中华人民共和国 作者列表
毛泽东(中华人民共和国)周恩来(中华人民共和国)刘少奇(中华人民共和国)
胡锦涛(中华人民共和国)江泽民(中华人民共和国)邓小平(中华人民共和国)
华国锋(中华人民共和国)习近平(中华人民共和国)
习近平 Xi Jinping 中华人民共和国  (1953年六月15日~?现今)
出生地: 陕西富平
开端终结
在位2012年十一月15日现今

习近平
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习近平(1953年6月15日-),陕西富平人,是当今中华人民共和国的党和国家最高领导人。现任中国共产党第十八届中央委员会总书记、中央军事委员会主席、中央政治局常务委员会委员(位列第一),中华人民共和国副主席、中华人民共和国中央军事委员会副主席,中共中央党校校长。

生平
 
早年经历
 
习近平是中共元老习仲勋之子。在他出生时,习仲勋已经官至中共中央宣传部部长。习近平10岁那年,即1962年9月,在中共八届十中全会上,中共领导人康生依据小说《刘志丹》杜撰出“习仲勋、贾拓夫、刘景范反党集团”。习仲勋被撤销党内外一切职务;不久,习被下放到河南洛阳的一家面粉厂劳动;1968年时,习仲勋囚禁狱中,直到文革结束。
 
1969年1月,15岁的习近平来到陕西省延川县的文安驿公社梁家河大队插队落户。后来,习近平还在生产大队担任了中共党支部书记,并在当地构建起第一个沼气村。1975年10月,他受推荐进入清华大学化学工程系基本有机合成专业学习,成为了“工农兵学员”。
 
步入政界
 
1979年4月毕业后,国务院办公厅和中共中央军委办公厅工作;并担任中央军委秘书长耿飙的秘书。1982年3月,出任中共河北省正定县县委副书记;一年后,习近平升任并成为正定县最年轻的县委书记。他在任期间大力推动大包干生产责任制,并向上级反映正定县情况,使得正定县粮食征购任务减少了2000万斤;此外走遍整个乡镇,进行考察,他当初的同事均以“平易近人,温和儒雅,和蔼可亲”形容习近平。
 
地方历练
 
1985年,习近平南下福建,出任中国共产党厦门市市委常委、常务副市长,此后他在福建工作十七年。1988年,调任共产党福建省宁德市市委书记、宁德军分区党委第一书记,期间惩治官员腐败四百余人,并重点查办福鼎县林增团、宁德地区侨联副主席郑锡煊等腐败要案。1990年,升任中共福州市市委书记、市人大常委会主任。1993年,当选中共福建省委常委、兼任福州市委书记。1996年,习近平晋升省委副书记;1999年,出任福建省副省长、代理省长;2000年,正式当选福建省省长,期间协助中央处理厦门远华案。在福建高层,历经贾庆林、陈明义、宋德福等三任省委书记。
 
2002年10月,习近平转任浙江省副省长、代省长。同年,在清华大学人文社会学院马克思主义理论与思想政治教育专业在职研究生班获法学博士学位。11月,任中共浙江省委书记;后又兼任浙江省人大常委会主任,他在任期间延续了以前在各地的下级调研习惯;并提出“八八战略”、“五大百亿工程”,重视民生发展和产业结构调整、吸引外资并增强民间资金流动;2006年,浙江省城镇人均可支配收入超过一万八千元人民币,农民人均收入超过七千元人民币,位居中国省级行政区第一名。
 
2007年3月,习近平被调往上海担任市委书记,接替因上海社保案暂时代理市委书记一职的市长韩正。
 
进入中央

2007年秋举行的中共十七大上,习近平由中央委员进入由九人组成的中共中央政治局常务委员会以及中共中央书记处,当选中央政治局常委,并出任中央书记处书记。同年12月,习近平又从政治局常委曾庆红手中,接过了中共中央党校校长的职务;而他早前的中共上海市委书记职务,则在2007年10月27日由俞正声接替。2008年3月15日,在第十一届全国人大一次会议上,习近平又当选为中华人民共和国副主席。2010年10月18日中共十七届五中全会决定增补习近平为中共中央军事委员会副主席。2010年10月28日,全国人大常委会表决,决定习近平为中华人民共和国中央军事委员会副主席。 2012年2月13日,中国国家副主席习近平对美国进行正式访问。美国当地时间2月14日上午,习近平在白宫会见美国总统奥巴马。
 
第五代最高领导人

从习近平被选为中央政治局常委开始,外界猜测习将是中共中央内定继胡锦涛之后的下一任中共中央总书记。2010年10月,在中共十七届五中全会上被增补为中共中央军委副主席,得到党、政、军相应的职务。
 
