Beijing Opera, also called "yellow skin", from "Sipi" and "Erhuang" it is composed of two basic tone music material, but also a number of small local tunes and songs (such as Liu sub chamber, blowing chamber, etc.) and Kun Tune. It was formed in Beijing, the time is in 1840, prevailed in the 20th century, 3, 40's, when the "National Opera". Now it is still a big drama of national impact. It is a comprehensive line of business, performing mature, imposing macro United States, is representative of modern Chinese drama. Chinese Peking Opera is China's "national essence" has been 200 years. Opera first appeared in the Qing dynasty the name of two years (1876) of the "declaration" in history, had skin yellow, two yellow, yellow cavity, emphasized Beijing, Beijing Opera, Peking Opera, Chinese opera and other titles, fifty-five years of the Qing Dynasty Emperor Qianlong (1790 years) class went to Beijing on Four logo with Beijing after the theater's Kun, Han opera, Yiyang, puppet theater and other operas and five or six years of the blend, Evolution of a Peking Opera is China's largest operas. The richness of its repertoire, performing artists as much theater as much as the audience as much influence deep are the highest in the country. Opera is a comprehensive performing arts. The singing (singing), read (read white), do (performance), playing (martial arts), dance (dance) as a whole, the program's performance by means of Syria speech story, carved figures, expressed "joy, anger, sadness and joy , panic, fear, grief, "the thoughts and feelings. Role can be divided into: health (men), Jordan (woman), net (rough mighty men, another name for the painted face), ugly (male, women both) four line when. People are divided Faithfulness, beauty and ugliness of the points, good and evil. Each image is bright and vivid. Country attaches great importance to the protection of intangible cultural heritage, May 20, 2006, to include approval of the State Opera first batch of national intangible cultural heritage.
A brief history】 【
1, incubation period
Confluence of the early Qing Hui Qin, Beijing opera stage Shengxing Kun Qu and Beijing accent (Yiyangqiang). After the mid-Qianlong, gradual decline of the Kun Opera, Beijing accent prosperity replaced Kun unified capital stage. Forty five years of Qianlong (1780) Shaanxi opera artist Wei Changsheng by the River to Beijing. Wei Qin Opera performances take double celebrations class "Rolling House", "baby back into the House" and other plays. Wei Changsheng handsome appearance, noise Tianrun, singing tactful and delicate work, a "Rolling House" that stir the capital. Double celebration classes and therefore known as "Kyoto first." Since then, the Beijing accent began to decline, Beijing accent classes were the culmination of six classes, royal classes, Yuqing classes, Yu Qing-class extraction Qing classes, Paul and Ben are in limbo, have take into Shaanxi opera classes to earn a living. Five years of Qianlong (1785), the Qing court to Wei Changsheng table
Indecent speech, banned in the capital of Shaanxi Opera performances will be Wei Changsheng out of the capital.
Fifty-five years of Qianlong (1790), following three classes celebrate Emblem _set_tled after the capital (class site is located within South Korea Taiwan-alley), there Sixi, Kai Xiu, Ni Cui, Chun Tai, and spring, three, and, Song Zhu, Jin Yu, Dai King and other classes, also _set_tled in the area Dashilan performance. Among them, Miyoshi, Sixi, spring and spring units 4 fame height, and therefore, "the four emblem classes," said. 'Chun Tai Ban' to Beijing time, according to Chinese master meter should be adjusted before Qing emperor Qianlong in Beijing served as 'Chun Tai Ban' pillar until the time to prove that the class to Beijing earlier in the 'Si-xi' and 'and spring'. 'Chun Tai Ban' in the Baishun alley. 'Si-xi ban' to Beijing in the early Jiaqing. Anhui Opera, Kun Opera and performances, particularly as the Kun Opera, and therefore, "the new row of a Fan, everywhere Hongchuan Sixi class" of language. The course is located in Shaanxi lane. 'And spring classes' in Jiaqing eight years (1804) in the Shui Xie Jie, Li Tie _set_. Known for the class play with force. Daoguang 10 years (1853) Dissolution. "Four emblem class" performance repertoire, performance style, each with its long, so when the "three celebrate the axion, Sixi song, spring and the handle, the spring of Taiwan's child" reputation. "Four Emblem Class" Apart from singing emblem of tune, Kun, blowing cavity, Siping stressed Bangzi opera also used, can be described as various chamber and played. Performing arts widely absorb, draw lessons long various family drama, and into the emblem into play. And the lineup neat, staged plays a rich, popular Beijing audience. Since Wei Changsheng forced to leave Beijing, Shaanxi Opera sluggish, Shaanxi opera artist for a living, have take into the emblem of class, formed the Hui, Qin integration of the two cavities the situation. In the emblem, Qin convergence process, the emblem of a broad class concert, taken into Shaanxi Opera, performing the fine and a lot of scripts transplantation, the emblem of the further development of drama arts, created favorable conditions.
Hui Han opera popular in Hubei Han confluence, the tune of two yellow, Xi Pi has a kinship with the movie logo. Hui, Han went to Beijing before the second opera in the art of blending a wide range. Following the Qing emperor Qianlong, the Leisure and Cultural master meter should be advanced in Beijing, Daoguang year (1821), Han Opera has known the older students, there are six Li, Wang Honggui, Yusan Sheng, Long De-yun, a niche into Beijing, respectively, into the emblem of course take the spring units, and spring classes concert. Meter should show known to sing Guan Yu, 3 Ching Hung Cheng Changgeng the net opera troupe, should first be granted rests with rice. Li 6 with "drunk quite scared to write the book," "Snow," known for; Wang Honggui uses the "let Chengdu" and "Jigumacao" and enjoy the name; niche Dragon Devon good speech "radio Ji Yuan Men," "Yellow Crane floor "and other plays; Yu Sansheng noise mellow, beautiful singing, both civil and military, to play," Mount Dingjun "," Shiro Tan Mu "," When White sold horse, "" touch tablet "and the older students, known repertoire. The Leisure and Cultural actors take classes into the emblem, it will tune melodies, performance skills, theater productions among soluble emblem to emblem plate singing opera increasingly enriched and improved, singing and chanting white voice of Beijing and more features, and easily accepted by Beijing. Daoguang twenty-five years (1845) big name courses are older students, as foreman. Hui, Han, after confluence, contributed to the Xi Pi Hubei and Anhui Erhuang tone tune the exchange again. Hui, Qin, Han confluence, the birth of the opera foundation.
