教育
edificatory
  经书
Confucian classics
  经商职管
Commercialism Zhiguan
  百科学
hundred ology
  艺术类
arts
  人文社科
Human culture Sheke
  生活时尚
exist fashion
  体育健身
gymnastics workout
  语言文字
tongue literal
 

  汉语
the Chineselanguage
  文学思考
literature apprehend
  阅读 文学思考 作品!!!

  语言是符号系统,是以语音为物质外壳,以语义为意义内容的,音义结合的词汇建筑材料和语法组织规律的体系。语言是一种社会现象,是人类最重要的交际工具,是进行思维和传递信息的工具,是人类保存认识成果的载体。语言具有稳固性和民族性。
  语言是人类的创造,只有人类有真正的语言。许多动物也能够发出声音来表示自己的感情或者在群体中传递信息但是这都只是一些固定的程式, 不能随机变化。只有人类才会把无意义的语音按照各种方式组合起来,成为有意义的语素,再把为数众多的语素按照各种方式组合成话语,用无穷变化的形式来表示变化无穷的意义。
  人类创造了语言之后又创造了文字。文字是语言的视觉形式。文字突破了口语所受空间和时间的限制,能够发挥更大的作用。
  语言和文字是人类自己创造的,可是在语言文字的神奇作用面前,人们又把它当做神物崇拜起来。他们用语言来祝福,用语言来诅咒。他们选用吉利的字眼做自己的名字,做城市的名字,做器物和店铺的名字。他们甚至相信一个人的名字跟人身祸福相连,因而名字要避讳。皇帝的名字、长官的名字、祖宗和长辈的名字不能叫,一般人也都在“名”之外取一个“号”,彼此不称名而称号。在后世,认为这是礼貌;在远古,这是人身保护。现代各地口语里也常常有些词语起源于避讳;不久以前,很多行业有各自的避讳字眼。从前有些人家,因为小孩儿不懂得避讳,在堂屋里贴一张纸条“童言无忌”,意思是小孩儿说的话不算数。
  凡有人类的地方就会有语言。世界上到底有多少种语言呢?据德国出版的《语言学及语言交际工具问题手册》说,现在世界上查明的有5651种语言(当然,这个数字还在增加中)。其中4200种左右得到人们的承认,成为具有独立意义的语言。其余有500种语言为人们所研究。另外,约有1400多种还没有被人们承认是独立的语言,或者是正在衰亡的语言。如澳大利亚有二百五十种语言仅被4万多人使用,而这些澳大利亚土著民族还不得不使用英语,长期以来,这些语种便渐趋衰亡。在美国同样也有很多正在衰亡的语言。如北美印第安人有170种语言,其中许多种语言如今只有一小部分人用它们来交谈。他们的子孙已不了解自己祖宗的语言,而习惯于用英语了。
  文字的发明
  对于文字的发明,古人更加认为是一件了不起的大事。《淮南子》里说:“昔者仓颉作书而天雨粟,鬼夜哭。”最能表示文字的神力的是符□,这是跟口语里的咒语相当的东西。一般的文字也都沾上迷信的色彩,有字的纸不能乱扔,要放在有“敬惜字纸”标签的容器里,积聚起来烧掉。文字里边当然也有避讳,嘴里不能说的名字,纸上也不能写;必得要写就得借用同音字,或者缺一笔。
  据估计,世界上大约有5600多种语言,其中使用人数超过100万的语言有100种左右,超过5000万的有20种左右。
  语言虽然可以作文字的基础,但语言毕竟不等于文字,尽管各国科学界和宗教界做出很大努力,然而世界上还有四分之二的语言没有相应的文字。
  汉语,英语,法语,俄语,西班牙语,阿拉伯语等,是世界主要语言,也是联合国的工作语言。
  机器语言
  程序是机器指令的序列,入乡随俗,使用机器指令编写程序,是人们最初和最自然的选择。机器指令的集合就是机器语言。机器语言是二进制的,不易被人理解,太难掌握;而且因机器而异,程序不易移植。
  汇编语言将每条机器指令配上一个助记符,如Add,Jump等就形成简单汇编语言。简单汇编语言中的语句与机器指令一一对应。将简单汇编中的与机器相关部分分离出去,由系统完成,就形成宏汇编。现在所说汇编语言,一般都指宏汇编。汇编语言比机器语言容易一些,但仍然很难掌握;而且因机器而异,程序不易移植。
  Fortran 第一个高级程序设计语言,50年代由IBM发明,主要用于科学计算,现在仍有人使用。
  COBOL 主要数据处理,现在仍在大型数据库等应用中广泛使用。
  BASIC 主要用于初级计算机教育,在微机发明后,得到大发展。微软公司靠他起步。
  ALGOL 建立在坚实理论基础上的程序设计语言,60年代被认为最有前途的,现在已经很少有人使用了。
  PASCAL 专为计算机教育而发明的程序设计语言,对于促进结构化程序设计方法的普及有很大作用,现在仍有多人在学。
  C/C++ C与Unix操作系统结伴而生,BELL实验室发明,目标代码效率高,可以用来编系统软件。C也是BELL实验室发明,是在C上增加了面向对象特性,是现在使用最广泛的程序设计语言。
  Java 最新的面向对象程序设计语言,面向internet,Sun公司发明,可以一次编程,到处运行。
  语言分为第一语言和第二语言。
  一个人从小通过和同一语言集团其它成员(如父母、亲属、周围的人们)的接触,自然学到并熟练运用于交际和思维过程中的语言。本族语言或母语一般说都是个人的第一语言,也是主要语言。
  人出生后,首先掌握和使用的语言,叫第一语言。第二语言专指本国内非本族语。在多民族国家里,第二语言往往是和第一语言同时被使用的。
  语言特点