2012年11月,在中国共产党第十八次全国代表大会闭幕后随即召开的中共十八届一中全会上,习近平当选新一届中央委员会总书记,并出任中央军事委员会主席执掌军权,成为最高领导人[来源请求]。
 
观点与政治主张
 
外交
 
习近平于2009年2月,在墨西哥出席当地华人联谊会时的演讲中,提及:
 


“在国际金融风暴中,中国能够基本解决13亿人口的吃饭问题,已经是对全人类最伟大的贡献。”
 

“有些吃饱了没事干的外国人,对我们的事情指手划脚。中国一不输出革命,二不输出饥饿和贫困,三不去折腾你们,还有什么好说的。”
 

演讲结束后,被香港媒体以及网民于海外视频网站公布,立即引来中国互联网对习近平的评议。新闻在新华社等中国官方媒体在刊登此消息几小时后撤除。在中国民间论坛则迅速地传开此消息,对习近平的讲话是否符合民意形成争议。
 
人权
 
2012年2月14日,习近平于华盛顿出席举欢迎午宴演讲时主动发表关于人权问题时说:“改革开放30多年来,中国人权事业取得了有目共睹的巨大成就,但在人权问题上没有最好,只有更好。中国人口多,区域差异大,发展不平衡,在进一步改善民生和人权状况方面,还面临不少的挑战,中国政府将继续从本国国情出发,坚持以人为本,始终把人民愿望和要求放在心上,采取切实有效的政策措施,大力促进社会公平、正义与和谐,推动中国人权事业不断取得新的进展。”
 
党内治理
 
2012年3月16日,习近平在《求是》党内杂志撰文,强调领导干部要带头“保持党的纯洁性”,表示:“有些干部在市场经济中不能正确对待个人利益,走向腐败堕落,教训极其深刻,坚决要把已经丧失党员资格的蜕化变质分子和腐败分子清除出党。”习近平又强调“必须严格贯彻党的民主集中制原则,不能搞一言堂,不能由个人或少数人说了算,而应该搞群言堂,依靠集体智慧和严格程序来决定。”外界认为习近平传递出“党要管党”,对腐败党员作出了强烈信号。
 
轶闻
 
习近平喜爱足球。2008年7月考察北京奥运会秦皇岛赛区时,曾看望中国国家女子足球队并获赠球衣。 2009年10月作为中国国家副主席访问德国期间,曾表示“中国有一流的球迷和世界可观的足球市场,但目前水平还比较低,希望可以迎头赶上。” 2012年2月访问爱尔兰都柏林时,曾参观爱尔兰盖尔运动协会总部,并公开展示球技。
 
习近平亦是电影发烧友,尤其喜爱好莱坞大片。
 
家庭
 
习近平的父亲习仲勋是中共元老之一,曾任国务院副总理和全国人大常委会副委员长。母亲齐心,是习仲勋的第二任妻子。习近平曾经两次结婚,前妻柯玲玲,中国外交官柯华之女,两人结婚三年后因性格不合而离婚。现任妻子彭丽媛是中国著名女高音歌唱家、歌剧表演艺术家,现任总政歌舞团团长,中国音乐家协会副主席。1986年底经人介绍与习近平相识,1987年9月1日两人在厦门结婚,育有一女习明泽。习近平在福建省工作的十七年时间里,彭丽媛的知名度反而比丈夫更高。
 
习近平独生女习明泽,中学时就读于杭州外国语学校;2008年汶川大地震时以志愿者的身份前往四川绵竹的汉旺东汽小学,参与抢救伤者、心理辅导的慈善义工。2009年8月,习明泽进入浙江大学外国语学院同声翻译专业。
 
习近平大姐齐桥桥(原名:习桥桥),北京中民信房地产开发有限公司董事长。二姐齐安安(原名:习安安),与姐夫吴龙长居澳洲墨尔本,为澳洲永久居民;亦是深圳大唐移动通信的实际拥有人。弟弟习远平,现任国际节能环保协会会长。习近平另有一同父异母的哥哥习正宁,系习仲勋与前妻所生之子。
 