Second, the formation of
Daoguang twenty years to ten years Xianfeng (1840 -1,860 years), the play by Hui, Shaanxi Opera, the confluence of the Han stressed, and reference absorption Kun, Beijing accent the long and formed Beijing opera. One of the signs: a complete melody plate is rich beyond the logo, Qin, Han play any of the three. Singing tunes from the plate body cavity and mixed. Tune mainly Erhuang, Sipi-based; the second line when largely complete; the three formed a group of Peking Opera repertoire; of four, Cheng Changgeng, Yu Sansheng, Zhang Erkui the early formation of the representatives of the opera, was called "lao three heroes" "Sanding a" namely: "champion" Zhang Erkui, "second place" Cheng Changgeng, "third overall" Yu Sansheng. Concerts and performances in all characteristics of each style, the main accent in the creation of Peking Opera Sipi, Erhuang and in opera opera form, and has the characteristics of Beijing Language and Culture, said White, pronunciation, the made an outstanding contribution. The first generation of Peking Opera performers, two are still the older students, Lusheng Kui, Xue India Xuan, Zhang Rulin, Wang Jiuling, etc.; niche Lung Tak Yun, Xu Hong; Dan Hu Xilu, Luoqiao Fu, Mei Qiaoling: Chou Yang Mingyu, Liu drive 3; Lao Dan Hao Lantian, TAN Zhi-Tao; net Zhu large pock , any painted face and so on, they enrich each trade are no tune and performing arts, are a unique creation. Successor 'Si-xi ban' troupe of Meiqiao Ling, the courage to break Tsing Yi, Huadan old rules of strict division of labor, the female roles of the singing art opened up a new path.
"Absolutely the same light Troupe 13" is the Peking Opera Troupe in the history of a wardrobe color photo painting, from the late Qing Shen Rong-po civil artist rendering. He made reference to the mid-Qing He Shikui dwarfed portrait master, "Beijing accent 13 must" figure in the form of drama, _select_ed wen, xu (l860 to 1890) the prestigious Peking Opera stage 13 actors, with a meticulous re-color them play portrayed characters in the play, shows the author's profound skill. This painting in the three years of the Republic of China (1943), by the evolution of complex social Zhu Shu Si Chang in the acquisition, by narrowing the advent of photocopying, along with code "must pass the same optical Troupe 13" 1.
1883 a 1918 opera by the formation of a mature one, too representative said, "wants to know after the three heroes" of Tan Xinpei, Wang Guifen, Sun Juxian. One Tan Xinpei Cheng Cheng Changgeng, Yu Sansheng, Zhang Erkui length of various arts, but also by the creation of development, will advance to the new Opera mature state. Tan widely in art practice has absorbed from the Kun Opera, clapper, drum and opera Tsing Yi, Baikal, Lao Dan draw the line, and into the concert being, to create unique art style of singing, "Tan Pai", formed a "no Tan cavity do not learn "situation. After twenty years of Yushu Yan, Yan Ju Peng, the high Qing Kui, Ma Lailiang, are in cases of "Tan Pai" development on the basis of their different school of art. Wang Guifen, arts were Cheng Changgeng, singing never powerful gloomy, solemn and stirring tone plain, the "Tigers & Dragons" in the comments, and he was due to "like process to the real thing," therefore, "Venus and then the world" reputation. Sun Juxian, the age of 18 _select_ed military scholar, good to sing opera, often into the concert box office, after the 36-year-old Tou Shi Cheng Changgeng. His loud noise, high and low with ease. Informality in Hubei and Hunan to study voice and Central Plains White Yun, Multi-tone Beijing, Beijing, word, sound kind of natural. Generous realistic performance, close to life. "After the three heroes the older students," studying under different emphases, art styles, from the overall balance, Tan Xinpei Chiang Kun disorder does not block, art skills and the development of Beijing Opera, far more than Wang, Sun. Hsu, Tan Xinpei called "King of Ling sector" status in the theater world, such as year of Cheng Changgeng. Xianfeng years (1861) Peking Opera performances beginning into the palace. May sixth day until the end of the year, divided by three Qing classes, Sixi class, two-Kui classes and outside classes (class opera) performance. Guangxu reign (1883), Empress life Pentecost day, the _select_ion Zhang Qi Lin, YANG Long-life, Bao Fu Shan, Cai Fulu, Yan Fuxi other 18 palaces and poor, not only singing, and when the opera instructors, teach skills to eunuchs. Since then, the Qing performance of the agencies in charge of "peace and prosperity Department", the famous artist each year to _select_ the palace when the poor, end only Xuantong (1911), namely, Tan Xinpei, Yang F, Sun Juxian, Norman Chan, Wang flute cents Yang Xiaolou, Yuyu Qin, Zhu Wenying, Wang Yaoqing, Gong Yunfu, Mu Fengshan, money Jinfu other students, once the net, ugly people have more than 150 famous palace. As the Empress hobby Opera, Peking Opera stars often coupled performed in the palace, on strong momentum. Meanwhile, at Tai Kwong Tak Building gate area, Sam Kyung Park, Qing paradise, and in parks, theaters civilized park, day'd love to form a unified situation in Peking Opera. Opera maturity, in addition to "the older students, after the three heroes", the health-line, there were still Yam Tong, Gu Honglin; Takefu Yu Ju-sheng, YANG Long-life; net line of He Jia Shan, Huang Runfu, gold Xiushan, Qiu Gui-xian, LIU Yong-chun etc.; niche Wang Leng Sin, Tak-jun For example, Lu Huayun: Dan OK Norman Chan, Tiangui Feng, Wang Yaoqing, Zhu Wenying; scandal Wang Changlin, Zhang black, Luo hundred, Xiao Changhua, Almond Hill. During this period, the rise of female roles, female roles and the health angle formed to keep pace with the trend. Takefu Yu Ju Sheng, creating a roof beam to the first person Takefu own company, he was later known as the "Takefu originator." The famous, innovative development in succession, singing skills maturity, will be opera to new heights.
4, peak period
Since 1917, outstanding Peking Opera actors in large numbers, showing a genre scene of the prosperous situation, the development of a peak by the maturity period, a representative of this period was Yangxiao Lou, Mei Lanfang, Yu Shuyan. As scholars respect for the elegant cultural heritage suffered disaster in the 20th century, opera reached its heyday.
In 1927, Beijing "Shuntian inch newspaper" organized actresses, stars performing _select_ion. Readers vote results: Mei Lanfang to play "too true rumor", Shang Xiaoyun to play "Mo Dengjia Girls", Cheng Yanqiu to play "Hong Fu Chuan", Xun Huisheng to play "Danqing primer", won the "four most famous . " "The four most famous" stand out, is an important indicator opera to its peak. They create a distinctive artistic style, dignified and elegant form of Mei Lanfang, Shang Xiaoyun's pretty vigorous, Cheng Yanqiu the deep euphemism, Xun Huisheng of Johnson Nick and lovely "Four Schools", created a Beijing opera stage to Dan based pattern. Takefu Yu Ju Sheng Yang Xiaolou in the following, Yang F, will be followed by the development of the performing arts opera Takefu to new heights, known as "Chinese opera master," "Wu Shengtai struggle." The older students in the Yushu Yan, high Qingkui, made Ju Peng, Ma Lailiang, 20 years, said that "four to life." During the same period Hui Bao, Wang Fengqing, Guan Tai Yuen Sang and so is the talent. The late 30s, more than, say, the high has quit the stage, Ma Lailiang and Tan Fuying, Xi Xiaobo, Yang Baosen known as "four to life." Women need health Meng Xiaodong, with high artistic attainments, rather Naishi Yushu Yan's artistic style.
After the election, Tong Ling, still, "Li Yan reported that" over, _select_ed Li Shifang, Zhang Junqiu, hair to the world, SONG beads for the "Four Little Ming Dan", "four small Mingdan" joint choice in Chang'an, the new two new theaters the "White Snake" and "45 flowers holes" and offer their congratulations.