  语言的特性有:创造性、结构性、意义性、指代性和社会性与个体性。
  语言的结构:音位、语素、词、句子。
  语言的种类:对话语言、独白语言、书面语言、内部语言。
  语言的表征和加工过程
  【语言表征】就是语言材料所负载的信息在头脑中存在的方式。语言的表征具有层次性。
  【语言加工】就是对输入的语言信息进行编码、转换、存储、提取的过程。语言的加工可分为自动加工和受控制加工、系列加工和平行加工、模块化加工和交互作用式加工。
  语言的生理机制
  1、语言的发音机制:呼吸器官,喉头和声带,口腔、鼻腔和咽腔。
  2、语言活动的中枢机制:布洛卡区、威尔尼克区、角回。
  (1)布洛卡区病变引起的失语症通常称为运动性失语症或表达性失语症。
  (2)威尔尼克区病变会引起接受性失语症,这是一种语言失认症。切断或损伤威尔尼克区与布洛卡区联系起来的神经纤维束-弓形束,也将产生同样的效果。
  (3)角回实现口语和书面语言的转换。角回损伤将会引起语义性失语症。
  3、语言在大脑两半球的一侧优势与语言活动。(割裂脑的研究),研究证实语言活动主要是大脑左半球的功能,但大脑右半球在语言理解中也有重要作用。
  语音知觉
  1、语音的物理性质:音调、音强、音长与音色。
  2、音位是在一种语言中能够区别意义的最小的语音单位。音位分元音和辅音。研究音位的区别特征有助于解释人对语音的感知。影响语音知觉的各种因素有:语音类似性,语音强度,噪音掩蔽,语境,句法、语义的作用。
  3、影响词汇理解的因素:单词的部位信息、正字法规则、字母长度或笔画数量、字形结构、字词的使用频率、语音的作用、语境的作用、语义的作用。
  4、影响句子理解的因素:句子的类型、词序、语境、句法分析和语义分析。
  5、影响话语理解的因素:推理、语境、图示作用。
  语言的产生
  1、语言的产生是指人们通过语言器官或手的活动把所要表达的思想说出或写出来,他包括说话和书写两种形式。语言产生的单位主要有:音素、音节、语素、词、短语、句子。
  2、语言产生可以分为不同的阶段。如:构造阶段:根据目的确定要表达的思想;转化阶段:运用句法规则将思想转换成语言的形式;执行阶段:将语言形式的信息说出或写出。
  3 语言为什么采用声音作为手段?
  声音不受白天黑夜的限制,优于视觉;语言传播的有效距离大于手势;语言采用声音作为手段,可以一边说话,一边劳动;手语,手势的速度赶不上声音;所以,声音作为语言的传播手段是人类进化的必然。
  语言的由简到繁
  
  社会生活的进化一般都是由简到繁的,语言也就随着越来越繁,这自然是文化发展带来的变化。女孩子长到十六岁,就是年方“二八”。男人长到三十岁,说是到“而立”之年,到六十岁就称“花甲”了。这都是因为念过书,书上是这样写的。形容美女写的是:“ 沉鱼落雁之容,闭月羞花之貌”。方便说是:“近水楼台”(先得月)。考试失败说是:“名落孙山”。冒充的,说是:“滥竽充数”。见惯了,说是:“司空见惯 ”。自高自大称“妄自尊大”,“夜郎自大”。妇女生孩子,生出男孩说是“弄璋”,生出女孩说是“弄瓦”(古时原始的纺锤叫瓦),这样说法才显得有文化、文雅。一般老百姓说话也同样是越来越复杂。因为旧社会当兵的常欺压老百姓,老百姓对“兵”字,多无好感。于是,人们就把兵字拆开,叫“丘八”。有时叫“丘八爷”,带有轻蔑、讥讽之意。骄傲自大说是:“翘尾巴”。这些都是常听到的。
  老百姓生活中还有很多概括性的成语,也是从生活中总结出来的十分简洁的说法,由浅入深、由简到繁。赶工作会说:“起早贪黑”,“手忙脚乱”。琐碎小事说:“鸡毛蒜皮”。安排工作时说:有人“挑肥拣瘦”。骂什么人且说:“狗仗人势”。有些话不便直说,如可能有难料的危险,就说有个“三长两短”。看过戏,听过说书,看过小说的,也会借用其中的词语,如“后会有期”,“临阵磨枪”,回家说:“打道回府 ”,“安步当车”。再说得深,说得俏皮,就是:“有钱能使鬼推磨”,“杀鸡给猴看”,“你走你的阳关道,我走我的独木桥”。“是骡子是马拉出来遛遛”,“ 当一天和尚撞一天钟”,“哪家都有本难念的经”。再进一步地说就带有幽默了:“打肿脸充胖子”,“尿泡尿也得看皇历”。耕地说是:“修理地球”,舞台上的白面小生称:“奶油小生”。别人提出自己不愿提的事,说:“哪壶不开提哪壶”。说人糊涂是:“被人卖了,还跟着去数钱”。某人的两个孩子的名字是“三千一郎”和“千五百惠”,听着很像日本人名。其实,那是因为父母违反了计划生育规定,多生了这一男一女,被罚款。一个罚了三千元,一个罚了一千五百,才取这两个名字的——当然,这想必是开玩笑时说的。
  世界上使用最多的语言
  汉语 使用人口达12亿多,占全球人口20%以上。
  英语 使用人口达5亿多,但学习英语者至少在10亿人以上。
  印地语 使用人口5亿以上,主要是印度。
  西班牙语 使用人口4亿以上。
  俄语 使用人口3亿以上。
  阿拉伯语 使用人口3亿以上。
  孟加拉语 使用人口2亿以上。
  葡萄牙语 使用人口近2亿。
  法语 使用人口约1.9亿
  马来语及印尼语 使用人口超过1.5亿。
  日语 使用人口近1.5亿。
  朝鲜语(韩语) 使用人口超过8000万
  语言技术:说话要尺度,办事要分寸
  中国人自古就讲究说话尺度和办事分寸。古人说:“遇沉沉不语之士,且莫输心;见悻悻自好之人,应须防口。”“世事洞明皆学问,人情练达即文章。”可见,不管是与人说话、与人交往、与人办事,都蕴含着分寸的玄机。
  说话办事是要讲究尺度、分寸的。这种“尺度、分寸”主要表现在哪些方面呢?