2012年6月底,彭博社刊文披露习近平家族财富引起各方关注,对于这篇报道,明镜网发文指出这篇文章在北京市党代会召开之际问世显然是有备而来,并指出彭博社对习近平家族几项资产的关键历史渊源和经过并不了解,彭博社使用的资料是片面的,所披露的习家族财富数据不完整、不完全、不准确,也没有反映出习家负债的情况,因此其真实性是不可靠的。 多维新闻网也指出彭博社所报道的习家族的资产跟习近平本人没有关系,这些财产在习近平进入中央之前已经持有,有一些是九十年代的投资,同时,多维网对习近平做出正面评价,文章指出习近平曾亲自出面,阻止了国有企业同其姐夫吴龙的一项合同。《纽约时报》发表的文章指出,彭博社在刊出有关习家财产的报道时强调,没有任何证据表明习近平有什么不法行为。而海外的中英文媒体也都提到,无任何证据显示习家有什么贪腐行为。纽约时报还说,尽管习近平的威信很高,但中共内也有一部分反对他的人,希望能利用这类报道阻止其顺利接班。但是,现在搞这些动作,恐为时已晚。 旅美中国作家、政治评论家陈破空在美国之音的电视节目中指出在中共十八大召开之前彭博社做出这类报道是高层权力斗争的结果,是嫌疑人周永康或者江泽民对外放风,出口转内销,借机打压习近平。陈破空指出,薄熙来倒台,是胡温习联手运作的结果,而周永康与薄熙来关系亲密,周伺机报复。对于江泽民的嫌疑,陈破空指出民间寄望习近平进行政治改革令江泽民不安,江及时抛出他早就掌握的习家族底细,一可贬损习近平,重创民间期待,二可警告习近平,打消其任何政改念头。
 
著作
 《干在实处走在前列 推进浙江新发展的思考与实践》中央党校出版社(2006-12出版)


Xi Jinping (pinyin: Xí Jìnpíng; pronounced [ɕǐ tɕîmpʰǐŋ], born 15 June 1953) is the leader of the Communist Party of China in the People's Republic of China, who holds the positions of General Secretary of the Communist Party of China, Chairman of the Party Central Military Commission, Vice President of China, President of the Central Party School and the first member of the CPC Politburo Standing Committee, China's de facto top power organ. He is expected to become President and Chairman of the State CMC in early 2013 when the full National People's Congress convenes and is expected to hold the position for two five-year terms. He has served as the top-ranked member of the Central Secretariat of the Communist Party of China, the Vice-Chairman of the State Central Military Commission.
 
Son of communist veteran Xi Zhongxun (1913–2002), Xi Jinping served mostly in Fujian province in his early career. He was later appointed party chief of the neighboring Zhejiang, and then was appointed as Shanghai's party chief following the dismissal of Chen Liangyu. Known for his tough stance on corruption and a frank openness about political and market economy reforms, Xi now heads the Communist Party of China's fifth generation of leadership.

Life and career
 
Early life
 
Xi Jinping was born on 15 June 1953 in Beijing and is, by Chinese convention, a native of Fuping County, Shaanxi. His ancestral home is at Xiying in Dengzhou, Henan. As a result of his upbringing in the Beijing environ, Xi is the first paramount leader to speak clear, provincial-accent-free Mandarin. He is the second son of Xi Zhongxun, one of the founders of the Communist guerrilla movement in Shaanxi and former Vice-Premier. At the time, his father served as the head of the Communist Party's propaganda department and later Vice-Chairman of the National People's Congress. His mother was Qi Xin. When Xi was 10, his father was purged and sent to work in a factory in Luoyang. Xi was 15 when his father was jailed in 1968, during the Cultural Revolution. Without the protection of his father, Xi went to work in Yanchuan County, Shaanxi, in 1969 in Mao Zedong's Down to the Countryside Movement. He later became the Party branch secretary of the production team. When he left in 1975, he was only 22 years old. When asked about this experience later by state television, Xi recalled it saying, "It was emotional. It was a mood. And when the ideals of the Cultural Revolution could not be realised, it proved an illusion."
 
From 1975 to 1979, Xi studied chemical engineering at Beijing's prestigious Tsinghua University, however, he graduated from the School of Humanities and Social Sciences, majoring in Marxist theory and ideological education. From 1979 to 1982 he served as secretary for his father's former subordinate Geng Biao, the then vice premier and Secretary-General of the Central Military Commission. This gained Xi some military background. In 1985, as part of a Chinese delegation to study American agriculture, he visited the town of Muscatine, Iowa.
 
Ascent
 
Xi joined the Communist Youth League in 1971 and the Communist Party of China in 1974. In 1982 he was sent to Zhengding County in Hebei as Deputy Secretary to the CPC Zhengding County Committee, and was promoted in 1983 to Secretary of the CPC Zhengding County Committee. Xi subsequently served in four provinces during his political career: Shaanxi (during the Cultural Revolution, 1969—1975), Hebei (1982-1985), Fujian (1985-2002), and Zhejiang (2002-2007).
 
