangxi, Yongzheng and what? To avoid the Western Jin Dynasty, the early Yuan Dynasty era what? Not examine these issues, line What?
Why Marx predicted the decline of capitalism, yet to come, but the outbreak in the United States a powerful vitality? Why did the Soviet Union and give up a socialist? How the capitalist? How a socialist? Why only Europe is the extension of the Marxist view of history described in a primitive society - the slave society - feudal society - the development of capitalist society, so the order of the world other people are not extend the full development of this road? Marxist view of historical development, laws of human development or just a special case in Europe? China's feudal society and feudal society in Europe is very different from China's (and the Arab, Southeast Asia) is a feudal society, feudal society really What?
As we can not have slaves in Ming and Qing, said Ming or slave, we can not because there is the Song called "Seeds of Capitalism" said China will certainly be able to independently produce a capitalist society. Socialism is learned from abroad, and now we are learning outside the capitalist mode of production and social norms, even our legal system, moral system are all closer to capitalism, then capitalism and socialism can What in the integration of our country? That the two foreign fruit, grafting in our five thousand years old trees, the last to have any results?
Japan and South Korea and Taiwan, the development of reality shows that capitalism can have thousands of traditional success of East Asian countries, and even more advantages over the original 应该 the development of capitalism in India, South America, North Africa, more successful, why? What should we learn? Our traditional culture of the causes that we facilitate the development of the capitalist countries in East Asia?
The above are reasons why the study of history.