  一、是说话不到位不行,办事不卖力不行。说话不到位,说不到点子上,别人可能悟不明白,理解不透,琢磨不出你的真实用意,你提出的想法或要求也不会被人重视和接受,非但事情办不成,也常常不被人瞧得起。这样怎么能换取别人的欣赏与亲善呢?怎么能赢得别人的友谊和器重呢?同样的道理,为别人办事不尽力不行。“有来无往非理也。”别人求你办事,你不尽力,你遇到困难的时候。怎么能指望别人的热情相助呢?
  二、是说话说得太过头不行,办事太勉强不行。好说大话,言辞太尖刻。让人听了不愉快,觉得你不识大体,不懂规矩,不知好歹,这样的人常常被人敬而远之,也同样无法与人正常交往。办事太勉强,有能力没能力的差事都敢接,办得到办不到的事都想揽,结果交不了差,只能给自己增添不必要的麻烦,给自己造成你能力低下或不讲诚信的印象。
  说话有尺度,交往讲分寸,办事讲策略,行为有节制,别人就很容易接纳你,喜欢你,帮助你,举止失体,不识深浅,不知厚薄,就会人人讨厌,时时难过,事事难为,处处碰壁。
  说话的尺度和办事的分寸类似于一匹宝马,驾驭好了可以日行千里,帮你冲锋陷阵;驾驭不好,就可能让你摔跟头,甚至踢伤别人。
  《语言学教程》对“语言”的解释
  What is language?
  Webster's New World Dictionary offers several most frequently used senses of the word'language',namely,[1](a)human speech;(b)the ability to communicate by this means;(c)a system of vocal sounds and combinations of such sounds to which meaning is attributed,used for the expression or communication of thought and feelings;(d)the written representation of such a system;[2](a)any means of expressing or communicating,as gestures,signs,or animal sounds;
  (b)a special set of of symbols,letters,numerals,rules etc.used for the transmission of information,as in a computer;...(p.759)Suffice it to say here that though we use the word in its various senses,we focus here on its primary sense:namely[1](a),(b),(c),(d).
  To give the barest of definition,language is a means of verbal communication.It is instrumental in that communicating by speaking or writing is a purposeful act.It is social and conventional in that language is a social semiotic and communication can only take place effectively if all the users share a broad understanding of human interaction including such associated factors as nonverbal cues,motivation,and socio-cultural roles.Language learning and use,are determined by the intervention of biological,cognitive,psychosocial,and environmental factors.In short,language distinguishes us from animals because it is far more sophisticated than any animal communication system.(reproduction of material without witten permission is strictly prohibited,contact me via email if you want to copy this eassay:exiven@163.com This essay is taken from"Linguistics.A Course Book" Editor in chief:胡壮麟 Subeditor:姜望琪资料来源:《语言学教程》 主编:胡壮麟 副主编:姜望琪,北京大学出版社出版)
  韦氏的新世界字典(Webster's New World Dictionary)提供了“语言”的几种最常见的定义,即,[1](a)人类的言语;(b)
  通过言语来交流的能力;(c)用来表达或交流思想和感觉的一套声音及这些声音互相结合的系统;(d)系统的文字表达;[2](a)表达或交流的任何方式,如手势,标记,或动物的声音;(b)符号,字母,数字,规则等的特殊集合,用来传达信息,比如用在计算机中等;简单而言,尽管这个词有各种意义,但这里我们关注的焦点是语言的基本涵义,即,[1](a)(b)(c)(d).
