社会生活的进化一般都是由简到繁的，语言也就随着越来越繁，这自然是文化发展带来的变化。女孩子长到十六岁，就是年方“二八”。男人长到三十岁，说是到“而立”之年，到六十岁就称“花甲”了。这都是因为念过书，书上是这样写的。形容美女写的是:“ 沉鱼落雁之容，闭月羞花之貌”。方便说是:“近水楼台”(先得月)。考试失败说是:“名落孙山”。冒充的，说是:“滥竽充数”。见惯了，说是:“司空见惯 ”。自高自大称“妄自尊大”，“夜郎自大”。妇女生孩子，生出男孩说是“弄璋”，生出女孩说是“弄瓦”(古时原始的纺锤叫瓦)，这样说法才显得有文化、文雅。一般老百姓说话也同样是越来越复杂。因为旧社会当兵的常欺压老百姓，老百姓对“兵”字，多无好感。于是，人们就把兵字拆开，叫“丘八”。有时叫“丘八爷”，带有轻蔑、讥讽之意。骄傲自大说是:“翘尾巴”。这些都是常听到的。
老百姓生活中还有很多概括性的成语，也是从生活中总结出来的十分简洁的说法，由浅入深、由简到繁。赶工作会说:“起早贪黑”，“手忙脚乱”。琐碎小事说:“鸡毛蒜皮”。安排工作时说:有人“挑肥拣瘦”。骂什么人且说:“狗仗人势”。有些话不便直说，如可能有难料的危险，就说有个“三长两短”。看过戏，听过说书，看过小说的，也会借用其中的词语，如“后会有期”，“临阵磨枪”，回家说:“打道回府 ”，“安步当车”。再说得深，说得俏皮，就是:“有钱能使鬼推磨”，“杀鸡给猴看”，“你走你的阳关道，我走我的独木桥”。“是骡子是马拉出来遛遛”，“ 当一天和尚撞一天钟”，“哪家都有本难念的经”。再进一步地说就带有幽默了:“打肿脸充胖子”，“尿泡尿也得看皇历”。耕地说是:“修理地球”，舞台上的白面小生称:“奶油小生”。别人提出自己不愿提的事，说:“哪壶不开提哪壶”。说人糊涂是:“被人卖了，还跟着去数钱”。某人的两个孩子的名字是“三千一郎”和“千五百惠”，听着很像日本人名。其实，那是因为父母违反了计划生育规定，多生了这一男一女，被罚款。一个罚了三千元，一个罚了一千五百，才取这两个名字的——当然，这想必是开玩笑时说的。
What is language?
Webster's New World Dictionary offers several most frequently used senses of the word'language',namely,(a)human speech;(b)the ability to communicate by this means;(c)a system of vocal sounds and combinations of such sounds to which meaning is attributed,used for the expression or communication of thought and feelings;(d)the written representation of such a system;(a)any means of expressing or communicating,as gestures,signs,or animal sounds;
(b)a special set of of symbols,letters,numerals,rules etc.used for the transmission of information,as in a computer;...(p.759)Suffice it to say here that though we use the word in its various senses,we focus here on its primary sense:namely（a）,（b）,（c）,（d）.
