旅游
travel
分类表
名山大川
famous mountains and great rivers

  我国四大佛教名山之首——五台山
  
  五台山是我国四大佛教名山之首,位于山西省五台县,南距山西省太原市230公里,北距五台山火车站48公里。
  
  五台山由东西南北中五峰组成,环基250公里。寺院分为青庙和黄庙两种,青庙住和尚,黄庙(藏传佛教寺院)住喇嘛。五台山过去有360座寺庙,到 1956年时还有124处,其中青庙99处,黄庙有25处,菩萨顶寺是传中的文殊菩萨居住处,为五台山黄庙之首。现存寺庙四十余处。
  
  五台山是文殊菩萨的道场,台怀镇是寺庙最集中的地方,寺院一个挨着一个,显通寺、塔院寺、菩萨顶、殊像寺和罗侯寺并称为五台山五大禅林。
  我国四大佛教名山之一——普陀山
  
  普陀山是我国四大佛教名山之一,同时也是著名的海岛风景旅游胜地。如此美丽,又有如此众多文物古迹的小岛,在我国可以是绝无仅有。普陀山位于浙江省杭州湾以东约100海里,是舟山群岛中的一个小岛。全岛面积12.5平方公里,呈狭长形,南北最长处为8.6里,东西最宽外3.5公里。最高处佛顶山,海拔约300米。
  
  普陀山的海天景色,不论在哪一个景区、景点,都使人感到海阔天空。虽有海风怒号,浊浪排空,却并不使人有惊涛骇浪之感,只觉得这些异景厅观使人振奋。
  
  普陀山作为佛教胜地,最盛时有82座寺庵,128处茅篷,僧尼达4000余人。来此旅游的人,在岛上的小径间漫步,经常可以遇到身穿袈裟的僧人。美丽的自然风景和浓郁的佛都气氛,使它蒙上一层神秘的色彩,而这种色彩,也正是它游人有较强吸引力的所在。
  
  普陀山既以海天壮阔取胜,又以山林深邃见长。登山揽胜,眺望碧海,一座座海岛浮在海面上,点点白帆行驶其间,景色极为动人。前人普陀山作了这样高的评价“以山而兼湖之胜,则推西湖;以山而兼海之胜,当推普陀。”把普陀与人间天堂西湖相比,应该,这个评语是客观的。
  
  普陀山的风景名胜、游览点很多,主要有普济、法雨、慧济三大寺,这是现今保存的二十多所寺庵中最大的。普济禅寺始建于宋,为山中供奉观音的主刹,建筑总面积约11000多平方米。法雨禅寺始建于明,依山凭险,层层叠建,周围古木参天,极为幽静。慧济禅寺建于佛顶山上,又名佛顶山寺。
  
  奇岩怪石。著名的有磐陀石、二龟听法石、海天佛国石等二十余处。在山海相接之处有许多石洞胜景,最著名的是潮音洞和梵音洞。
  
  沙滩。岛的四周有许多沙滩,但主要的是百步沙和千步沙。千步沙是一个弧形沙滩,长约3里,沙细坡缓,沙面宽坦柔软,是一个优良的海水浴场。夏天去游览,可带上游泳衣在这里畅游。树木岛上树木葱郁,林幽壑美,有樟树、罗汉松、银杏、合欢等树。大樟树沿有1000余株。其中有一千年古樟,树围达6米,荫数亩。还有一株“鹅耳枥”,是我国少见的珍贵树种,列为国家二等保护植物。
  
  普陀山流传着许多有关佛教的民间故事。
  我国四大佛教名山之一——峨眉山
  
  峨眉山是我国的四大佛教名山之一,位于四川中南部,四川盆地西南边缘的峨眉境内,距成都约一百六十公里,在峨眉山市西南七公里处。高出五岳,秀甲天下。在我国的游览名山中,峨眉山可以是最高的一个,最高峰万佛顶海拔3099米。山体南北方向延伸,绵延23公里,面积115平方公里。长久以来,峨眉山以其秀丽的自然风光和神话般的佛教胜迹而闻名于世。她古雅神奇,巍峨媚丽。其山脉绵亘曲折、千岩万壑、瀑布溪流、奇秀清雅,故有“峨眉天下秀”之美称。 1996年12月6日列入《世界自然与文化遗产名录》。
  
