唐代 作者列表
李隆基李世民李治李显李旦
李亨李适李昂李忱李晔
李豫李渊李重茂李诵李纯
李恒李湛李瀍李漼李儇
唐哀帝沈法兴李子通刘黑闼王摩沙
李儇
Li Xuan
唐代  (862年888年)
网笔号: 惠圣恭定孝皇帝
庙号: 僖宗
陵墓: 靖陵
开端终结
在位873年888年
乾符874年十一月879年十二月
广明880年元月881年七月
中和881年七月885年三月
光启885年三月888年元月
文德888年二月888年十二月
  唐僖宗是唐懿宗的第五子,本名李俨,生于咸通三年(862)五月八日。懿宗病重弥留之际,他在宦官的支持下被立为皇太子,改名李儇(xuān),并于懿宗死后柩前即位。时在咸通十四年(873)七月二十日,僖宗12岁。在位时间:公元873年-888年;曾用年号:乾符、广明、中和、光启、文德;谥号:惠圣恭定孝皇帝;庙号:僖宗;安葬地:靖陵。
  
  生平
  僖宗即位时还是个幼弱的孩子,自然缺乏必要的理政能力,政事处置全部听由宦官之口——他们废长立幼,没有选择懿宗的长子而拥立12岁的皇子大概就有这样的考虑。僖宗在位期间最信任的宦官是田令孜。僖宗自幼就由田令孜照顾起居,感情上很是有些倚赖,并称呼田令孜为“阿父”,即位后便任命他做了神策军中尉。这样,僖宗朝的重大决策几乎都掌控在田令孜手中了。
  僖宗生于深宫之中,长在宦官之手,宫中生活场景能够带给他的就是可以肆无忌惮地游乐。事实上,他也的确是一个热衷游乐的皇帝。他喜欢斗鸡(《唐语林》说是“斗鸭”)、赌鹅,喜欢骑射、剑槊、法算、音乐、围棋、赌博,游玩的营生他几乎无不精妙。他对打马球不仅十分迷恋,而且技艺高超,他曾经很自负地对身边的优伶石野猪说:“朕若参加击球进士科考试,应该中个状元。”石野猪回答说:“若是遇到尧舜这样的贤君做礼部侍郎主考的话,恐怕陛下会被责难而落选呢!”僖宗听到如此巧妙的回答,也只是笑笑而已。
  如果是太平之世的君主,搞一些喜欢的运动也无可厚非,但是僖宗在位时,政局已经非常混乱。懿宗时期担任翰林学士的刘允章在《直谏书》中已用“国有九破”描绘过当时紧迫的局势:“终年聚兵,一破也。蛮夷炽兴,二破也。权豪奢僭,三破也。大将不朝,四破也。广造佛寺,五破也。赂贿公行,六破也。长吏残暴,七破也。赋役不等,八破也。食禄人多,输税人少,九破也。”对天下苍生的生存状态,他总结了“八苦”、“五去”。八苦是:
  官吏苛刻,一苦也。私债征夺,二苦也。赋税繁多,三苦也。所由乞敛,四苦也。替逃人差科,五苦也。冤不得理,屈不得伸,六苦也。冻无衣,饥无食,七苦也。病不得医,死不得葬,八苦也。
  五去是:
  势力侵夺,一去也。奸吏隐欺,二去也。破丁作兵,三去也。降人为客,四去也。避役出家,五去也。
  刘允章还说:“人有五去而无一归,有八苦而无一乐,国有九破而无一成,再加上官吏贪污枉法,使天下百姓,哀号于道路,逃窜于山泽。夫妻不相活,父子不相救。百姓有冤无处诉,有苦无处申。他们的出路何在呢?”
  刘允章所说的严峻局面到僖宗朝不仅没有丝毫好转,而且是日益加剧。就在僖宗即位不久,爆发了濮州(今河南濮阳东)人王仙芝、冤句(今山东曹县北)人黄巢领导的大起义。黄巢是盐贩出身,由于唐朝末年食盐专卖,官盐价格昂贵,老百姓有吃不起盐而“淡食”者,所以造成了很多的私盐贩子,他们纷纷组织起来甚至搞武装贩运,这对于黄巢后来领导大规模的起义很有帮助。
  黄巢起义爆发以后,州县欺瞒上级,朝廷不知实情。各地拥兵的节度使为求自保,坐视观望,所以起义军发展很快。后来,黄巢率部南下进攻浙东,开山路700里突入福建,攻克广州,而后又回师北上,克潭州,下江陵,直进中原。僖宗虽然对这一局势也很紧张,但并没有停止继续寻欢作乐,甚至在他为逃离长安做准备而任命剑南和山南道节度使时,竟然是用打马球赌输赢的办法决定人选。广明元年(880)十一月,由于唐军士气低落,所以高骈的镇压很不力,黄巢起义军攻克洛阳,十二月,轻易拿下潼关逼近长安。僖宗君臣束手无策,相对哭泣,宰相卢携因畏惧自杀。田令孜率五百神策军匆忙带领僖宗和少数宗室亲王逃离京城,先逃往山南(汉中),又逃往四川。僖宗成为玄宗之后又一位避难逃往四川的皇帝。唐末诗人罗隐有《帝幸蜀》诗咏其事:“马嵬烟柳正依依,又见銮舆幸蜀归。泉下阿蛮应有语,这回休更冤杨妃。”(“阿蛮”是杨贵妃的小名。)号称“秦妇吟秀才”的唐末进士韦庄《立春日作》与此意境相同:“九重天子去蒙尘,御柳无情依旧春。今日不关妃妾事,始知辜负马嵬人。”