Genre scene, talents, is another sign of Beijing Opera peak. In addition to Yang sent during this period (small building), the Mei school (Lan Fong), are still sending (Xiaoyun), Cheng sent (Yan Qiu), Xun (Wai Health), the female roles there are Xiao camp (Cuihua) and Song School (Germany bead), Zhang sent (Kimiaki); lao line I sent (tert-rock), high school (Qingkui), made camp (Ju Peng), horse camp (even good), Xi sent (Xiao Bo ), Poplar (Bossen), New Tan Pai (Fu Ying); net line in the gold camp (small hill), Hou School (Cerritos), Hao sent (Shouson) and after 50 years generated Qiu style (Sheng Jung); niche line Jiang faction (myohyang), leaves school (Sheng Lan); Laodan line Gong camp (Yunnan to), Lee sent (more Kui); the scandal in the leaf Pine (Sheng Zhang) and so on. Over the same period there are a number of Peking Opera performing artists, such as health row Wang Fengqing, when Hui Bao, Wang Yichen, LI Hong-chun, Tan Xiaopei, LI Wanchun, Li Shao-chun, Goldman Sachs Lun, etc.; Jordan line Yanlan Qiu, Xu Biyun, Zhu Qin heart, Zhaotong Shan, Xueyan piano, new Yan-Qiu, Zhang contain cloud, Jinshao Mei, Bi clouds, Qin Chiffon, Wang Yurong, made Huizhu, Tongzhi Ling, Leung Luan, Wu Suqiu, Zhao Yanxia, Du Jinfang; niche in Jinzhong Ren, Ru Fu Lan, Cheng Ji-xian; scandal in Guo Spring Hill, Cirui Quan, Mafu Lu, Zhang Chunhua, etc..
Merchants of the class
Huizhou merchants extremely rich culture of commercial success led to the upsurge of consumer desire. With the socio-economic development and the Kunshan chamber opera tune the rise, one after another Keeper's home, the role of fighting arts, and hard for the South to collect under the Qianlong sensual dance, drama lavishly packaged emblem color art, an objective for the logo to create a drama went to Beijing conditions. Dominated the 500 years of the Ming and Qing Huizhou business to business to help merchants famous famous Huangshan Shexian of merchants in particular, rich. With the socio-economic development and the Kunshan chamber opera tune the rise, South Jiangbei literati and the wealthiest businessmen have Keeper family troupe. Already in the field-and-coming business merchants have followed suit. Huizhou merchants for a long time used to support social drama classes were outsiders known as the "emblem of class." Hui Guangzhou Pumped Storage's home, along the river in Anhui, including a local drama in Ancient things began to flourish. They sing Kun, and not because of language differences "Harmony Wu Yin", inadvertently sing a little "local flavor." So in the cavity under the influence of Qingyang, Anhui singing tone - "Hui Kun", and later developed into Erhuang cavity. In particular, was born in Anqing City, Totally transfer Huaining County, the most famous. Huizhou artist with a local accent in Yangzhou, get merchants their family patronage and a heavy support. Them, or come and go in Pier Street, wantonly, or for Hui Fu Jia Suorong stay. To develop skills, accent has gradually gained the upper hand. Then the concept of class emblem is not entirely "Merchants of the class," and begin with emblem transfer (Shipai cavity, puppet theater tune) meaning.
"No stone not a class"
Pai is a Huaining County of Anqing City, the ancient market town, "no stone not a class" and "stone" refers to here, also refers to the Anqing and their respective counties. To mid-Qing, Pai has become known far and near commercial centers, business 3000, sailing 1000. Jiangxi, Fujian, Hubei and other merchants have the _set_ting in this section. Then Shihpai addition to local residents, mostly in the past Chuanbang and businesses, in survival has become more relaxed, they began to build their own Pop Culture.
Pai was a stage for theatrical performances as many as 800, not only Me and Park, Theater, there are flower stage. The Opera House, there are three in Pai town. On the side streets of the town of Changle Grand Theater can accommodate 600 spectators, specifically for Hui stressed Pihuang class performance. Theater usually in the ancestral hall. Ancestral Theater usually sing opera, with annual winter solstice festival, held within the clan was in, promoted and family in gentry Keiju, must employ troupe performed in the playhouse. In addition, the ancestral overhaul completed, also will be invited to express congratulations singing classes. "Du Fu drama" Description: "Hui Lai lost class day, began Pai." Anqing of Anhui classes that have appeared glorious history, a lot of Peking Opera Troupe are senior people in this band, so there is "no stone not a class itself."
Fighting arts troupe
According to historical records, "The Legendary play, Gojong (Qianlong) southern tour for the height, but never out of Salt Salt in particular." In other words, official bureaucratic official responsible for acting by the Salt Salt, Salt Salt to Keeper flowers, elegant drama of two to prepare southern tour performances. Ya, namely, Kunshan cavity, for the Beijing accent flower, Shaanxi opera, Yiyang Tune, Bangzi opera, Rolls-Royce cavity, Erhuang transfer, referred to puppet theater. Undertake specific tasks of the troupe performed mostly funded by the Anhui merchants formed, called within the class. The original troupe for the Salt Xu Shangzhi (Shanxi) Xu Jinglei established investment classes, after the merchants Huangyuan De (merchants), Zhang Daan, Wang Qiyuan (Hui), Cheng Qian Germany, Hong enrichment (merchants), Garden (Hui business), also have group classes. Jiang Chun-Hui Chun Tai classes formed her own company, in order to enrich the power, he recruited four Mingdan as eight officials in Suzhou, Yang, Anqing, such as Chun Tai Hao Tianxiu class pillars. Hao Tianxiu performances and lovely and moving, straight audience ecstasy, known as the "pit the dead." Shaanxi opera repertoire Wei Changsheng famed artistes who, to seek refuge in Yangzhou Spring River. Great respect on the Wei Changsheng Jiang Chun, acting one, gifts of silver 1200. The actors to join, a great boost to the Yangzhou to Beijing, Qin and other cavity convergence, absorption, and further promote the development of flowers. Three classes of high-Lang Qing Ting, Chun Tai Hao Tianxiu classes are the "flower together Anqing Beijing, Qin second chamber" famous Jiangnan. Salt Merchants need to perform, but also employ a number of experts in the famous lyrics, providing favorable conditions for long-term support them. Dahong classes in spring and Taiwan class is "assembling a crowd to the United States and large equipment." A "Peach Blossom Fan," Bank charges 160 000, a "Palace of Eternal Youth" cost more than ten million, four silver. This pomp Chuqing CHAMBERLAIN, others difficult to match.
Su opera singing Street
Anhui to Beijing starting classes in Yangzhou, skilled and Actors were, prior to departure must be to sing in the Soviet Union Street, Pear Bureau bumper head start to discuss about the schedule and perform plays, where the placing of a posture, the rejection Under the two sleeves, Yang few more words of Zhuyuanyurun voice. Sometimes even a few out of rehearsal excerpts, or "garden" or "Hess", extremely rich, graceful, when the Soviet Union to sing street, very busy!