  一个最简单的定义就是,语言是言语交流的一种方式。因为说和写的交流方式是一种有目的的行为,所以语言是实用性的;因为语言是社会符号,语言的交流只能在所有参与者广泛理解了人类的那些非语言的暗示,动机,社会文化角色等等互相关联的因素之后才能有效进行,因此语言又是社会的,约定俗成的。语言的学习和使用取决与生物学的,认知的,心理的和环境的因素,语言比其他任何动物的交流系统都要复杂得多,语言使人类区别于动物。(以上是关于语言的相关解释,未经允许,禁止转载,恶意篡改本文内容视为侵犯著作权,如有问题,与我联系 exiven@163.com参考了《语言学教程》,英语语言学专业网站 http://blog.sina.com.cn/s/articlelist_1503801131_0_1.html 如果需要其他方面的语言学方面内容,可以参考其他语言学网站或语言学书籍,《语言学教程》 主编:胡壮麟 副主编:姜望琪,北京大学出版社出版)
  语系
  依谱系分类法分出的最大语言系属。由具有共同历史来源的语言组成。如汉藏语系,印欧语系。同一语系内,按各语言之间亲属关系的远近,可分为若干语族,同一语族可再按关系远近分为若干语支。如印欧语系分印度、日耳曼、罗马、斯拉夫等语族。斯拉夫语族又分东斯拉夫、西斯拉夫、南斯拉夫等三个语支。由于世界语言十分复杂,语系的划分在语言学家中不尽一致,名称也不尽相同。
  世界七大语系
  19世纪,欧洲的比较学派研究了世界上近一百种语言,发现有些语言的某些语音、词汇、语法规则之间有对应关系,有些相似之处,他们便把这些语文归为一类,称为同族语言;由于有的族与族之间又有些对应关系,又归在一起,称为同系语言,这就是所谓语言间的谱系关系。现在,世界上主要的语系有七大类:
  印欧语系是最大的语系,下分印度、伊朗、日耳曼、拉丁、斯拉夫、波罗的海等语族。印度语族包括梵语、印地语、巴利语等。伊朗语族包括波斯语、阿富汗语等。日耳曼语族包括英语、德语、荷兰语、斯堪的纳维亚半岛各主要语言。拉丁语族包括法语、意大利语、西班牙语、葡萄牙语和罗马尼亚语。斯拉夫语族有俄语、保加利亚语、波兰语。波罗的海语族包括拉脱维亚语和立陶宛语。
  汉藏语系 下分汉语和藏缅、壮侗、苗瑶等语族,包括汉语、藏语、缅甸语、克伦语、壮语、苗语、瑶语等。
  阿尔泰语系 下分西阿尔泰语族、东阿尔泰语族。前者包括突阙诸语言以及前苏联境内的楚瓦什语,后者包括蒙古语以及前苏联境内的埃文基语。
  闪含语系 又称亚非语系。下分闪语族和含语族。前者包括希伯来语、阿拉伯语等,后者包括古埃及语、豪萨语等。
  德拉维达语系 又称达罗毗荼语系。印度南部的语言都属于这一语系,包括比哈尔语、泰卢固语、泰米尔语、马拉亚兰语等。
  高加索语系 这一语系的语言分布在高加索一带,主要的语言有格鲁吉亚语、车臣语等。
  乌拉尔语系 下分芬兰语族和乌戈尔语族。前者包括芬兰语、爱沙尼亚语等,后者包括匈牙利语、曼西语等。
  此外还有一些语系,如非洲的尼日尔—刚果语系、沙里—尼罗语系、科依散语系,美洲的爱斯基摩— 阿留申语系以及一些印第安语系,大洋洲的马来—波利尼西亚语系和密克罗尼西亚语系。需要指出的是,世界上有些语言,从谱系上看,不属于任何语系,如日语、朝鲜语等,就是独立的语言。
  在近两个世纪里,各国学者把全世界形形色色的语言分成各种语系如印欧语系、乌拉尔语系、阿非罗一亚细亚语系、阿尔泰语系、汉藏语系、南亚语系,南岛语系等等,但还有一些语言至今系属不明,如分布于西班牙北部和法国西南部与西班牙接壤地区的巴斯克语、古代两河流域使用的苏美尔语等。那么,这些不同的语言和语系是怎样起源的呢?说同一语系语言的居民共同体又是怎样形成的呢?不同语系及其居民之间是否在远古彼此就有联系呢?全世界数十亿人所说的成千上万种语言是否有一个共同起源呢?这些问题在过去是无法准确回答的,也曾被视为科学的"禁区"。但是近20多年来,随着分子生物学、人类群体遗传学和考古学、语言学的进展,我们终于看到了解开这些"世纪之谜"的希望的曙光。这是各门科学相互渗透,新的研究方法和研究手段不断进步的结果。
  印度语族(印地语、乌尔都语、孟加拉语、吉卜赛语等等)。
  伊朗语族(波斯语、库尔德语、阿富汗语等等)。
  斯拉夫语族(俄语、塞尔维亚语、波兰语、捷克语、保加利亚语等等)
  亚美尼亚语族(以亚美尼亚语为主)
  波罗的语族(立陶宛语、拉脱维亚语等等)
  日耳曼语族(德语、丹麦语、瑞典语、荷兰语、英语等等)
  拉丁(罗曼)语族(意大利语、西班牙语、葡萄牙语、法语、罗马尼亚语等等)
  希腊语族(以希腊语为主)
  克尔特语族(以爱尔兰语为主)
  阿尔巴尼亚语族(以阿尔巴尼亚语为主)
  拥有最多讲话人口的汉藏语系。这个语系以中国为中心,略向西南辐射,讲话的人口占世界人口的四分之一,但是地理分布上较为集中。下分四个语族,即汉语族、藏缅语族、壮侗语族、苗瑶语族。
  阿尔泰语系。以现在中、俄、哈、蒙交界的阿尔泰山为中心,广泛分布于亚洲腹部的荒漠和草原地区。下分三个语族,即突厥语族、蒙古语族、通古斯满语族。一些语言学家认为,朝鲜语、日本语的主要成份,属于这个语系。
  闪含语系。分布于西亚北非地区,分为两个语族,即西亚的闪语族、北非的含语族。
  班图语系。分布于撒哈拉以南的整个黑非洲地区,拥有数千种语言,大部分是部族语言。代表性语言是斯瓦希利语。
  南岛(马来-波利尼西亚)语系。广泛分布于东南亚的马来半岛和印度尼西亚群岛、大洋洲各国。中国台湾岛的高山族语言,即属于南岛语系。
  其他的语系还有达罗毗图语系(印度半岛南部)、南亚语系(中南半岛南部)、芬兰-乌戈尔语系(主要在芬兰和匈牙利)、伊比利亚-高加索语系(高加索山脉一带),分布地区较狭小,对世界交往的影响力有限。
  除此之外还有九大语系的说法:
  世界九大语系
  目前人们一般把世界的语言划分为九大语系:
  1)汉藏语系,
  2)印欧语系,
  3)阿尔泰语系,
  4)闪-含语系,
  5)乌拉尔语系,
  6)伊比利亚-高加索语系,
  7)马来-玻里尼西亚语系,
  8)南亚语系,
  9)达罗毗荼语系。
  此外,还有非洲和美洲的一些语言和一些系属不明的语言。


  Language is the symbolic system is voice-shell material to the semantic content for the meaning, pronunciation and meaning of the word combination of building materials and grammar rules of the system of organization. Language is a social phenomenon, is the most important communication tool of mankind, is to think and transmission of information tools, the results of human knowledge preserved the carrier. Language has the stability and nationality.
  Language is a human creation, only man has a true language. Many animals can also be a voice to express their feelings, or transmission of information in groups but this is just some Guding the program can not change randomly. Only human voice according to meaningless combinations of various ways to become a meaningful morpheme, then the large number of morphemes in a variety of ways to form words, with the endless changes that change the form of infinite significance.
  Human beings created the language to create a text later. Text is the language of visual form. Suffered the spoken word break space and time constraints, can play a greater role.
  The invention of writing
  For the text of the invention, the ancients regarded as one more big deal. "Huainanzi" he said: "Formerly, the CJ for the book and rainy weather, millet, night crying ghost." Can best represent the text of the divine power is the operator □, which is spoken in the spell with the very thing. General text also stained the color of superstition, have words on paper can not throw to put the "King Cherishing paper" label containers, build up burned. Of course, there are taboo words inside his mouth can not say the name of the paper can not write; must write have to borrow the homophone, or missing a.