  不久黄巢进长安,建国号大齐,年号金统。而僖宗在四川躲避了整整4年。
  在这期间,僖宗得到了喘息,他利用川中的富庶和各地的进献,组织对黄巢的反扑。义武镇节度使王处存、河中节度使王重荣等积极组织对黄巢的打击,出身沙陀族的河东太原李克用也率兵入援以助朝廷,尤其是被僖宗委以京城四面行营都统的凤翔节度使郑畋,得到了“便宜从事”的权力,更是积极组织围攻长安的黄巢。后来宰相王铎又被任命为诸道行营都统来发动对黄巢的进攻,原来首鼠两端的藩镇,也开始为了自己的私利而主动对朝廷表达忠心。起义军由于自身存在弱点,加上军粮不足,内部发生了分歧和分化,一些将领接受了朝廷招安,形势发生了逆转。黄巢派驻同州重镇的防御使朱温在中和二年(882)九月投降,僖宗大喜过望,认为是“天赐我也”,赐名朱全忠。但僖宗没有想到,唐朝的江山社稷最终就是被这个朱全忠夺了去。
  起义军在唐朝官军的反扑下,被迫退出长安,最后力尽兵败,黄巢在山东泰安的虎狼谷中自杀而亡。经过黄巢起义军的打击,唐朝数百年的基业已不复旧貌。此时,李昌符据凤翔,王重荣据蒲、陕,诸葛爽据河阳、洛阳,孟方立据邢、洺,李克用据太原、上党,朱全忠据汴、滑,秦宗权据许、蔡,时溥据徐、泗,朱瑄据郓、齐、曹、濮,王敬武据淄、青,高骈据淮南八州,秦彦据宣、歙,钱镠据浙东,他们都是各擅兵赋,迭相吞噬,朝廷不能制,成为实际上的地方割据势力。朝廷所能够控制的地区不过河西、山南、剑南、岭南西道数十州而已。
  光启元年(885)正月僖宗自川中启程,三月重返长安。数年惊魂还没有来得及稳定,便又遭遇了新的动荡。事情是这样的:僖宗宠信的宦官田令孜因企图从河中节度使王重荣手中夺得池盐之利而与之交恶,田便联合邠宁节度使朱玫和凤翔节度使李昌符向王重荣开战。王重宗中和五年(885)三月荣则求救于太原李克用,二人联手大败朱玫和李昌符,进逼长安。神策军溃散,田令孜无奈再次带领僖宗于光启元年十二月逃亡到凤翔(今陕西宝鸡)。黄巢占领长安时,宫城建筑保存完好,而这次诸道兵马进入长安,烧杀抢掠,宫室坊里被纵火烧焚者十有六七,“宫阙萧条,鞠为茂草”。此时,各地节度使对宦官田令孜的专权十分不满,不少人把打击的矛头对准了田令孜。朱玫本想劫持僖宗,因田令孜挟持僖宗从大散关逃到兴元(今汉中)而没有成功,就将因病没有跑掉的襄王李煴挟持到长安立为傀儡皇帝,改元“建贞”。僖宗被尊为“太上元皇圣帝”,实际上就是太上皇。时在光启二年(886)十月(一说五月)。
  这一政治变故导致了各节度使与朝廷关系的新变化。僖宗以正统为号召,把王重荣和李克用争取过来反攻朱玫,同时密诏朱玫的爱将王行瑜,令他率众还长安对付朱玫。光启二年十二月,王行瑜将朱玫及其党羽数百人斩杀,又纵兵大掠。这年的冬天,异常寒冷,城里九衢积雪,一直没有融化。王行瑜率兵入城当夜,寒冽尤剧,长安城遭受抢掠剽剥之后,僵冻而死的百姓横尸蔽地,惨不忍睹。一些官员奉襄王李煴逃奔河中,王重荣假装迎奉,将襄王李煴抓住杀死,并把他的首级函送行在,即僖宗所在的兴元。
  长安襄王李煴事变平息后,不少官员遭到杀戮,田令孜被贬斥,僖宗也打算重回京师了。光启三年(887)三月返京的队伍刚刚到达凤翔,节度使李昌符就以等待长安宫室修缮完工为名强行滞留。到了六月,天威军与李昌符发生火拼,李昌符进攻僖宗行宫,兵败出逃陇州,僖宗命扈驾都将李茂贞追击。七月,李昌符被斩。
  经过这样几番折腾,僖宗的身体也垮了。光启四年(888)二月,病中的僖宗终于又一次回到长安,在拜谒太庙以后,举行大赦,改元“文德”。三月三日,僖宗得“暴疾”,文德元年(888)三月六日,27岁的僖宗终于在颠沛流离之后离开了人世。幸运的是,他虽然是几度逃离京师,却是在长安宫中的武德殿驾崩的,而且在当年的十二月被葬在了靖陵(位于今陕西乾县)。
  