Su Sing Street, is the only preserved the old Yangzhou directly related to the street with the troupe. Salt Xu Shangzhi year artists from the Suzhou Kun do to attract the first Kun from Yangzhou class "Xu Jinglei class", on this street. Kun Opera's home in Suzhou, so there Sukun known, this had much to sing Sukun residence street artists, who took it the name of Yangzhou Su-sung Street.
Hui class to Beijing
AD 1790, Emblem classes to sing happy birthday to Beijing opera began to tour. After years of vicissitudes, constantly absorbing, the emblem of class, "Voice for the same five parties together," while gradually losing their color. Emblem of history class is over, but born out of the final emblem classes to become world-renowned Peking Opera art treasures, is the emblem of class, can be described as Nirvana.
Miyoshi classes starting Performances
Anhui to Beijing four classes
Beijing to celebrate the success of the three classes, there was Sixi classes, and spring classes, courses, the emblem of spring classes to enter Taiwan, Beijing, and gradually dominating the theater at the Capitol. This is the so-called "four major classes emblem to Beijing."
Four classes have their own strengths emblem, the "three-axis sub-Ching, Sixi song, spring and the handle, the spring of Taiwan's children," saying axion speech refers to the whole drama was even said that good song Concert Kun, handle refers to the force play to win, the children refer to children Ling known for.
In holding a very hot once the capital of the wind, the high skill extraordinary natural favored Long Pavilion. After arriving in Beijing, he replaced the original three-class troupe I Ching ranks the fourth metacarpal classes, one to do that more than 30 years, and also served as the theatrical community of the Capital Bank will organize the "sake of the temple" and will head to Beijing by Loyalty Temple troupe, play Park practice administration, he became leader of opera. After following the high-Lang Ting, Cheng Changgeng, Xu Hong, Yang F, Liu had time for three classes per term in this post.
Jiaqing to the beginning of classes in the Beijing opera stage, Anhui has achieved a dominant position, according to "Beautiful Dream Suo book" reads: "Zhuang drama will play 'emblem of class'. Opera House and great person, such as' Canton de F', ' Canton and House ',' Sam Kyung Park ',' celebration park ', doubtless to' emblem of class' main. Next to this is' emblem of class''Small''Spain ', with all carry on hybrid fitness. "
Anhui to Beijing four classes performed for 200 years has opened a magnificent prelude to the history of Chinese opera.
Tune in Beijing opera artists in all, the face emblem classes can do everything, nothing is fine art edge, unable to compete, and most of all turn to join themselves to class emblem. Among them are the Capital stage, the opera's famous tune, such as adding classes of Hubei Han Chun Tai rice Xizi famous opera, Li Fenglin, adding Sixi classes Hunan noodle (yellow skin) famous Han Xiaoyu, joined the three classes of Beijing Ji Qing Beijing accent actor Quan-Fu Wang and so on, so he formed the emblem of a variety of meta-class opera Tune trend. As a result, all Hui classes in the process of playing chamber complex, from the "two necessary fuel," "three necessary fuel" to "wind stirred the snow," and gradually focused on yellow leather opera performances.
Formation and Communication
Peking Opera was formerly popular in the early Qing Jiangnan region, to sing the blow cavity, high pick, two yellow emblem consisting mainly of class. Emblem class liquidity, frequent contacts with other forms of opera, in tune with each other can exchange, so also moonlights in the development process a lot of Kun Opera, also absorbed La La cavity and other miscellaneous songs. Fifty-five years of Qing Dynasty (1790), with high Long Pavilion (name on official) led the first emblem of class (c Qing Ban) into Beijing to attend the birthday celebration of Emperor Qianlong 80 performances. "Pleasure boats" contains: "High Long booths into Capital to Anqing flowers, Jing Qin second chamber together, were said, the three celebrate their classes." Published in the Daoguang two years (1842), Yang Mao Jian "Immigrant trivial book "also said:" The three celebrate again Sixi the first, Qianlong 50 years Geng-Xu, Zong Wanshou into the eighties when all wish box, called 'three-Ching-Hui', is the ancestor class emblem. "sub Wu Shu in" with the Garden Poetry "notation is even more specific that the" Fujian and Zhejiang Governor Woonara life Anqing Anhui, Zhejiang merchants kai people wishes PCT. "emblem then there are many classes one after another to Beijing. The famous three Qing, Si-xi, spring _set_s, spring and four classes, although the spring and _set_ up eight years in Jiaqing (1803), no later than three years to celebrate, but later still, and called the "emblem of class into four Beijing. "
Qianlong, Chia Ching, the Beijing Cultural Fair, political stability, economic prosperity, the drama artists beginning to look like. Beijing stage Kun, Beijing accent, Shaanxi opera three pillars, each confrontation. Emblem class to Beijing, the first dedicated to "co-Jing Qin second chamber." At that time Shaanxi Opera, Beijing accent is basically the same stage, "Jing Qin, regardless of" ("Pleasure boats"), emblems of their drawing on others to carry forward the tradition of class, broad absorption Shaanxi opera (including some of Beijing accent) of the repertoire and performance methods, and inherited many The Kun operas (also rehearsing the Kun opera "Peach Blossom Fan") and stage art system, which rapidly increased in the arts.
Emblem art class itself features is its ability to win in the main Zhengheng. In tune, in addition to the singing voice erhuang wins were transferred to the new suits, it is "five-party contact Voice, merged into the same" ("past it to see record"); in the repertory, the subject matter wide variety of forms; In the show, the simple and genuine, and heavy line when complete civil and military, so for the general audience has requested.
Arrangements on the show, according to "Beautiful Dream Suo book" contains the four Emblem class "all good at winning games." 3 celebrate the "axion" win (the past few days took a role in new play), Sixi to "tune" to win (good singing Kun), and spring in order to "handle" to win (good Yanwu play), the spring _set_s in order to "children" to win (with Ling Tong to call). In the arts and business with emphasis on, can play expertise, made rapid progress. To Daoguang late emblem classes have an advantage in Beijing. "Immigrant Suo book", said: "this club for a maximum of Anhui, Wu people of Asia, Shu no known who carry on." Said: "logo will play Zhuang drama classes. Opera House and great person, such as wide Tak House, Canton, and House, Sam Kyung Park, Qing park is fully to the main emblem of class. "emblem of the process of growth and development classes, that is good at it to change the course of opera. The completion of this evolution, the main symbol for the confluence of the Han and Hui Huang blend of leather, formed the Xi Pi, two yellow two tone-based vocal chamber music system board, so deeply honored to performance gradually improved. The first class to Beijing along with the Han Hui stressed that m actors should (also known as rice Xizi), Hubei Chongyang (one that people in Anhui), was born forty-five years Qianlong (1780), about the spring of Taiwan to join Jiaqing Emblem class to Beijing concert, play is health, good at red health show, a very prestigious Long (see "Immigrant Suo Book" and Lee Teng-Qi "Talking often bundle record"). Be regarded as a famous Chinese actor Yu Sansheng pioneer tune (lyrics folk art was a "sub-meter race to be first year" of the sentence). Reign (1821-1849), Han transferred to Beijing to join emblem actor singing classes gradually increased, with the noted Wang Honggui, Lee 6. Su Hoi Temple Buddhist "Yan Taiwan Hong claw _set_" (about as in Daoguang years ago) said: "Imperial is still Chu notes. Musicians in such Wanghong Gui, Li 6 good for the new claim in time." Chu notes that Chinese tone, that is, Xi Pi tone. It is obvious that Beijing has stressed popular Sipi, Wang Honggui, Lee 6 "good for the new sound", but also promoted the transfer of innovation in the development of the Xi Pi. In the emblem, the joint efforts of Chinese actors, and gradually realized the Xi Pi and two yellow two tone blending. Start a different repertoire, according to different sources, were singing the Xi Pi or 2 yellow; later, some play and sing on the Xi Pi and two yellow, and even singing the same aria in the first two yellow, and then by the Xi Pi, and the mutual coordination and seamless . "Luo called off" (the emblem of the source tune "mud river") is an example. Rhyme, the form "Central Plains Yun and Hu tone" of the rhyme, the word sound intermingled Beijing Music, E Music, used along with Beijing, Hubei, two four-tone value, respectively, ts pronunciation, in accordance with the "13 Track" rhyme. Two yellow strings and, several times repeated, and finally in Xianfeng, Tongzhi period (1851-1874) spent flute, used consistently with the Xi Pi huqin (different tune a stringed instrument), but the blowing chamber singing traditional classes according to the previous logo with flute accompaniment.