  It is estimated that about 5,600 languages in the world, including more than 100 million use the language of 100 or so, more than 50 million of the 20 or so.
  Although the language can be used for text based, but the language is after all not the same text, although the scientific community and religious countries make great efforts, however, there are two quarters in the world of language is no corresponding text.
  Chinese, English, French, Russian, Spanish, Arabic and so is the world's major languages, is also a United Nations working languages.
  Machine language
  Program is a sequence of machine instructions, the Romans, using the machine instruction programming, is that people first and most natural choice. Machine is the machine language instruction set. Machine language is binary not easily be understood, difficult to master; and vary by machine, the program difficult to transplant.
  Each machine instruction in assembly language will be accompanied by a mnemonic, such as Add, Jump, etc. to form a simple assembly language. Simple assembly language statements one correspondence with machine instructions. A simple compilation of the relevant parts of the machine in separate, completed by the system, the formation of macro assembler. Assembly language is said, generally means the macro assembler. Assembly language easier than machine language, it is still difficult to grasp; it varies by machine, the program difficult to transplant.
  The first high-level Fortran programming language, IBM invented by the 50's, mainly used for scientific computing, there are still people to use.
  COBOL main data processing, large database applications are still widely used.
  BASIC computer mainly for primary education, the computer was invented by big development. He started by Microsoft.
  ALGOL built on a solid theoretical foundation of programming languages, 60 years is considered the most promising, is now rarely used.
  PASCAL education for computer programming language invented for the promotion of structured programming method is very effective in popularity, there are still people in the school.
  C / C + + C and the Unix operating system go hand in hand hygiene, BELL laboratory inventions, the object code efficiency is high, can be used to compile software. C BELL laboratory is the invention of an increase in C, object-oriented features, is now the most widely used programming language.
  The latest object-oriented Java programming language, for the internet, Sun invented, can be programmed once, run everywhere.
  Language into the first language and second language.
  A person from childhood through and the other members of the same language group (such as parents, relatives, people around) contact, natural learning and skilled communication and thought process used in the language. Own language or mother tongue are generally the first language of individuals is the primary language.
  Were born, first of all to master and use the language, called the first language. Second language specifically refers to the domestic non-native. In the multi-ethnic country, the second language and first language are often used simultaneously.
  Language Features
  Language features are: creative, structural, sense of, to refer to sexual and social and individuality.
  The structure of language: phonemes, morphemes, words, sentences.
  Types of language: dialogue, language, monologue language, written language, the internal language.
  Characterization and processing language
  Characterization】 【language is the language of information load materials exist in the minds of ways. Characterization of a hierarchy of language.
  】 【Language processing on the input of linguistic information is encoded, transformation, storage, extraction process. Language processing can be divided into automatic processing and controlled processing, series processing and parallel processing, modular machining processing and interaction.