Xi held Party positions in the CPC Fuzhou Municipal Committee, and became the president of the Party School in Fuzhou in 1990. In 1999 he was promoted to the Deputy Governor of Fujian province, then became Governor a year later. While there he made efforts to attract investment from Taiwan and to boost free market economy. In February 2000 he and provincial Party Secretary Chen Mingyi were called before the top four members of the Party Central Politburo Standing Committee – General Secretary, President Jiang Zemin, Premier Zhu Rongji, Vice-President Hu Jintao and Discipline Inspection head Wei Jianxing to explain aspects of the Yuanhua scandal.
 
In 2002 Xi took up senior government and Party positions in Zhejiang Province, and eventually took over as party chief after several months as acting Governor, becoming the first-in-charge in the economically successful coastal province. Xi was then made an alternate member of the 15th CPC Central Committee and holds the membership of the 16th CPC Central Committee, marking his ascension to the national stage. While in Zhejiang, one of China's most affluent provinces and a center of China's successful economic development, Xi provided the economic environment which secured growth rates averaging 14% per year. His career in Zhejiang was marked by tough and straightforward stance against corrupt officials, which earned him a name on the national media and drew the attention of China's top leaders.
 
Following the dismissal of Shanghai Party Chief Chen Liangyu in September 2006 due to a social security fund scandal, Xi was transferred to Shanghai in March 2007 to become the new Party Chief of Shanghai. Xi's appointment to one of the most important regional posts in China was clearly a sign of confidence from the Central Government. While in Shanghai he was careful not to touch any controversial issues while largely echoing the line of the central leadership. Xi's career is notable in that during his regional tenures, he was never implicated in any serious scandals, nor did he face serious political opposition.
 
Joining the Standing Committee and Vice-Presidency

Xi's appointment to the Party Secretary post in Shanghai was seen as a stepping stone for him to become an emerging member of the fifth generation of Chinese leadership. This was solidified by his appointment as a member of the nine-man Politburo Standing Committee at the 17th Party Congress in October 2007. Xi was ranked above Li Keqiang, which made him the most likely candidate for China's next core figure – the paramount leader. In addition, Xi also held the top-ranking membership of the Communist Party's Central Secretariat. This assessment was further supported at the 11th National People's Congress, Xi was elected as Vice-President of the People's Republic of China on 15 March 2008. Some suggest this was because Xi had kept friendly relations with both Hu Jintao and the other power figure in the central leadership, Zeng Qinghong.
 
Since his elevation Xi has held a broad range of portfolios. He was put in charge of the comprehensive preparations for the 2008 Summer Olympics in Beijing, as well as being the central government's leading figure in Hong Kong and Macau affairs. In addition, he also became the new President of the Central Party School, the cadre-training and ideological education wing of the Communist Party. In the wake of the 2008 Sichuan Earthquake, Xi visited disaster areas in Shaanxi and Gansu. Xi made his first foreign visit after his vice presidency to visit North Korea, Mongolia, Saudi Arabia, Qatar and Yemen from 17 to 25 June 2008. After the Olympics, Xi was assigned the post of Committee Chair for the preparations of the 60th Anniversary Celebrations of the founding of the People's Republic of China. He was also reportedly at the helm of a top-level Communist Party committee dubbed the 6521 Project, which was charged with ensuring social stability during a series of political sensitive anniversaries in 2009.
 
Xi is considered to be one of the most successful members of the Crown Prince Party, a quasi-clique of politicians who are descendants of early Chinese revolutionaries. Senior leaders consider Xi to be an emerging figure that is open to serious dialogue about deep-seated market economic reforms and even political reform, although Xi's personal political views are relatively murky.[clarification needed] He is generally popular with foreign dignitaries, who are intrigued by his openness and pragmatism. Former Prime Minister of Singapore, Lee Kuan Yew, when asked about Xi, said he felt he was "a thoughtful man who has gone through many trials and tribulations." Lee also commented: "I would put him in the Nelson Mandela class of persons. A person with enormous emotional stability who does not allow his personal misfortunes or sufferings affect his judgment. In other words, he is impressive". Former U.S. Treasury Secretary Henry Paulson described Xi as "the kind of guy who knows how to get things over the goal line." Former Australian Prime Minister, Kevin Rudd, commented on October 4, 2012: China's new president and party secretary general, Xi Jinping, (who) has sufficient reformist, party and military background to be very much his own man.
 