To give the barest of definition,language is a means of verbal communication.It is instrumental in that communicating by speaking or writing is a purposeful act.It is social and conventional in that language is a social semiotic and communication can only take place effectively if all the users share a broad understanding of human interaction including such associated factors as nonverbal cues,motivation,and socio-cultural roles.Language learning and use,are determined by the intervention of biological,cognitive,psychosocial,and environmental factors.In short,language distinguishes us from animals because it is far more sophisticated than any animal communication system.（reproduction of material without witten permission is strictly prohibited，contact me via email if you want to copy this eassay:email@example.com This essay is taken from"Linguistics.A Course Book" Editor in chief:胡壮麟 Subeditor:姜望琪资料来源：《语言学教程》 主编：胡壮麟 副主编：姜望琪，北京大学出版社出版）
韦氏的新世界字典（Webster's New World Dictionary)提供了“语言”的几种最常见的定义,即，(a)人类的言语；（b）
一个最简单的定义就是，语言是言语交流的一种方式。因为说和写的交流方式是一种有目的的行为，所以语言是实用性的；因为语言是社会符号，语言的交流只能在所有参与者广泛理解了人类的那些非语言的暗示，动机，社会文化角色等等互相关联的因素之后才能有效进行，因此语言又是社会的，约定俗成的。语言的学习和使用取决与生物学的，认知的，心理的和环境的因素，语言比其他任何动物的交流系统都要复杂得多，语言使人类区别于动物。（以上是关于语言的相关解释，未经允许，禁止转载，恶意篡改本文内容视为侵犯著作权，如有问题，与我联系 firstname.lastname@example.org参考了《语言学教程》，英语语言学专业网站 http://blog.sina.com.cn/s/articlelist_1503801131_0_1.html 如果需要其他方面的语言学方面内容，可以参考其他语言学网站或语言学书籍，《语言学教程》 主编：胡壮麟 副主编：姜望琪，北京大学出版社出版）
Language is the symbolic system is voice-shell material to the semantic content for the meaning, pronunciation and meaning of the word combination of building materials and grammar rules of the system of organization. Language is a social phenomenon, is the most important communication tool of mankind, is to think and transmission of information tools, the results of human knowledge preserved the carrier. Language has the stability and nationality.
Language is a human creation, only man has a true language. Many animals can also be a voice to express their feelings, or transmission of information in groups but this is just some Guding the program can not change randomly. Only human voice according to meaningless combinations of various ways to become a meaningful morpheme, then the large number of morphemes in a variety of ways to form words, with the endless changes that change the form of infinite significance.
Human beings created the language to create a text later. Text is the language of visual form. Suffered the spoken word break space and time constraints, can play a greater role.
The invention of writing
For the text of the invention, the ancients regarded as one more big deal. "Huainanzi" he said: "Formerly, the CJ for the book and rainy weather, millet, night crying ghost." Can best represent the text of the divine power is the operator □, which is spoken in the spell with the very thing. General text also stained the color of superstition, have words on paper can not throw to put the "King Cherishing paper" label containers, build up burned. Of course, there are taboo words inside his mouth can not say the name of the paper can not write; must write have to borrow the homophone, or missing a.
It is estimated that about 5,600 languages in the world, including more than 100 million use the language of 100 or so, more than 50 million of the 20 or so.
Although the language can be used for text based, but the language is after all not the same text, although the scientific community and religious countries make great efforts, however, there are two quarters in the world of language is no corresponding text.
Chinese, English, French, Russian, Spanish, Arabic and so is the world's major languages, is also a United Nations working languages.
Program is a sequence of machine instructions, the Romans, using the machine instruction programming, is that people first and most natural choice. Machine is the machine language instruction set. Machine language is binary not easily be understood, difficult to master; and vary by machine, the program difficult to transplant.
Each machine instruction in assembly language will be accompanied by a mnemonic, such as Add, Jump, etc. to form a simple assembly language. Simple assembly language statements one correspondence with machine instructions. A simple compilation of the relevant parts of the machine in separate, completed by the system, the formation of macro assembler. Assembly language is said, generally means the macro assembler. Assembly language easier than machine language, it is still difficult to grasp; it varies by machine, the program difficult to transplant.
The first high-level Fortran programming language, IBM invented by the 50's, mainly used for scientific computing, there are still people to use.
COBOL main data processing, large database applications are still widely used.
BASIC computer mainly for primary education, the computer was invented by big development. He started by Microsoft.
ALGOL built on a solid theoretical foundation of programming languages, 60 years is considered the most promising, is now rarely used.
PASCAL education for computer programming language invented for the promotion of structured programming method is very effective in popularity, there are still people in the school.
C / C + + C and the Unix operating system go hand in hand hygiene, BELL laboratory inventions, the object code efficiency is high, can be used to compile software. C BELL laboratory is the invention of an increase in C, object-oriented features, is now the most widely used programming language.
The latest object-oriented Java programming language, for the internet, Sun invented, can be programmed once, run everywhere.
Language into the first language and second language.