  Physiological mechanisms of language
  1, the pronunciation of the language mechanisms: respiratory, throat and vocal cords, mouth, nose and pharynx.
  2, the activities of the central mechanism of the language: Broca area, Wernicke area, angular gyrus.
  (1), Broca's aphasia caused by lesions in commonly known as motor aphasia or expressive aphasia.
  (2) causes lesions in Wernicke receptive aphasia, a language Agnosia. Cut or damaged Wernicke area and Broca area of nerve fibers linking - arched beam, will also produce the same effect.
  (3) angular gyrus spoken and written language to achieve the conversion. Angle back injury will cause semantic aphasia.
  3, the language side of the two hemispheres in the brain advantage and language activities. (Split brain research), which confirmed that the main activity of the brain hemisphere language function, but the right hemisphere in language comprehension plays an important role.
  Speech Perception
  1, the physical nature of voice: pitch, intensity, length and tone sound.
  2, phoneme is in a language different meaning to smallest phonetic unit. Phoneme sub-consonants and vowels. The distinctive features of phonemes helps to explain people's perception of speech. Various factors affecting speech perception are: voice similar, voice intensity, noise masking, context, syntax and semantic role.
  3, to understand the factors affecting vocabulary: word position information, Orthographic, letter or stroke length, number, shape structure, word frequency, voice role, the role of context, semantic role.
  4, to understand the factors that affect the sentence: sentence type, word order, context, syntax analysis and semantic analysis.
  5, the factors affecting speech understanding: reasoning, context, the role of icons.
  Language production
  1, language production is the people through organ or sign language activities to the state or to express thoughts in writing, including speaking and writing his two forms. Language production units are: phonemes, syllables, morphemes, words, phrases, sentences.
  2, language production can be divided into different stages. Such as: construction phase: According to the aim to determine the expression of thought; conversion phase: the use of syntactic rules in the form of thought into language; the implementation phase: the linguistic forms of information to say or write.
  3 Why is using the voice as a means of language?
  Restrictions on day and night without the sound, better than the visual; language communication effective range of more than gestures; language as a means of using the voice, you can talk while while working; sign language, gestures as fast as the sound; Therefore, the language of communication as a means of sound is a natural human evolution.
  Language, from simple to complex
  The evolution of social life, generally from simple to complex, the language also as more complex, it is the cultural development of natural change. Girls grow up to 16 years old, is on side "28." Long to three-year-old man, said to "standing" in years to six years, and he said "Nail" has. This is because the studied, the book is written like this. Describe the beauty is written: "beauties of the content, Biyuexiuhua the appearance." Facilitate said: "proximity" (come on). Test failure is: "Minglasunshan." Forgery, said: "a good impression." Accustomed to seeing, and said: "common." Conceit that "arrogant", "arrogant." Women, children, birth to boy said, "Nong Zhang," give birth to girls is "Nong Wa" (the ancient original spindle called watts), this statement appears only literate, elegant. The general population is also more complex words. Because the old soldiers often oppressed people of society, the people of the "soldiers", which many no good impression. So, people took the word apart soldiers, called "Qiu Ba." Sometimes called "Hill bye," with contempt, ridicule intended. Arrogant said: "cocky." These are often heard.
  There are many people living in the general idiom, but also from life summed up very simple argument, implemented progressively, from simple to complex. Catch up work will say: "from dawn to dusk," "rush." Trivial, said: "trivial." Organization of work, said: It was "cherry-picking." What people say then scolded: "Gouzhangrenshi." Some would say for the inconvenience, such as the risk may be unpredictable, said there was "something happens." Read the play, listening to storytellers, read novels, which will be borrowed words, such as "meet again", "crash course", go home and say: "go home", "walk rather than cars." To put it more deeply, to put it playful, is: "Money talks", "a warning to others", "You take your perfectly normal paths, my way or the highway." "Is a mule is a horse out of a walk," "When the day of the collision one of the three monks," "Which has the cupboard." Further to say on with humor: the "hat and no cattle," "Urine Paoniao also depends almanac." Land that is: "repair the earth", the stage of flour niche, said: "Naiyouxiaosheng." Others do not want to mention make their own things, said: "Which pot is not touching the tender spot." That people are confused: "was sold, also followed to count the money." Two children the name of a person is "3000 Ichiro" and "1000 500 Hui", which sounds like a Japanese name. In fact, it is because their parents violated the family planning regulations, have more of this man and a woman was fined. A fine of 3,000 yuan, a fine of 1500, only to take these two names - of course, presumably when he was joking.
  The world's most used languages
  Chinese use of a population of over 1.2 billion, accounting for more than 20% of the global population.
  English using a population of more than 500 million, but at least those who learn English more than 10 million people.
  Hindi using more than 500 million people, mainly in India.
  More than 400 million people using Spanish.
  Russian use of more than 300 million population.
  Arabic to use more than 300 million people.
  Bengali population of 200 million or more to use.
  Portuguese to use a population of nearly 200 million.
  Use of a population of about 190 million French
  Malay and Indonesian use of more than 150 million people.
  Population of nearly 150 million Japanese use.
  Korean (Korean) people using more than 80 million
  Language Technology: talk to scale, work to be measured
  Since ancient times, Chinese people work so hard to talk scale and measured. The ancients said: "The case of non-English people in dark, defeats lose heart; see bitterly from the good of the people, should be prevented in mouth." "Dreams of all knowledge, human sophistication that article." Visible, no matter who is speaking with people, work with others, involved the propriety of the mystery.