Tours as Vice President
 
In February 2009, in his capacity as Vice-President, Xi Jinping embarked on a tour of Latin America, visiting Mexico, Jamaica, Colombia, Venezuela, and Brazil to promote Chinese ties in the region and boost the country's reputation in the wake of the global financial crisis. He also visited Valletta, Malta before returning to China.
 
On 11 February, while visiting Mexico, Xi spoke in front of a group of overseas Chinese and explained China's contributions to the financial crisis, saying that it was "the greatest contribution towards the whole of human race, made by China, to prevent its 1.3 billion people from hunger". He followed with a rather direct accusation for "foreigners" trying to interfere in Chinese affairs, a subject that has always been sensitive in Chinese political circles. In Chinese, Xi remarked: "There are some bored foreigners, with full stomachs, who have nothing better to do than point fingers at us [China]. First, China doesn't export revolution; second, China doesn't export hunger and poverty; third, China doesn't come and cause you headaches, what more is there to be said?" The story was reported on some local television stations. The news led to a flood of discussions on Chinese internet forums. It was reported that the Chinese Ministry of Foreign Affairs was caught off-guard by Xi's non-diplomatic remarks, as the actual video was shot by some accompanying Hong Kong reporters and broadcast on Hong Kong TV, which then turned up in various internet video websites.
 
Xi has since gone on a series of foreign visits, some say to burnish his foreign affairs credentials before he takes the helm of China's leadership. Xi visited Belgium, Germany, Bulgaria, Hungary and Romania from 7 to 21 October 2009. Xi visited Japan, South Korea, Cambodia and Myanmar on his Asian trip from 14 to 22 December 2009.
 
Xi visited the United States, Ireland and Turkey in February 2012. The visit included meeting with U.S President Barack Obama at the White House and Vice President Joe Biden, with whom he had met extensively in China in August 2011; and stops in California and Iowa, where he met with the family which previously hosted him during his 1985 tour as a Hebei provincial official. Noted as absent was a visit with Treasury Secretary Tim Geithner, who has spoken critically about Chinese currency policy.
 
Political future
 
Xi was named as one of the most influential people in the world in the 2009, 2011 and 2012 Time 100 lists. The British magazine New Statesman listed Xi Jinping at number 4 in their annual survey of "The World's 50 Most Influential Figures 2010". In September 2009, at the Fourth Plenum of the 17th Central Committee of the Communist Party of China, Xi Jinping was not selected as the Vice-Chairman of the Central Military Commission (CMC) as expected, raising some questions about his succession. Political analyst Cheng Li believed that Xi's failure to secure the CMC promotion was evidence that the Communist Party was developing internal checks and balances, giving way to more sophisticated mechanisms for leadership succession. Xi was officially appointed to the vice-chairmanship on 18 October 2010, a position Hu Jintao once held back in 1999 before taking over the secretaryship and the presidency years later. By 2010, it appeared to be clear that Xi would succeed Hu as General Secretary and President in 2012 and 2013 respectively.
 
Party leader
 
On 15 November 2012, Vice President Xi Jinping was elected to the post of General Secretary of the Communist Party and Chairman of the CPC Central Military Commission by the Party Central Committee.
 
Personal life
 
Xi first married Ke Lingling, the daughter of Ke Hua, an ambassador to Britain in the early 1980s. Little is known about their marriage other than that it ended in divorce within a few years. Xi married the famous Chinese folk singer Peng Liyuan (彭丽媛) in 1987. Peng Liyuan, a household name in China, was much better known to the public than Xi until his political elevation. The couple frequently lived apart due largely to their separate professional lives. They are sometimes considered China's emerging star political couple. They have a daughter named Xi Mingze (习明泽),[dead link] who enrolled as a freshman at Harvard University in the autumn of 2010 under a pseudonym.
 
Xi holds a bachelor degree in chemical engineering and a doctorate in political science.
 
Peng described Xi as hardworking and down-to-earth. "When he comes home, I've never felt as if there's some leader in the house. In my eyes, he's just my husband."
 
Xi was described in a 2011 The Washington Post article by those who know him as "pragmatic, serious, cautious, hard-working, down to earth and low-key." Xi was also described as a good hand at problem solving and "seemingly uninterested in the trappings of high office." He is also known to love Hollywood films like Saving Private Ryan and The Departed. The Guardian noted that "perhaps more surprisingly" he also praised the independent film maker Jia Zhangke.
 
Members of Xi's extended family have substantial business interests, although there is no evidence that they have been assisted by Xi's political position. The Chinese government censored this information, going as far as blocking Bloomberg's website after they reported it.


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