Tongzhi six years (1867), Peking Opera spread to Shanghai. Man Ting Fang, the new Opera House is about to Beijing from Tianjin classes by the audience. In the same year, Osmanthus tea celebration by Beijing three classes, but also about the large number of well-known Peking Opera actor, which wants to know Xiakui Zhang (Xiayue Run the father), Xiong Jingui (Xiong Wen Tong father), rising star Feng Sanxi (Feng Zi and father) and so on. They _set_tled in Shanghai, a Shanghai as the center of the Southern Pine opera family. Subsequently, the more Beijing angle gradually southward, the best known are Zhou Chunkui, Sun Juxian, Yang F, Sun Chunheng, Yellow Moon Mountain, Chun-Lai, Yong-Chun Liu and clapper Huadan Tin International Cloud (ring Jiuxiao), so as to make Shanghai become the Beijing side by side to another Opera Centre.
In 1919, Mei Lanfang rate troupe went to Japan to perform Peking Opera for the first time spread to overseas; in 1924, he re-rate troupe to perform in Japan, in 1930, Mei has rate 20-member crew to the United States visit and performance achieved great success. In 1934, he was invited to go to Europe to perform in the Soviet Union, the importance attached by the European theater. Since then, around the world as the Peking Opera School of the Chinese drama.
Opera about the formation of about 150 years.
Fifty-five years of Qing Dynasty (1790) The emblem of the renowned South Course "Miyoshi class" into Beijing for the Qing Gaozong (Qianlong Emperor) of the eight late "Wanshou" birthday. Class is speech emblem emblem or logo of opera troupe tune, popular in the South the early years of the Qing Dynasty. Following this, many emblem incoming class, including the most famous three Qing, Si-xi, spring _set_s, and spring, often called "four emblem classes." They perform on their own characteristics, the three celebrate the whole repertoire of drama; Sixi longer Kun plays; Chun Tai Ling and more young children mainly; spring and outstanding repertoire.
Huang Hui tone is two tone, high pick, blow cavity, Siping transfer, etc., sometimes also the Xi Pi transfer, Kun and Yi cavity; the Chinese cast member is transferred to reconcile two yellow tone Sipi. Hui and Han class cooperation, merging the two tone, mix with each other after a period of absorption, coupled with sound technology to Beijing, and from Kun, Yi cavity, Shaanxi opera constantly absorb nutrients, and finally the formation of a new art form - opera. The first generation of Peking Opera players mature and are recognized around around in 1840.
Peking Opera from the production since there have been many names. Include: puppet theater, spring adjustment, Beijing spring, Beijing Erhuang, Pi Huang (yellow skin), Erhuang (2 yellow), drama, Peking Opera, the old opera and Chinese opera, Beijing Opera, Beijing Opera and so on.
Peking Opera stage in the literary arts, performance, music, singing, drums, makeup, facial makeup and so on, through the stage of long-term practice of numerous artists, constitute a _set_ of constraints with each other, complement each other's metrical and standardization programs. As a means to create a stage image of the art is very rich, but usage is very strict. Can not manage these programs, you can not complete the opera stage art creation. Since the beginning of opera in the formation, they entered the court, it is different from the developmental growth of the local operas. Asked it to show wider areas of life, the types of characters to create more comprehensive nature of its skills, integrity also requires more stringent, it creates the image of the aesthetics of the stage were also higher. Of course, it also correspondingly weakened civil local flavor, simple, rugged style features relatively weak. Thus, it tends to be more performing arts performance combining false and true way to maximize the detachment of the stage space and time constraints, to achieve the "Form and, Vivid," the art of life. Performance on the required fine delicate, always into the game; melodious singing to request euphemism, extremely rich; force play to win not to brave hot, but to "force the text to sing opera," see good.
Category】 【line when
Opera trade are no division, otherwise than pursuant to the natural character attributes (gender, age) and social attributes (status, occupation), the more the main character traits according to figures on the characters and creators DC attitudes were different.
Line when divided into long, divided into line when the greatest impact on the opera, when the number of the Leisure and Cultural. Han opera is divided into 10 types of business: one end of the second net, whose son, 4 Dan, 5 b, 6, the seven little, eight, nine husbands, 10 miscellaneous. The role of this ten line when the contents of something like this: at the end is the main male role, that is, inside the Sang opera; the net and the net opera, is the same, referring to the painted face; Dan is the opera, the roles, refers to the female role; sticker is affixed Dan's short opera in the early division of business, where also posted, including Jordan, referring to the relatively minor role once the line, commonly known as the two roles, such as Peking Opera is now "matchmaker" in play Miss Yingying is posted once. Husband, plays the driver, bearers, horses child, the role of a class of runners. Overall, the Leisure and Cultural of the ten business, where division was more detailed, classified for the opera business, where the foundation. Peking Opera was divided into a living, once the net, ugly four types, seems to be more streamlined and concise, but among each category, but also includes a number of categories, so in fact these 10 kinds of line when all included. Not included, and more stringent fine. The only difference is that although there Sang Han Opera, but his main industry was the end, not the students. The development of the opera, Sang became the main line when the.
】 【Character Makeup
Face of Chinese traditional opera, an actor facial make-up of a program. Generally applied to the net, the two ugly Profession, in which various characters have their own specific spectrum of great style and color to highlight the character's personality characteristics, with "Apartments no judgments, do good and evil," the art features that allow viewers to visual appearance , to comprehend the mind. Thus, Facebook known as the role of "spiritual picture."
Facebook's evolution and development, not an individual product concocted out of thin air, but the art of opera artists to practice in the long run, observations of the phenomenon of life, experience, comprehensive, and continuous analysis of the play the role of judge, to evaluate, before gradually formed a complete _set_ of artistic practices.