  Speak and act is to pay attention to scale, measured. This "scale, measured" was mainly on?
  1, the speaker is not in place No, do not act hard not work. Words are not in place, that not the point, others may not understand enlightenment, understanding, not through, wondering not your real intention, you have ideas or requests will not be valued and accepted, not only do not accomplish, and often do not think much of being. How can this appreciation and goodwill for others it? How to win people's friendship and thinks highly of it? By the same token, do not do not do things for others. "There is also reason to not go to non-." People ask you things, you do not try, you encounter a difficult time. How can we expect others to do the warm help solve the problem?
  Second, it is impossible to speak too much, too far, things Tai Mianjiang not work. Good to talk big words too harsh. After listening to unhappy people, that you ignore the general interest and do not know the rules, ungrateful, such people often turn away people, normal people also can not contact. Work Taimian Jiang, the ability ability to errand dare not take, do not do something want to embrace, the results can not pay the poor can only add unnecessary trouble for himself, to create your own ability to lower or dishonesty impression.
  Speak with scale, contact stresses measured, work stress, behavioral restraint, people can easily accept you, like you, help you lose body behavior, did not know the depth, thickness unknown, they all hate, always sad thing things can not do anything, being blocked.
  Speak and act in the sense of proportion scale similar to a BMW, you can control better the day traveling thousands of miles to help you charge forward; control is not good, can make you Shuaigen Tou, and even kicked people.
  "Linguistics" on the "language" to explain
  What is language?
  Webster's New World Dictionary offers several most frequently used senses of the word'language ', namely, [1] (a) human speech; (b) the ability to communicate by this means; (c) a system of vocal sounds and combinations of such sounds to which meaning is attributed, used for the expression or communication of thought and feelings; (d) the written representation of such a system; [2] (a) any means of expressing or communicating, as gestures, signs, or animal sounds;
  (B) a special set of of symbols, letters, numerals, rules etc.used for the transmission of information, as in a computer ;...( p.759) Suffice it to say here that though we use the word in its various senses, we focus here on its primary sense: namely [1] (a), (b), (c), (d).
  To give the barest of definition, language is a means of verbal communication.It is instrumental in that communicating by speaking or writing is a purposeful act.It is social and conventional in that language is a social semiotic and communication can only take place effectively if all the users share a broad understanding of human interaction including such associated factors as nonverbal cues, motivation, and socio-cultural roles.Language learning and use, are determined by the intervention of biological, cognitive, psychosocial, and environmental factors.In short, language distinguishes us from animals because it is far more sophisticated than any animal communication system. (reproduction of material without witten permission is strictly prohibited, contact me via email if you want to copy this eassay: exiven@163.com This essay is taken from "Linguistics.A Course Book" Editor in chief: HU Zhuang-lin Subeditor: Jiang Wang Qi Source: "Linguistics" Editor: Hu Lin Chuang Associate Editor: Jiang Wang Qi, Beijing University Publishing House)
  Webster's New World Dictionary (Webster's New World Dictionary) provides a "language" of some of the most common definition, that is, [1] (a) human speech; (b)
  Ability to communicate through speech; (c) used to express or exchange ideas and feelings of a voice and the voice of integrating these systems; (d) the system of expression; [2] (a) express or communicate in any way , such as gesture, mark, or the animal's voice; (b) symbols, letters, numbers and rules of Teshujige, Yong Lai 传达 information, such as used in computing medium; short, Although that term has a variety of significance, but Our focus here is the basic meaning of the language, that is, [1] (a) (b) (c) (d).
  One of the most simple definition is that language is a form of verbal communication. As speaking and writing means of communication is a purposeful act, so language is practical; because the language of social symbols, language, communication can only be understood in all human participants in a wide range of those non-verbal cues, motivation, the role of social and cultural factors associated with each other and so can be effectively carried out after, so the language is social, conventional. Language learning and use depends on biological, cognitive, psychological and environmental factors, language than any other animal communication system to be much more complex, the language human beings apart from animals. (The above explanations on the relevant language, without permission is prohibited reproduced, malicious tampering with the contents of this article as a violation of copyright, any questions, contact me exiven@163.com reference to the "Linguistics," English Linguistics website http://blog.sina.com.cn/s/articlelist_1503801131_0_1.html If you need other linguistic content, you can refer to other linguistic sites or books, linguistics, "Linguistics" Editor: Hu Lin Chuang Associate Editor: Jiang Wang Qi , Peking University Press)
  Languages
  According to separate the genetic classification system is the best language. By a common history with the composition of the source language. Such as the Sino-Tibetan language family, Indo-European. The same language, the language according to the relationship between the distance, can be divided into a number of language family, the same language group can then be divided into a number of languages supported distance relationship. Such as the Indo-European sub-Indian, Germanic, Roman, Slavic and other language group. Slavic languages is divided into East Slavic, West Slavic, Yugoslavia supported the three languages. As the complexity of the world's languages, linguists in the language of division are not the same in the name are not the same.