A person from childhood through and the other members of the same language group (such as parents, relatives, people around) contact, natural learning and skilled communication and thought process used in the language. Own language or mother tongue are generally the first language of individuals is the primary language.
Were born, first of all to master and use the language, called the first language. Second language specifically refers to the domestic non-native. In the multi-ethnic country, the second language and first language are often used simultaneously.
Language features are: creative, structural, sense of, to refer to sexual and social and individuality.
The structure of language: phonemes, morphemes, words, sentences.
Types of language: dialogue, language, monologue language, written language, the internal language.
Characterization and processing language
Characterization】 【language is the language of information load materials exist in the minds of ways. Characterization of a hierarchy of language.
】 【Language processing on the input of linguistic information is encoded, transformation, storage, extraction process. Language processing can be divided into automatic processing and controlled processing, series processing and parallel processing, modular machining processing and interaction.
Physiological mechanisms of language
1, the pronunciation of the language mechanisms: respiratory, throat and vocal cords, mouth, nose and pharynx.
2, the activities of the central mechanism of the language: Broca area, Wernicke area, angular gyrus.
(1), Broca's aphasia caused by lesions in commonly known as motor aphasia or expressive aphasia.
(2) causes lesions in Wernicke receptive aphasia, a language Agnosia. Cut or damaged Wernicke area and Broca area of nerve fibers linking - arched beam, will also produce the same effect.
(3) angular gyrus spoken and written language to achieve the conversion. Angle back injury will cause semantic aphasia.
3, the language side of the two hemispheres in the brain advantage and language activities. (Split brain research), which confirmed that the main activity of the brain hemisphere language function, but the right hemisphere in language comprehension plays an important role.
1, the physical nature of voice: pitch, intensity, length and tone sound.
2, phoneme is in a language different meaning to smallest phonetic unit. Phoneme sub-consonants and vowels. The distinctive features of phonemes helps to explain people's perception of speech. Various factors affecting speech perception are: voice similar, voice intensity, noise masking, context, syntax and semantic role.
3, to understand the factors affecting vocabulary: word position information, Orthographic, letter or stroke length, number, shape structure, word frequency, voice role, the role of context, semantic role.
4, to understand the factors that affect the sentence: sentence type, word order, context, syntax analysis and semantic analysis.
5, the factors affecting speech understanding: reasoning, context, the role of icons.
1, language production is the people through organ or sign language activities to the state or to express thoughts in writing, including speaking and writing his two forms. Language production units are: phonemes, syllables, morphemes, words, phrases, sentences.
2, language production can be divided into different stages. Such as: construction phase: According to the aim to determine the expression of thought; conversion phase: the use of syntactic rules in the form of thought into language; the implementation phase: the linguistic forms of information to say or write.
3 Why is using the voice as a means of language?
Restrictions on day and night without the sound, better than the visual; language communication effective range of more than gestures; language as a means of using the voice, you can talk while while working; sign language, gestures as fast as the sound; Therefore, the language of communication as a means of sound is a natural human evolution.
Language, from simple to complex
The evolution of social life, generally from simple to complex, the language also as more complex, it is the cultural development of natural change. Girls grow up to 16 years old, is on side "28." Long to three-year-old man, said to "standing" in years to six years, and he said "Nail" has. This is because the studied, the book is written like this. Describe the beauty is written: "beauties of the content, Biyuexiuhua the appearance." Facilitate said: "proximity" (come on). Test failure is: "Minglasunshan." Forgery, said: "a good impression." Accustomed to seeing, and said: "common." Conceit that "arrogant", "arrogant." Women, children, birth to boy said, "Nong Zhang," give birth to girls is "Nong Wa" (the ancient original spindle called watts), this statement appears only literate, elegant. The general population is also more complex words. Because the old soldiers often oppressed people of society, the people of the "soldiers", which many no good impression. So, people took the word apart soldiers, called "Qiu Ba." Sometimes called "Hill bye," with contempt, ridicule intended. Arrogant said: "cocky." These are often heard.