According to historical records, Facebook by the Tang Dynasty Music and Dance Omo (traditional opera character line when is one of the opera and the play in some parts of the net's other name) is wearing a mask and join the army to show the net of the coated vice Ancient Period.
Peking Opera and Peking Opera performing arts, as is, and actors appear on stage with live art. Opera in the history of Chinese opera, though only 200 years of history, but compared with other opera, it has developed quickly, spread widely, deeply loved by the people, have a broad mass base. Therefore, the Peking Opera facial makeup in Chinese opera has a special status.
Peking Opera is an impressionistic and exaggerated art, often bat, Yan-wing, Diechi facial features such as cheek hook pattern, combined with exaggerated nasal fossa, fossa mouth to describe the facial expression. Facebook is always cheerful optimistic eye development Shu-mei, sad or violent facial Eyebrow mostly songs in destination. Outlined when the "crow's feet" to reflect the age, the level of right and wrong, use the "nasolabial folds" up and down to open and close to the performance of temperament, with "Yintang pattern" a symbol of Characters in different patterns. Peking Opera
Peking Opera is the national characteristics of a particular cosmetic. As each historical figure or a certain type of person has an approximate spectral type, like sing, play music to the music, so called "Facebook." Sources on Facebook, the general view is from mask.
Peking Opera, is based on some kind of personality, temperament or a particular type of figures for the use of certain colors. Red mask that Warriors of strong, such as Guan Yu and his concubine dimensional, regular book; black mask that Unyielding, integrity, bravery or recklessness, such as Bao Zheng, Zhang Fei, Li Kui, etc.; yellow mask that vicious brutality, such as Yu Chengdu, Dian Wei. Blue or green mask that some of the figures represented irritable, such as Dou, Ma Wu; white mask generally indicated a traitor, villain, such as Cao Cao, Zhao higher.
Peking Opera of color painting methods, basically divided into three categories: rubbing face, face towel, different faces. Facebook first, it only exaggerated the characters facial features and facial parts of the texture, the performance of characters in the play with exaggerated personality, psychological and physiological characteristics, in order to service the entire drama of the plot, but the development of later , Facebook from simple to complex, from coarse to fine, exterior to interior, from shallow to deep, itself becoming a nation of characteristics, people's facial expression means for the pictorial arts.
】 【Pronunciation skills
(1) real voice 亦名 big voice, the voice. Peking Opera is one of articulation. Singing, the air out from the pubic region, through the throat resonance, given the direct sound to, as real voice. With the real voice sounds that really sound. Such as the pubic region air through the throat, the actor will narrow throat, so that issue higher than the real voice tones, is called the false voice. False true voice and throat cavity when the convergence of the natural line, without a trace, you can make a wide range of high bass run smoothly. Peking Opera Sang (wants to know Takefu, Hong-sheng), net line, scandal, Lao Dan and other business, where all the time in concert with the real voice. Niche singing voice with a fake, but the idea of white is combined with true and false voice.
(2) at the throat 亦名 small voice, two throat. Peking Opera is one of articulation. Department and true voice, great voice, the voice relative. Fake voice with fal_set_to voice said. Sound when compared with the true voice pore throat narrow, site elevation, air becomes thin. Fake voice sounds higher pitch Jiaozhen voice. Female roles in Peking Opera, niche concert are using fake voice, but they sound different from the flex strength.
(3) Left voice, opera vocal terms. Mainly refers to male voice in an abnormal voice, can be high but not low, another voice has just the flat, round enough, wants to know some special high-sounding doors or Takefu that this throat singing. Voice has just left the older students, throat, also left by the throat, somewhat. In addition, the left voice sometimes used as another explanation, saying that substandard voice with accompaniment of musical instruments, the general so-called dissonant.
(5) calling voice, opera voice actor training methods, you can exercise all by voice shouting voice parts, correctly in all finals of the sound issue. Shouting voice in early morning, in open areas, loudly shouted, "Well," "Iraq", "ah" sound such as unit, from low to high, from high to low, repeated. Put the sound to be comfortable, then to aria to practice.
(6) Dan Tian tone, also known as ring hall, opera vocal terms. When the actor singing the lungs to store enough gas, abdominal strength in air like from the pubic region (about three inches under the navel person office that the pubic region) the issue of sound. Now the traditional method of singing opera voice training, but also that most navel ring tone together (that sounds sent far away, hear clearly).
(7) on cloud cover, opera vocal terms. This is the round while the older students, more subtle voice of a metaphor. This voice began to sound like feel dry, after more singing Yujue loud sounds, people feel full-bodied flavor, great potential is the formation of long-term exercise and a beautiful sound. Tan Xinpei, Yushu Yan's voice will be of this type.
(8) collapse, the opera vocal terms. Actors in old age, due to physical relationship, occurred aphonia phenomenon, can not sing, called the collapse of. Some actors love his voice, to the old vowel remains unchanged. Singing with a fake voice actor, collapsed in the more old.
(9) behind sound, a Peking Opera sound. Also known as back sound work. General pronunciation, gas from the navel out through the throat resonance, direct send to. Although the same sound from the back of the head gas pubic region, but the pronunciation, the throat a little compression, open the posterior pharyngeal wall, raise the soft palate, the sound into the head cavity, and nasal meet so convoluted in the back of the head voice, through the first cavity resonance , send a subtle, rich tone. Behind sound the vigorous and powerful can be up to much news, but they knew it almost hear the piercing. The older students, and the net angular singing in any case in closed sound (such as "17 Track") treble, and more with this singing. Female Roles in the singing voice behind those with fewer processes (Yan Qiu) Vocal sometimes used.
(10) ridiculous, but also for yellow chamber yellow tone or cool tone. Opera vocal terms. Cantata tone that actors are not allowed to, customary to refer exclusively to the tone changes slightly lower than the sound. Most are due to physiological condition caused by congenital actors, such as vocal variation, ears, etc. are not allowed to sound. Sometimes not be as sound law practice due.
(11) to take notes, opera vocal terms. Cantata pitched slightly higher than the requirement that an actor the tone. Most are caused by a congenital physical condition. Some are due to physical conditions (such as vocal cords) temporary failure; sometimes not as sound practice law due.
(12) take the board, opera vocal terms. Means Cantata actor beat irregularities. Peking Opera has a Plate 3, stiff, water board in a variety of board slot, line cavities, such as departure from the beats when the provisions of the measured loss of rhythm, that is that the go board.
(13) to be dissonant, opera vocal terms. Means Cantata actor or high or low tone, inconsistent with the provisions of the tune. Xi said that out of tune.
(14) air intake, Peking Opera singing one of the methods. When the suction means Cantata method actor. Varying lengths of various singing opera, rhythm and speed are different, the actors have to have accurate methods of breathing to sing calm, beautiful sounding. Including the ventilation air intake, two stolen gas. Intermittent ventilation means in inspiratory singing, stealing gas is off, if continued in the phrase, if not to make the listener aware of the breath.