  后妃
  孟才人
  
  子女
  僖宗二子,王子的母后资料已失。
  建王李震
  益王李升
  女
  唐兴公主,母不详。
  永平公主,母不详。
  
  李儇年表
  公元862年,唐懿宗第五子李儇出生,本名李俨。
  公元873年,宦官刘行深和韩文约杀死唐懿宗长子,立李儇为太子。同年唐懿宗崩,李儇即位。
  公元874年,王仙芝和黄巢起义,揭开了唐末农民起义的大潮。
  公元877年,王仙芝战败被杀,黄巢统一了起义军,并确立了推翻唐王朝的确切目标。
  公元880年,在黄巢起义的攻击下,李儇不得不南逃四川,并于公元881年抵达成都。
  公元883年,黄巢在各路军阀的围剿下撤离长安。
  公元885年,李儇回到长安,随即又在宦官田令孜的逼迫下离开长安。
  公元888年,李儇再次回到长安,于武德殿驾崩。
  
  杂文逸事
  
  新罗留学生崔致远与唐僖宗统治期间来到唐朝仕官。
  
  评价
  僖宗生活的年代是唐王朝各种矛盾空前激化的年代,大唐帝国已经不可避免走向灭亡。因此不管僖宗是否贤明,他也不能扭转不利的局面。很遗憾,相比于好似骄奢天子的父亲懿宗,僖宗的腐败程度不仅没有减少,乾符年间以来的统治反倒黑暗了几分。由此,王仙芝和黄巢起义的原因也就变得非常好解释。僖宗生于深宫,宦官拥立为帝,虽其天资禀赋高超,然并无治国之道,光启之后虽打算励精图治,摆脱宦官,重振唐威,但为时已晚,唐王朝已经支离破碎。