  峨眉山像一道巨大的翠屏,耸立在成都平原西南,遥望弯曲柔美的山体轮廓,犹如少女的面容和修眉,于是人们很早便称它为“峨眉”。纵横200余公里的峨眉山,与“亚洲脊梁”昆仑山的支脉邛峡山相连。峨眉全山由大峨、二峨、三峨、四峨四座山组成,一般游人所到,主要是奇峰攒聚、名胜荟萃的大峨山,这就是今日人们通常所的“峨眉山”。
  
  峨眉山平畴突起,巍峨、秀丽、古老、神奇。它以优美的自然风光、悠久的佛教文化、丰富的动植物资源、独特的地质地貌而著称于世。被人们称之为“仙山佛国”、“植物王国”、“动物乐园”、“地质博物馆”等,素有“峨眉天下秀”之美誉。唐代诗人李白诗曰“蜀国多仙山,峨眉邈难匹”;明代诗人周洪谟赞道 “三峨之秀甲天下,何须涉海寻蓬莱”;当代文豪郭沫若题书峨眉山为“天下名山”。古往今来,峨眉山就是人们礼佛朝拜、游览观光、科学考察和休闲疗养的胜地。峨眉山千百年来香火旺盛、游人不绝,永葆魅力。
  
  峨眉山也是一座佛教名山,相传是释迦牟尼身旁的普贤大菩萨显灵法的道场。它与山西五台山、浙江普陀山、安徽九华山并称为中国佛教的“四大菩萨”道场。峨眉山原为佛道两教并存的宗教重地,东汉之初,山间便有了第一座以药农舍宅为寺庙的“初殿”。后来历经晋、唐、宋续建和明、清两代发展,连绵百里的山峦,先后兴建佛寺200多处,僧众达数千人。随着佛教兴盛和道教的衰微与绝迹,峨眉山遂成为以“菩萨信仰”为中心的佛教圣地。由于历史变迁,现在峨眉山景区内尚存十余处古寺,如报国寺、万年寺、仙峰寺、洗象池、金顶等,寺院内的佛教徒依然保持着正常的宗教生活。
  
  峨眉山动植物资源丰富,由于山上山下气温悬殊较大,从山下到山顶气温相差约15°C。这种自然环境为各种植物的生长提供了良好的条件,景区内生长着5000多种植物,数目远远超过了欧洲大陆的所有植物种属。其中被誉为“花中西施”的杜鹃花就有29个品种。还有古老的观赏树种“中国鸽子树”--珙桐;景区内野生动物达2300余种,象枯叶蝶、小熊猫、蜂鹰、牛羚、白娴鸟等,尤其山林中顽皮的猴群,常常向游人乞食或嬉戏,惹人注目。1981年,当英、美、法、德、日等十个国家的学者组成的英国国际树木学会专家团,在峨眉山考察后,以植物学家汤姆.塞蒂为团长的专家们异口同声地赞美峨眉山是世界上最美的国家公园,是难得的植物宝库和世界植物爱好者的乐园。随着季节的变化和山势的不同,加上古木参天,流泉飞瀑,以及阴、晴、风、雨、云、雾、霜、雪的喧染,使峨眉山的景色更加清幽,风景独秀。
  我国四大佛教名山之一——九华山
  
  九华山寺宇林立,香烟缭绕,是善男信女朝拜的圣地;九华山风光旖旎, 气候宜人,是旅游避暑的胜境。在中国佛教四大名山中,九华山独领风骚,以“香火甲天下”、“东南第一山”的双重桂冠而闻名於海内外。
  