(15) ventilation, the Peking Opera singing one of the methods. Whenever long-time concert chamber, or overstating Department, we must first inhale, well prepared. Ventilation was not stopped or significantly Pause Afterwards cavity sing songs, but the moment the line cavity throughput pronunciation, we took the opportunity breathing, has to be for gas. Where singing in the ventilation, vary, commonly known as air intakes.
(16) to steal gas, Peking Opera singing one of the methods. Means for air fused together organically, in the audience when the substitution is not aware of. Such as "Zhuofang Cao," sung in Chen Gong "Ma line to line both sides I can not return within the horse," over and over before the sixth and the "inside" word length cavity, using "I" word in this lining inward to "steal" suction breath to sing adequate following "difficult to return to Malaysia," the chamber, that is, that of stealing gas.
(17) Ga tune, singing in the opera, all sung with outstanding overstating the sound of a word, the study said the Ga transfer. Such as "Shiro Tan Mu" in the YANG Yan-hui sing "stand palace called the Little Fan" one of the "barbarians" and the words "Mount Dingjun" in Huang sing "Three carved credit sweep tomorrow noon," one of "Heaven," the word , are called Ga tune.
(18) long anything, but the length (tone palm) is the growth of anything about this incident is the voice of the called, here refers to the volume. Long anything about this incident as if to increase the volume.
(19) to drop ram, ram like analogy cast album of the drum when the foundation efforts Weili, with derogatory implications. Control methods are not good at singing actor with gas too far, or to brute force, singing (mostly in the tail) appears awkward accent, that the drop ram.
Peking Opera percussion and orchestral strings and points. Among them, the music is the soul of Peking Opera in the accompaniment of musical instruments. Peking Opera "singing", "read", "do" and "fighting" in full accordance with the provisions of the rhythm, "singing" to rhythmic, "read" to self-assured, "do" is the dance, and dance to demonstrate clear rhythm, who control, reflecting the rhythm? That is percussion. Percussion instruments are plate percussion section, a large gong, cymbals, cymbals, etc., referred to as "special effects"; orchestra has jinghu, Beijing Erhu, Yueqin, sanxian, known as "text field." In the opera stage, all the action figures, including the most secret thoughts activities are dance-oriented posture through movement, music and singing of the concept of white, and carried out the music accompaniment, composed by a variety of percussion sound the "percussive" plays an important role. Some people say that if the "singing", "read", "do" and "fighting" is a drama of flesh and blood, then the "percussive" is that it's bone, burst of drums, both playing majestic momentum, but also heighten the actors performance, and this _set_ off on the performances is very detailed, and even careful to point shot drum rotating cast eyes, opening and closing of eyelids, fingers trembling. Performers are often guided the emotional and expressive needs of drums, gongs and drums (rhythm, sound) and other stimuli, in turn induced by the actors performing passion.
】 【Stage props
Puzzle at the end
Puzzle is not the size of a few simple props and devices referred to, is the opera performance and physical conflicts to resolve the particular product. Not the word puzzle in the Jin and Yuan period there. Puzzle of traditional opera stage, including the end of life equipment (such as candlesticks, lanterns, fans, handkerchiefs, pens, tea, wine), transportation equipment (eg chair, car flags, paddles, whips, etc.). Weapons, also known as swords and guns handle (such as a variety of knives, guns, swords, axes, hammers, whips, clubs, sticks, etc.), and the performance environment, dyed all the atmosphere of objects (such as Putrajaya, large accounts and small accounts, the door flag , banner flag, water flag, wind flags, fire flag, quite a battle equipment, table chairs around Phi) and so on. In addition to popular puzzle at the end, but also can require temporary installation of performance.
The traditional makeup, is consciously different from the life of the natural shape of the object. They are not the kind of imitation, but in the drama of a kind of artistic expression. This is the puzzle and action to end the image is an important reason for the combination.
Banner on the stage to use a lot, such as the handsome Jack square, rectangular armed prayer flag, banner flag (the ancient banner of the army), are said Marshal and headquarters location. There are water flag, fire flag, wind flags, car flags, etc., these flags are painted in white on green water stripe square flag, flame, wind, wheels and so on. Actor execution flag, a slight quiver, it can be expressed undulating, fire, wind, ride.
Opera stage is not to evade the "false disclosure," nor does it require 11 realism. Swagger to on behalf of the horse, Yao Jiang in lieu of shipping. In the arena there is a broad space for performers, it shall make every effort to place detailed descriptions of unnecessary scenes, a rounders to have passed, this virtual method and style of Chinese opera performances are consistent.
(1), a musical, opera music terminology. Opera scores on the lyrics refers to the right side of the scale note symbol. China's traditional folk music, with "joint, four, on foot, workers, who, six" the words as the scale of the symbol, the equivalent of Western music, "56712345." Habits of these symbols collectively referred to as "a musical." Some music scores, lyrics next to the only note beats (segment), not a musical note. The scores are a musical called a musical score.
(2) traditional Chinese music, Chinese music terminology. Cantata tradition, the often Guban by the beat, where the strong beat are hit board, so called for the board of the film. Times strong and weak beat Zeyi drum beat playing, or finger sign making, are called the eyes, small eyes (four beats in the middle of a weak beat, said the beginning of the first eye or eyes, a weak beat, said after the end of eyes). Together, the orderliness.
(3) window-, Opera musical terms. Means singing words and singing between sentences, aria and aria interlude between the music. Sing the words and sing the words commonly used in small window-between the children, aria and aria great interlude between the commonly used. However, different plate, there are many exceptions, there is no fixed pattern.
(4) linked to children, opera music terminology. Linked to children is "too child" homophonic, specifically refers to arias and aria large window-between, most people refer to CLS's room playing music. Sentence and sing in singing the little interlude between sentences are not linked to child said.
(5) pad head, opera music terminology. Meeting with the music refers to music from the bridge between the role of Health and melody known as the pad or small mat head first, 亦名 bridge. Mat the first melody short, generally only two or three shot, played the role of back to back.
(6) line of rotary, opera music terminology. Refers to performers action or dialogue, monologue _set_ off when the music. Rotary multi-line melody for the melody or simple repetitive playing, the main role of the atmosphere from the contrast.
(7) pitch, that pitch when singing actor. Any use of stringed accompaniment, are based on the height of the free voice actors _set_ the tone. Opera pitch, generally being modest house notes, to sing the highest notes B word, any word the lowest tone, commonly known as lying on the tone. The same play, the two main actors of different pitch, sometimes to accommodate each other, sometimes temporary long (increase) pitch or off (lower) pitch.
(8) transfer surface, the actors sing the pitch with the accompaniment of musical instruments (erhu, dizi, etc.) the same pitch, called the transfer surface. Means in accordance with the "tone" of the surface of singing. Transfer surface in terms of the bottom line for the transfer. Under normal circumstances, the actors are singing tone surface.
(9) emphasized the end, the actors sing the pitch than the accompaniment of musical instruments (erhu, dizi, etc.) sound level octave, called the transfer end. Means in accordance with the tone of voice singing the bottom. Transfer surface for transfer in terms of bottom line. Opera's some singing, such as dolls tone tone often turned high, if the tone _set_ high, the actors voice less, if the tone _set_ low, musical instruments, the volume has been small, is the use of transfer end singing, the instrument _set_ an octave higher actor low octave sound to singing.