There are many people living in the general idiom, but also from life summed up very simple argument, implemented progressively, from simple to complex. Catch up work will say: "from dawn to dusk," "rush." Trivial, said: "trivial." Organization of work, said: It was "cherry-picking." What people say then scolded: "Gouzhangrenshi." Some would say for the inconvenience, such as the risk may be unpredictable, said there was "something happens." Read the play, listening to storytellers, read novels, which will be borrowed words, such as "meet again", "crash course", go home and say: "go home", "walk rather than cars." To put it more deeply, to put it playful, is: "Money talks", "a warning to others", "You take your perfectly normal paths, my way or the highway." "Is a mule is a horse out of a walk," "When the day of the collision one of the three monks," "Which has the cupboard." Further to say on with humor: the "hat and no cattle," "Urine Paoniao also depends almanac." Land that is: "repair the earth", the stage of flour niche, said: "Naiyouxiaosheng." Others do not want to mention make their own things, said: "Which pot is not touching the tender spot." That people are confused: "was sold, also followed to count the money." Two children the name of a person is "3000 Ichiro" and "1000 500 Hui", which sounds like a Japanese name. In fact, it is because their parents violated the family planning regulations, have more of this man and a woman was fined. A fine of 3,000 yuan, a fine of 1500, only to take these two names - of course, presumably when he was joking.
The world's most used languages
Chinese use of a population of over 1.2 billion, accounting for more than 20% of the global population.
English using a population of more than 500 million, but at least those who learn English more than 10 million people.
Hindi using more than 500 million people, mainly in India.
More than 400 million people using Spanish.
Russian use of more than 300 million population.
Arabic to use more than 300 million people.
Bengali population of 200 million or more to use.
Portuguese to use a population of nearly 200 million.
Use of a population of about 190 million French
Malay and Indonesian use of more than 150 million people.
Population of nearly 150 million Japanese use.
Korean (Korean) people using more than 80 million
Language Technology: talk to scale, work to be measured
Since ancient times, Chinese people work so hard to talk scale and measured. The ancients said: "The case of non-English people in dark, defeats lose heart; see bitterly from the good of the people, should be prevented in mouth." "Dreams of all knowledge, human sophistication that article." Visible, no matter who is speaking with people, work with others, involved the propriety of the mystery.
Speak and act is to pay attention to scale, measured. This "scale, measured" was mainly on?
1, the speaker is not in place No, do not act hard not work. Words are not in place, that not the point, others may not understand enlightenment, understanding, not through, wondering not your real intention, you have ideas or requests will not be valued and accepted, not only do not accomplish, and often do not think much of being. How can this appreciation and goodwill for others it? How to win people's friendship and thinks highly of it? By the same token, do not do not do things for others. "There is also reason to not go to non-." People ask you things, you do not try, you encounter a difficult time. How can we expect others to do the warm help solve the problem?
Second, it is impossible to speak too much, too far, things Tai Mianjiang not work. Good to talk big words too harsh. After listening to unhappy people, that you ignore the general interest and do not know the rules, ungrateful, such people often turn away people, normal people also can not contact. Work Taimian Jiang, the ability ability to errand dare not take, do not do something want to embrace, the results can not pay the poor can only add unnecessary trouble for himself, to create your own ability to lower or dishonesty impression.
Speak with scale, contact stresses measured, work stress, behavioral restraint, people can easily accept you, like you, help you lose body behavior, did not know the depth, thickness unknown, they all hate, always sad thing things can not do anything, being blocked.
Speak and act in the sense of proportion scale similar to a BMW, you can control better the day traveling thousands of miles to help you charge forward; control is not good, can make you Shuaigen Tou, and even kicked people.
"Linguistics" on the "language" to explain
What is language?
Webster's New World Dictionary offers several most frequently used senses of the word'language ', namely,  (a) human speech; (b) the ability to communicate by this means; (c) a system of vocal sounds and combinations of such sounds to which meaning is attributed, used for the expression or communication of thought and feelings; (d) the written representation of such a system;  (a) any means of expressing or communicating, as gestures, signs, or animal sounds;
(B) a special set of of symbols, letters, numerals, rules etc.used for the transmission of information, as in a computer ;...( p.759) Suffice it to say here that though we use the word in its various senses, we focus here on its primary sense: namely  (a), (b), (c), (d).