  Xi came to the throne were succulent when still a child, the natural lack of the necessary governance capacity, political affairs dispose of all listen to the mouth by the eunuchs - they spent a long established and young, have no choice Yizong backers, the eldest son of the 12-year-old prince had about this consideration. Xi reign were the most trusted eunuch is Tian Ling Zi. Xi Tian Ling Zi cases of childhood to take care of the living, emotionally it is a bit dependent, and called Tian Ling Zi as "A Fu", ascended the throne after his appointment did Shence Jun lieutenant. Thus, Xi were almost all major policy decisions toward control in the field Lingzi hands.
  Officials demanding a hard it is. Private debt levy wins, two hard it is. Tax range, three hard it is. Run by begging grabbing four hard it is. For poor families who fled the five hard it is. Injustice is not reasonable, not flexor stretch, six hard it is. Frozen without clothes, hungry without food, seven hard it is. Medical illness can not die from the funeral, eight hard it is.
  Yun-Zhang said: "People go without a return of five, eight hard without a laugh without breaking a state-owned nine percent, plus official corruption, perverting the law, so that the common people, crying in the road, fleeing the Shanze. Husband and wife not with live, his son does not is extended. people are seek redress complaints, suffer no place to apply. their way out then? "
  Huang Chao intifada, counties fool superior, the court I do not know the truth. Around the squad at a military commissioner to seek to protect themselves, sit back and wait and see, so the rebels rapid development. Later, Huang Chao led his troops south to attack east of Zhejiang, Fujian, broke into open mountain 700 years, captured in Guangzhou, and then return in triumph north grams Tanzhou, under the Gangneung, straight into the Central Plains. Xi were Although the situation is very tense, but did not stop to enjoy themselves, even in his preparations for the escape appointed Chang Nan Road, Jiedushi Jiannan and, unexpectedly winning or losing a bet with a way to fight the decision polo candidates. Guang Ming Dynasty (880) November, as Tang Junshi demoralized, so very high parallel force of repression, Huang Chao captured rebels Luoyang, in December, easily won the Tongguan approximation Chang. Xi were helpless monarch and his subjects, relative to cry, for fear of carrying the prime minister Lu suicide. Rate of 500 Shence Jun Tian Ling Zi Xi cases and a few hastily led the imperial clan to flee the capital of Wales, first fled to Shannan (Hanzhong), they fled to Sichuan. Xi were later to become a refuge to flee reign of the emperor in Sichuan. Luo Yin Tang poet, a "lucky emperor of Shu" Poetry for being to: "Ma Wei Yan Liu are reluctant to part, see Xing Shu imperial carriage return. Izumishita A Man should have language, this time off is more injustice Yang Fei." (" A Man "is the Sacrifice pet name.) called" Qin Fu Yin scholar "of the late Tang Chin Wei Zhuang" Beginning Day as "the same with this mood:" Seventh Son of Heaven to dust, Yu Liu Wuqing still spring. today is not related Concubine something short and art to live up to Ma Wei people. "
  Huang Chao Jin Soon Chang, a large number of Qi Jianguo, reign payment system. And Xi in the Sichuan avoid a full 4 years.
  KPS first year (885) were from Sichuan in the first month of Xi leave in March to return to Chang'an. Cry a few years not had time to stabilize, in turn faced new turmoil. Something like this: Xi Tian Ling Zi were specially trusted eunuch from the river due to an attempt to re-Rong Wang Jiedushi the hands of profit-winning lake salt with enemies and field will be co-Bin Zhu Mei and Fung Cheung Ning Jiedushi Jiedushi to Wang Fu Li Chang Jung war. Wang heavy cases and in five years (885) March for help in Taiyuan Li Ke Rong is used, two joint defeated Zhu Mei and Li Chang Fu, press on Chang'an. Shence Jun collapsibility, Tian Ling Zi Xi were helpless once again lead the first year in December at KPS fled to Fengxiang (now Shaanxi Baoji). Huang Chao occupied Chang'an, the Miyagi well-preserved architecture, while the soldiers and horses to enter the Zhudao Chang, burning and looting, the palace workshops in 10 persons being set fire to six or seven, "palace depression, JU for the Mau Tso." At this point, local military commissioner of the eunuchs Tian Ling Zi in power very unhappy, a lot of people to attack targeting a field Lingzi. Zhu Xi Mei wanted to hijack cases were due to Tian Ling Zi Xi hostage escaped from the big San Guan Xing Yuan (now Hanzhong) but did not succeed, it will not run away due to illness of King Xiang Li Wen Chang established as a hostage to the puppet emperor, reign title "Building Chen. " Xi were the title of "King Shengdi too Lantern" is actually overlord. Years when the KPS (886) October (some say May).
  After such repeated struggles, Xi body were also collapsed. KPS four years (888) in February, the patient again in the Xi were finally returned to Chang'an, the Imperial Ancestral Temple paid respects after the amnesty was held, reign title, "Bonaventure." March 3, Xi were too "violent illness," Bonaventure first year (888) March 6, 27-year-old Xi were displaced after finally passed away. Fortunately, several times while he was fleeing the capital, Chang'an palace is in the house Jiabeng of morality, and in December that year was buried in the Jing Ling (in this dry county in Shaanxi).
  Child
  Lee Sheng Yi Wang
  Yongping princess, mother unknown.
  AD 873, the eunuch Liu rows deep, and Korean Tang Yizong about killing his eldest son, the crown prince Li Li Xuan. Tang Yizong collapse the same year, Li Xuan throne.
  AD 880, under the attack of the intifada in the Huang Chao and Li Xuan had to southern escape Sichuan, and in 881 AD, arrived in Chengdu.
  AD 888, Li Xuan return to Chang'an, the military ethics Hall Jiabeng.
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