(10) tune a stringed instrument, means the strings (erhu, ruan, etc.) will "tone" of the high and low. Generally to the flute as a standard tune a stringed instrument.
(11) B tones of Chinese characters, Beijing Opera musical terms. Notation used in one tone. Tune a stringed instrument, the flute unskilled laborer to adjust the "B" sound (to open the fifth hole, blowing soprano), _set_ the erhu "work" sound (Sipi transfer Waixian of open strings). B the tone for the opera of the highest pitch.
(12) work is being transferred, but also for being house tune. Peking opera _set_ according to the pitch of the erhu flute tone, Xi Pi Wai Xian Gong tune with the flute work is sound palace with a high tone as positive. Than the increase in the palace is a time of said transfer B words, more than half a degree of that half-tone work, lower than was once the palace said the sixth tone, said the low degree of six and a half semi-tone, low degrees of the known lie the tone.
(13) work one half-tone opera tune. Slightly higher than the house is transferred, slightly lower than the B word transfer. Cf flute tune a stringed instrument when it is _set_ a positive tone and a little house increased.
(14) soft-workers stressed that the tone of one of the Peking Opera. Slightly lower than the house is transferred, but slightly higher than the sixth tune. Tune a stringed instrument is flute cf palace when it is _set_ slightly lower tone while.
(15) The sixth tone, the tone of one of the Peking Opera. Tune a stringed instrument, the flute unskilled laborer to adjust the "six" sound (tin fully closed, blowing treble), _set_ the erhu "work" sound (Sipi transfer Waixian of open strings). Sixth notes of Peking Opera are working below the tone, the level of moderate tone.
(16) lie on the tone, the tone will be Pa. The tone of one of the Peking Opera. Where less than the sixth transfer more than once referred to lie on the tone.
(17) take the side, "take sides" of the source of one that comes from Shanxi Operatic "white tiger whip away side" of the dance figure; a say because of where to go side characters because was afraid to see and more to the wall, along the roadside potential physical Night, Guer referred to as "walking side." In general, "Wuhu Village" Huang Tianba take the hardest edge. "Night Flight" and take the side of Lin's most tired, "centipede Ridge" of the Wu Kung Fu eat away the best side.
(18) times a horse opera in as much as to whip to replace the horse, or as a symbol of riding, so any hand waving whip use rounders after playing, stand up, lay the fish, cut body, throw fork, dig Ling, appearance and other skills Continuous made a horse, galloping horse stops or a combination of dance movements of the times is the horse opera.
Peking Opera has been formed, emerged a large number of excellent actors, their opera singing, acting, and modeling plays and characters such as innovation, contribute to the development, forming a large number of affected schools. If the older students: Cheng Changgeng, Yu Sansheng, Zhang Erkui, Tan Xinpei, Wang Guifen, Sun Juxian, Wang Xiao-ning, LIU Hong-Sheng, Wang Hongshou, Yushu Yan, Gao Qing Kui, Yan Ju Peng, Zhou Xinfang, Ma Lailiang, Yang Baosen, Tan Fuying, Li Shao-chun, etc.; niche: Xu Hong, Cheng Ji-xian, Jiang myohyang, Ye Shenglan etc.; Takefu Yu Ju-sheng, HUANG Yue Shan, Chun-Lai, Yang Xiaolou, Gai Jiaotian, Shang and Yu, Li Huiliang, etc.; female roles: Meiqiao Ling, Yu Ziyun, Tiangui Feng, Norman Chan, Wang Yaoqing, Mei Lanfang, Cheng Yanqiu, Xun Huisheng, yet Xiaoyun, Ouyang Yuqian, Feng Zi and, Xiao Cui-hua, Zhang Junqiu, ZHANG Huo D, etc., Lao Dan Gong Yunfu, lying clouds lay, Lee Da-kui, Jin-Quan Li, etc.; net angle: Mu Fengshan, Huangrun Fu, He Shan, Qiu Gui-xian, Jin Shao Shan, Qiu Shengrong, etc. ; clown: Liu go to three, Yang Mingyu, Wang Changlin, Xiao Changhua so. In addition, the famous zither player: Sunyou Chen, Mei Lantian, Xu Lan Yuan, WANG Shaoqing, Yang Baozhong, etc.; famous son and Hang drum teacher, Baideng Yun, Wang Xieyuan so.
Peking Opera school:
NGA wants to know the net angle Takefu female roles Laodan clown Musician drum teacher
【Features】 Peking Opera
Chinese opera and Greek tragedy and comedy, drama and Indian Sanskrit drama called the world's three ancient cultures.
Historically the term was first used Opera Sung Liu Xun (1240-1319), his "poet Wu Yong Zhang Biography" that "Yongjia opera," he said, "Yongjia Opera" is what later generations, "Southern Opera" "Opera Man," "Yongjia Drama." From the beginning of modern Wang Guowei, only then "Opera" is used as a generic term for traditional Chinese theater culture.
Opera is a comprehensive art, is the time integrated art and space art, this comprehensive theater culture is shared by countries in the world, and comprehensive Chinese opera particularly strong.
Shi Yi Chinese opera singing, concept, doing, playing De variety show centered on dramatic form, it means a wealth of artistic expression, it is closely integrated with the performing arts comprehensive, so full of special the charm of Chinese opera. It is the lyrics, music, fine arts, performing cast for the United States, with the rhythm of the exercise was in a drama, to achieve unity and harmony, and fully mobilize a variety of artistic means of appeal, the formation of China's unique rhythmic performance Art.
Chinese opera features the most important point is virtual sex. Performing Arts is not a simple imitation of life, but to choose life prototype, refine, exaggerated and embellished the audience directly into the art.
Another artistic feature Chinese opera, is the nature of its programs, such as closed, launched, boat, etc., have a fixed program. Both in the drama program there regulatory flexibility, Opera art is properly called a rule of freedom of movement.
Comprehensive, virtual, program, and is the main artistic characteristics of Chinese opera. These characteristics, the efforts of Chinese traditional culture, the essence of aesthetic ideas, constitute a unique theater concept, the Chinese opera in the opera world culture shines on the big stage of its unique artistic brilliance.
Chinese opera originated in the original song and dance, is a long history of comprehensive performing arts style. It consists of literature, music, dance, art, martial arts, acrobatics and performing arts integrated made about more than 360 species. It features the many art forms coming together in a standard, in common with the nature of personality reflected in their respective. The famous opera types are: Peking Opera, Kun Opera, Shaoxing Opera, Opera, opera, Sichuan opera, Shaanxi Opera, Pingju, Shanxi Operatic, Han Opera, Hebei Clapper, Xiang Ju, Opera, Hunan Flower Drum Opera and so on.
Kun: also known as "Kun", "Kun" is an ancient operas. It originated in Kunshan, Jiangsu, became popular after the mid-Ming. Elegant style of Kun Opera soften, delicate express Sui, singing and dancing performances, is the representative of Chinese classical opera. In 2001, the Kun Opera by UNESCO as a "Class of Oral and Intangible Cultural Heritage." Masterpiece "Fifteen Strings of Coppers" "Hongxia", etc..