To give the barest of definition, language is a means of verbal communication.It is instrumental in that communicating by speaking or writing is a purposeful act.It is social and conventional in that language is a social semiotic and communication can only take place effectively if all the users share a broad understanding of human interaction including such associated factors as nonverbal cues, motivation, and socio-cultural roles.Language learning and use, are determined by the intervention of biological, cognitive, psychosocial, and environmental factors.In short, language distinguishes us from animals because it is far more sophisticated than any animal communication system. (reproduction of material without witten permission is strictly prohibited, contact me via email if you want to copy this eassay: email@example.com This essay is taken from "Linguistics.A Course Book" Editor in chief: HU Zhuang-lin Subeditor: Jiang Wang Qi Source: "Linguistics" Editor: Hu Lin Chuang Associate Editor: Jiang Wang Qi, Beijing University Publishing House)
Webster's New World Dictionary (Webster's New World Dictionary) provides a "language" of some of the most common definition, that is,  (a) human speech; (b)
Ability to communicate through speech; (c) used to express or exchange ideas and feelings of a voice and the voice of integrating these systems; (d) the system of expression;  (a) express or communicate in any way , such as gesture, mark, or the animal's voice; (b) symbols, letters, numbers and rules of Teshujige, Yong Lai 传达 information, such as used in computing medium; short, Although that term has a variety of significance, but Our focus here is the basic meaning of the language, that is,  (a) (b) (c) (d).
One of the most simple definition is that language is a form of verbal communication. As speaking and writing means of communication is a purposeful act, so language is practical; because the language of social symbols, language, communication can only be understood in all human participants in a wide range of those non-verbal cues, motivation, the role of social and cultural factors associated with each other and so can be effectively carried out after, so the language is social, conventional. Language learning and use depends on biological, cognitive, psychological and environmental factors, language than any other animal communication system to be much more complex, the language human beings apart from animals. (The above explanations on the relevant language, without permission is prohibited reproduced, malicious tampering with the contents of this article as a violation of copyright, any questions, contact me firstname.lastname@example.org reference to the "Linguistics," English Linguistics website http://blog.sina.com.cn/s/articlelist_1503801131_0_1.html If you need other linguistic content, you can refer to other linguistic sites or books, linguistics, "Linguistics" Editor: Hu Lin Chuang Associate Editor: Jiang Wang Qi , Peking University Press)
According to separate the genetic classification system is the best language. By a common history with the composition of the source language. Such as the Sino-Tibetan language family, Indo-European. The same language, the language according to the relationship between the distance, can be divided into a number of language family, the same language group can then be divided into a number of languages supported distance relationship. Such as the Indo-European sub-Indian, Germanic, Roman, Slavic and other language group. Slavic languages is divided into East Slavic, West Slavic, Yugoslavia supported the three languages. As the complexity of the world's languages, linguists in the language of division are not the same in the name are not the same.
The world's seven major languages
The 19th century, Europe's comparative study of the school that nearly 100 kinds of languages in the world and found that some languages of Mouxie pronunciation, vocabulary, grammar rules You Duiyingguanji between, some similarities, they Pianbazhexie languages into one group, as related language; because some ethnic and racial Also some correspondence, they go together, as with the Department of Language, which is the evolutionary relationship between the so-called language. Now, the world's major language has seven major categories:
Indo-European is the largest language, is divided India, Iran, German, Latin, Slavic, Baltic language group. Indian language family, including Sanskrit, Hindi, Pali, etc.. Iranian languages, including Persian, Afghan and so on. Germanic languages, including English, German, Dutch, Scandinavian Peninsula, the main language. Latin family, including French, Italian, Spanish, Portuguese and Romanian. Slavic languages are Russian, Bulgarian, Polish. Baltic language family includes Latvian and Lithuanian.
Under the sub-Chinese and Sino-Tibetan Tibeto-Burman, and Dong, Miao and Yao ethnic languages, including Chinese, Tibetan, Burmese, Karen language, dialect, Hmong, Yao and other languages.
Altaic language family is divided West Harter, Eastern Altai language family. The former includes the Linguistic Que conflict within the former Soviet Union and the Chuvash language, the latter including the Mongolian and the former Soviet Union in the Avon-based language.