  九华山位於安徽西部青阳县城西南,方圆约百公里,号称九十九峰、十八景,鼎盛时期,寺庵一百五、僧尼三四千。九华山群峰争峙,却玲珑秀丽。佛教兴起迟於洛阳白马寺六百多年,之所以成名,除了它得天独厚的优美环境外,应归功於诗仙李白和高僧金乔觉。李白应邀游山,远眺九峰如天赐九莲,触景生情,诗赞 “妙有分二气,灵山开九华”,引来了历代文人雅士,於是“九华名遂闻於天下”。稍后,朝鲜半岛新罗国高僧金乔觉,渡海来九华修行,传他是地藏菩萨的化身,普度众生量,“远近焚香者,“日以千计”。俗话“山不在高,有仙则名。”这是有一定道理的。
  
  九华历史
  
  九华一千寺,撒在云雾中。有佛国仙城之美誉的九华山,以众多的佛教寺庙和优美的自然风光,成为国民族文化遗产中一颗璀灿的明珠。九华山形成於新生代晚期,九华山佛教始自南北朝时期。据史料记载,南朝梁武帝天监二年(公元503 年),即有僧名伏虎,九华山拾宝岩建伏虎庵;唐朝开元年间,有僧人檀号来此修行。开元、天宝年间(公元 713—755 年),新罗国王室贵族金乔觉出家为僧,渡海来华,到九华山苦修,居住东崖峰的岩洞中,感动善男信女,当地乡绅诸葛节等损资,为金乔觉建寺。建中二年(公元781 年)池州太守张岩奏请朝廷赐“化城”额於该寺。金乔觉圆寂时,相传山呜谷陨,群鸟哀啼,地出火光,其尸身越三年而栩栩如生,僧众尊为地藏菩萨,建肉身塔供奉。九山遂成为地菩萨道场。千馀年来,九华山佛教历经兴衰,大体有五个时期唐中期初创;唐后期至五代衰微;宋元有所发展;明清达到鼎盛。明朝洪武、宣德、万历年间屡次赐金修建化城寺,万历年间还两次给九华山化城寺颁赐《藏经》。自明代起九华山日益兴旺,寺庵总数超过一百,僧尼众多,与五台山、峨嵋山、普陀山共称为中国佛教四大名山。清朝康熙、乾隆皇帝数次巡游江南,分别钦赐“九华圣境”、“芬陀普教”御笔匾额,屡赐重金修缮化城寺。九华山佛教又有了进一步发展,除化城寺十方丛林外,又形成了百岁宫、甘露寺、东崖寺、祗园寺四大丛林。到清朝未年,九华山寺庙一度增至一百五十馀座,僧众多达三、四千人,香火之盛,甲於天下。
  
  九华文化
  
  天下名山僧众多。历代文人雅士、高官显宦游历九华山,交接高僧,谈禅赋诗,留下不少千古佳话。九华山古称九子山,诗仙李白于唐天宝年间(约公改九子山为九华山联句并序754年)来游,与友人作《改九子山为九华山联句并序》,称“青阳县南有九子山,山高数千丈,上有九峰如莲花。......予乃削其旧号 ,加以九华之目”。诗曰“妙有分二气,灵山开九华”、“青莹玉树色,缥缈羽人家”。此后刘禹锡、杜牧、萨都刺、梅尧臣、王安石、周必大、文天祥、王阳明、汤显祖、董其昌、袁枚、魏源、康有为、张大千等历代大诗人、文学家、画家相继来游,留有不少佳作真足迹,有些至今还保存在九华山佛教文物馆。
  
  九华山历史悠久,遗存的文物众多。除历代名人书画外,还有不少摩崖石刻,大多散布在闵园到天台途中,石刻内容多与佛教有关。又有许多修建寺庙的记事碑,为考证九华山佛教历史提供了确凿史料。为广度众生,九华山佛教“地藏利生宝印”为一大特色,现存有“九龙金印”、“九龙铜印”、“狮钮铜印”、“龙钮铜印”、“九狮玉印”等。佛教经籍是九华山文物的重要组成部分,现存梵文贝叶经二札,明版《藏经两部》,明代血字《大方广佛华严经》,清版《藏经》三部,弥足珍贵。还有不少佛教塑像、法器、寺庙,被定为文物保护单位。