  The world's seven major languages
  The 19th century, Europe's comparative study of the school that nearly 100 kinds of languages in the world and found that some languages of Mouxie pronunciation, vocabulary, grammar rules You Duiyingguanji between, some similarities, they Pianbazhexie languages into one group, as related language; because some ethnic and racial Also some correspondence, they go together, as with the Department of Language, which is the evolutionary relationship between the so-called language. Now, the world's major language has seven major categories:
  Indo-European is the largest language, is divided India, Iran, German, Latin, Slavic, Baltic language group. Indian language family, including Sanskrit, Hindi, Pali, etc.. Iranian languages, including Persian, Afghan and so on. Germanic languages, including English, German, Dutch, Scandinavian Peninsula, the main language. Latin family, including French, Italian, Spanish, Portuguese and Romanian. Slavic languages are Russian, Bulgarian, Polish. Baltic language family includes Latvian and Lithuanian.
  Under the sub-Chinese and Sino-Tibetan Tibeto-Burman, and Dong, Miao and Yao ethnic languages, including Chinese, Tibetan, Burmese, Karen language, dialect, Hmong, Yao and other languages.
  Altaic language family is divided West Harter, Eastern Altai language family. The former includes the Linguistic Que conflict within the former Soviet Union and the Chuvash language, the latter including the Mongolian and the former Soviet Union in the Avon-based language.
  With language, also known as Afro-Asiatic Semitic. Under sub-Semitic, and with a family. The former includes Hebrew, Arabic, etc., the latter including the ancient Egyptian language, Hausa and so on.
  Dravidian languages Dravidian languages known. The language of southern India belong to the language, including Bihar language, Telugu, Tamil, English, etc. Malayalan.
  Caucasian languages the language of the language found in the Caucasus area, the main language in Georgian, Chechen language, etc..
  Under the sub-family of Uralic languages Finnish and Ugric language group. The former includes Finnish, Estonian, etc., which includes Hungarian, Mansi, etc..
  There are also other languages, such as Africa, Niger - Congo languages, the sand - Nile languages, Khoisan language, American Eskimo - Aleut language and some Indian languages, Oceania, the Malay - Polynesian and Micronesian languages language. Be noted that some of the world's languages, from the pedigree view, does not belong to any language, such as Japanese, Korean, etc., is independent of language.
  In the past two centuries, scholars from various countries to various languages around the world into various languages such as Indo-European, Uralic, A non-Roy Asiatic languages, Altaic, Sino-Tibetan, Austro-Asiatic, Austronesian languages, etc. However, some departments are still unknown languages, such as is found in northern Spain and southwestern France near the Spanish border in the Basque region of ancient Mesopotamia, etc. used in Sumerian. So, these different origins of language and how language is it? Residents speak the same language language community is what then? Between different languages and whether the ancient inhabitants had contact with each other then? Billions of people around the world talking about tens of thousands of languages have a common origin it? These issues can not be accurately answered in the past, and has been regarded as scientific "restricted." But in the last 20 years, with molecular biology, human population genetics and archeology, linguistics progress, we finally see about opening the "mystery of the century" and a ray of hope. This is the mutual penetration of all science, new research methods and means of continuous improvement results.
  Language family of India (Hindi, Urdu, Bengali, Romany, etc.).
  Iranian languages (Persian, Kurdish, Afghan, etc.).
  Slavic languages (Russian, Serbian, Polish, Czech, Bulgarian, etc.)
  Armenian family (mainly in Armenian)
  Baltic language group (Lithuanian, Latvian, etc.)
  Germanic languages (German, Danish, Swedish, Dutch, English, etc.)
  Latin (Romance) language family (Italian, Spanish, Portuguese, French, Romanian, etc.)
  Greek Family (in Greek-based)
  Celtic language family (in Irish-based)
  Albanian family (mainly Albanian)
  Has the largest population of the Sino-Tibetan speech. The language of China as the center, slightly southwest of radiation, remarks a quarter of the world's population, but is more concentrated geographical distribution. Under the four language families, namely, ethnic Chinese, Tibeto-Burman family, and Dong language group, Miao-Yao language family.
  Altaic. To now, Russia, Kazakhstan, Mongolia Altai border the center, is widely distributed in Asia, desert and grassland areas abdomen. Under the three language families, namely, Turkic, Mongolian family, Tungus Manchu family. Some linguists believe that Korean and Japanese major component, belong to this language.
  Flash with language. Distributed in the West Asia North Africa region, divided into two linguistic groups, namely, the Semitic West Asia, North Africa, with a family.
  Bantu languages. Distributed throughout sub-Saharan black Africa, with thousands of languages, mostly tribal language. Representation language is Swahili.
  Austronesian (Malayo - Polynesian) language. Widely distributed in Southeast Asia, the Malay Peninsula and Indonesia Islands, Oceania. China Taiwan Island Gaoshan language, which is Austronesian.
  Other languages also Darrow adjoining map language (the southern peninsula of India), South Asian languages (Indo-South), Finland - Ugric languages (mainly in Finland and Hungary), the Ibero - Caucasian language (Caucasus area), relatively small distribution areas, the impact on the world exchanges is limited.
  In addition there are nine languages to say:
  World nine languages
  At present it is generally the language of the world is divided into nine languages:
  1) Sino-Tibetan,
  2) Indo-European,
  3), Altaic,
  4) Flash - with language,
  5), Uralic,
  6) Iberian - Caucasian languages,
  7) Malay - Polynesian languages,
  8) South Asian Languages,
  9) The Dravidian languages.
  In addition, there are a number of languages in Africa and the Americas, and some lines are unknown language.



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