With language, also known as Afro-Asiatic Semitic. Under sub-Semitic, and with a family. The former includes Hebrew, Arabic, etc., the latter including the ancient Egyptian language, Hausa and so on.
Dravidian languages Dravidian languages known. The language of southern India belong to the language, including Bihar language, Telugu, Tamil, English, etc. Malayalan.
Caucasian languages the language of the language found in the Caucasus area, the main language in Georgian, Chechen language, etc..
Under the sub-family of Uralic languages Finnish and Ugric language group. The former includes Finnish, Estonian, etc., which includes Hungarian, Mansi, etc..
There are also other languages, such as Africa, Niger - Congo languages, the sand - Nile languages, Khoisan language, American Eskimo - Aleut language and some Indian languages, Oceania, the Malay - Polynesian and Micronesian languages language. Be noted that some of the world's languages, from the pedigree view, does not belong to any language, such as Japanese, Korean, etc., is independent of language.
In the past two centuries, scholars from various countries to various languages around the world into various languages such as Indo-European, Uralic, A non-Roy Asiatic languages, Altaic, Sino-Tibetan, Austro-Asiatic, Austronesian languages, etc. However, some departments are still unknown languages, such as is found in northern Spain and southwestern France near the Spanish border in the Basque region of ancient Mesopotamia, etc. used in Sumerian. So, these different origins of language and how language is it? Residents speak the same language language community is what then? Between different languages and whether the ancient inhabitants had contact with each other then? Billions of people around the world talking about tens of thousands of languages have a common origin it? These issues can not be accurately answered in the past, and has been regarded as scientific "restricted." But in the last 20 years, with molecular biology, human population genetics and archeology, linguistics progress, we finally see about opening the "mystery of the century" and a ray of hope. This is the mutual penetration of all science, new research methods and means of continuous improvement results.
Language family of India (Hindi, Urdu, Bengali, Romany, etc.).
Iranian languages (Persian, Kurdish, Afghan, etc.).
Slavic languages (Russian, Serbian, Polish, Czech, Bulgarian, etc.)
Armenian family (mainly in Armenian)
Baltic language group (Lithuanian, Latvian, etc.)
Germanic languages (German, Danish, Swedish, Dutch, English, etc.)
Latin (Romance) language family (Italian, Spanish, Portuguese, French, Romanian, etc.)
Greek Family (in Greek-based)
Celtic language family (in Irish-based)
Albanian family (mainly Albanian)
Has the largest population of the Sino-Tibetan speech. The language of China as the center, slightly southwest of radiation, remarks a quarter of the world's population, but is more concentrated geographical distribution. Under the four language families, namely, ethnic Chinese, Tibeto-Burman family, and Dong language group, Miao-Yao language family.
Altaic. To now, Russia, Kazakhstan, Mongolia Altai border the center, is widely distributed in Asia, desert and grassland areas abdomen. Under the three language families, namely, Turkic, Mongolian family, Tungus Manchu family. Some linguists believe that Korean and Japanese major component, belong to this language.
Flash with language. Distributed in the West Asia North Africa region, divided into two linguistic groups, namely, the Semitic West Asia, North Africa, with a family.
Bantu languages. Distributed throughout sub-Saharan black Africa, with thousands of languages, mostly tribal language. Representation language is Swahili.
Austronesian (Malayo - Polynesian) language. Widely distributed in Southeast Asia, the Malay Peninsula and Indonesia Islands, Oceania. China Taiwan Island Gaoshan language, which is Austronesian.
Other languages also Darrow adjoining map language (the southern peninsula of India), South Asian languages (Indo-South), Finland - Ugric languages (mainly in Finland and Hungary), the Ibero - Caucasian language (Caucasus area), relatively small distribution areas, the impact on the world exchanges is limited.
In addition there are nine languages to say:
World nine languages
At present it is generally the language of the world is divided into nine languages:
4) Flash - with language,
6) Iberian - Caucasian languages,
7) Malay - Polynesian languages,
8) South Asian Languages,
9) The Dravidian languages.
In addition, there are a number of languages in Africa and the Americas, and some lines are unknown language.