  The first of the four Buddhist mountains in China - Wutai
  Mount Wutai is the head of China's four major Buddhist mountains, is located in Wutai County, Shanxi Province, 230 kilometers north of Taiyuan, Shanxi Province, the railway station 48 km south of Mount Wutai.
  Wutai formed by the East and West in Wufeng, ring base 250 km. Temple temple is divided into two kinds of green and yellow temple, the temple stay young monk, Wong Temple (Buddhist temple) to live Lama. Mount Wutai has 360 temples in the past, to have 124 in 1956, of which Green Temple 99, Temple Wong has 25, Pusa Ding Temple is a live transmission of the Manjushri office for the first Wutai Temple Yellow. Four dozen existing temple office.
  Mount Wutai is the Manjusri temple, Taiwan Wye town is where the largest concentration of temples, a monastery next to one, was through Temple, Tayuan Temple, Pusa Ding, special like Temple and Lo Hau Temple and five major Buddhist temple known as the Mount Wutai.
  One of the four Buddhist mountains in China - Putuo Mountain
  Putuo Mountain is one of China's four major Buddhist mountains, but also the famous scenic resort island. So beautiful, there are so many cultural relics of the island, may be unique in our country. Putuo Mountain in Zhejiang Province, about 100 nautical miles east of Hangzhou Bay, is a small island in the Zhoushan Islands. Island area of 12.5 square kilometers, was long and narrow shape, the most north-south strengths of 8.6 years, most things outside the 3.5 km wide. Foding Shan highest point, about 300 meters above sea level.
  Mount the Haitian landscape, regardless of which area, attractions, all people feel brighter. Although the wind howling, turbid waves emptying, but does not give people a stormy sea of feeling, only that these different King Office Outlook exciting.
  Putuo Mountain resort as a Buddhist, when 82 Dasi'an height, 128 Mao Peng, Monk Nida 4,000. To the tourist who stroll among the island's trails can often encounter a monk wearing a robe. Beautiful natural scenery and rich atmosphere of Buddha Capital, it cast a layer of mystery, and this color, it is also, where visitors have a strong attraction.
  Mount both with magnificent sea and sky to win on, he known for deep forest. Mountain scenery, overlooking the sea, an island floating in the sea, Block, white sails moving the meantime, the scene is extremely moving. Putuoshan predecessors made such a high rating "to the mountains and lakes of victory, then push the West Lake; to the mountains and the sea wins, when push Putuo." To the West Lake, Putuo, compared with the earthly paradise, it should be, the reviews are objective.
  Putuo Mountain's scenic spots and attractions are many, mainly Lifeline, Dharma Rain, Hui economy the three major monasteries, which is now preserved more than 20 by Dasi'an largest. Puji Temple was built in the Song, dedicated to Kuanyin Mountain in the main brake, total construction area of more than 11,000 square meters. France temple was built during the rain, the mountain with insurance, stacked layers built around the magnificent old trees, very quiet. Hui, on economic Temple was built in Foding Shan, also known as Foding Shan Temple.
  Rock formation. Pan Tuo have known stone, two stone turtle listen Act, Haitian Buddhist stone are more than 20. Phase between the tribes there are many cave scenes, the most famous Chao Yindong and Pure Sound hole.
  Beach. There are many beaches around the island, but the main steps of courage sand sand and 1000. Step 1000 is an arc of sand beach, about 3 years, sand and Pohuan, voluminous Tanzania soft sand is a good beach. Summer to visit, may bring bathing suit swim here. Lush trees on the island of trees, forest Youhe the United States, there are camphor trees, Podocarpus, Ginkgo biloba, acacia and other trees. Large camphor tree along the more than 1,000 strains. Among them, a thousand years Guzhang, girth 6 m, the number of acres of shade. There is a "Carpinus" is China's rare precious species, as the national second-class protected plants.
  Mount it many folk stories about Buddhism.
  One of the four Buddhist mountains in China - Mount Emei
  Emei as a huge Ping, stands in the southwest of the Chengdu Plain, the mountain overlooking soft curved profile, like a girl's face and eyebrow shaping, so that people will call it early, "Emei." Review 200 km Mountain, and "Asian backbone" of the spur of the Kunlun Mountains Qiong Xiashan connected. Emei Shan Tai Mindanao-wide, two Bauer, three lofty, four hills in four-Bauer, the general visitors to the mainly Qifeng save together, meets the big attractions Asan, which is usually the people today, "Mount Emei."
  Emei rich flora and fauna, as a larger gap between the mountain foot of air temperature, from the foot of the mountain to the peak temperature difference of about 15 ° C. This natural environment for a variety of plant growth provides a good condition, scenic spots with more than 5000 kinds of plant growth, far exceeding the number of European species of all plants. One known as the "Flower of beauty" for there are 29 varieties of azaleas. There are ancient ornamental plants, "the Chinese dove tree" - involucrata; scenic area of more than 2,300 species of wild animals, like dead leaves butterflies, red pandas, Honey Buzzard, wildebeest, white-han birds, especially the mountains in the naughty monkey group, often begging or playing to the visitors, striking. In 1981, when Britain, the United States, France, Germany, Japan and other 10 countries of the scholars of the British Institute of International Panel of trees in the Emei Mountain after inspection to botanist Tom. _Set_i experts headed by unanimous praise Emei is the world's most beautiful national parks, is a treasure trove of rare plants and the world a paradise for plant lovers. As the seasons change and the different mountain, with magnificent old trees, waterfalls genial, and overcast, sunny, wind, rain, clouds, fog, frost, snow exaggerated to make a more quiet Emei scenery, scenery alone show.
  One of the four Buddhist mountains in China - Jiuhuashan
  Jiuhuashan temples everywhere, incense smoke, are the believers worship of the Holy Land; Jiuhuashan beautiful scenery and pleasant climate, the tourist summer of shengjing. In the four famous mountains of Chinese Buddhism, Jiuhuashan dominate, with "incense Best", "Southeast First Mountain" is known for the double crown at home and abroad.
  Jiuhua history
  Jiuhua 1000 Temple, and threw in the clouds. Buddhist Sin City has the reputation of the nine Mountain, to a large number of Buddhist temples and beautiful scenery, a national cultural heritage in a bright pearl. Jiuhuashan formed in the late Cenozoic, On Buddha started Northern and Southern Dynasties. According to historical records, Emperor Wu Southern prison two days (AD 503), that is, monks were tigers, tigers Jiuhuashan pick Baoyan Temple building; Tang Kaiyuan, a monk TAN number to this practice. Kaiyuan, Tianbao period (AD 713-755), the new king room nobles Jinqiao Jue Luo became a monk, crossing China to Jiuhuashan ascetic, living in caves Dongya peak, touched the believers, the local gentry Zhuge Festival loss of capital, as Jin Qiaojue construct a temple. Jianzhong years (AD 781) Chizhou Prefecture Zhang Yan, petitioned the court give "of the city," the amount of the monastery. Jin Qiaojue passed away, the legend, Ming Gu Yun-Shan, birds of Ai Ti, to the fire, its corpse for three years and more lifelike, the monks respect to Jizo, body building tower worshiped. 9 Hill became land cultivation. Totaling some years after Mount Jiu Hua Buddhist rise and decline of roughly five start-ups during the mid-Tang; the late Tang and Five Dynasties decline; be developed in the Song and Yuan; reached the height of the Ming and Qing. Ming Dynasty Hongwu, Xuande, Wanli repeatedly give money to build Huacheng Si, Wanli also two to Jiuhuashan Huacheng Si Banci "Canon." Jiuhuashan since the Ming Dynasty thriving, Dasi'an total more than 100, many monks and nuns, and Mountain, Emei Mountain, Putuo Mountain were known as the four famous mountains of Chinese Buddhism. Qing Emperor Kangxi and Qianlong emperors parade south several times, respectively, Chin-Tzu, "Kau Sacred Site," "Fen Pu Tuo education" Yubi plaque, and fail to give heavily repair Huacheng Si. On Buddha, there has been further developed, in addition to Huacheng Si 10 square jungle, they formed a hundred years old palace, Kanroji, Dongya Temple, Gion Temple four jungle. Not years to the Qing Dynasty, the temple was once Jiuhuashan to 150 more than ten seats, the monks as much as three to four thousand people, incense of Sheng, a whole world.
  Jiuhua Culture
  

评论 (0)