唐代 作者列表
李隆基李世民李治李显李旦
李亨李适李昂李忱李晔
李豫李渊李重茂李诵李纯
李恒李湛李瀍李漼李儇
唐哀帝沈法兴李子通刘黑闼王摩沙
李适
Li Kuo
唐代  唐(742年805年)
网笔号: 神武孝文皇帝
庙号: 德宗
陵墓: 崇陵
开端终结
在位779年805年
建中780年元月783年十二月
兴元784年元月784年十二月
贞元785年元月805年八月
阅读李适
Li Kuo在
诗海的作品!!!


诗词《中和节日宴百僚赐诗
Correction Feast banquet Bailiao Ci Shi》
  《中和节赐百官燕集因示所怀
Correction Festival gift Officials of all ranks and descriptions Yanjiyinshi the ideas in one's mind》
  《重阳日赐宴曲江亭,赋六韵诗用清字
The double ninth festival daily Ciyan Bend river Ting Fu 6 Verse Use up words》
  《九月十八赐百僚追赏因书所怀
September The number 18 obliged Bailiao Chasing tours By the book the ideas in one's mind》
  《送徐州张建封还镇》   《麟德殿宴百僚
Lindedianyan Bailiao》
  《元日退朝观军仗归营》   《中和节赐群臣宴赋七韵
Correction Section gives the ministers Yanfuqiyun》
  《三日书怀因示百僚
Three days Form was For show Bailiao》
  《重阳日中外同欢,以诗言志,因示群官
The double ninth festival daily China and foreign countries Wayzgoose Due to Shi Yan said Qunguan》
  更多诗歌...

  唐德宗李适(kuò),天宝元年(742)四月十九日生于长安大内宫中。他是肃宗的长孙、代宗的长子,他的整个少年时代,正是大唐帝国昌盛繁华的辉煌岁月。但好景不长,他
  14岁那年(天宝十四载,755)的十一月,爆发了安史之乱,第二年长安失守,玄宗出逃四川,从此大唐帝国陷于一场亘古少见的大动乱之中。在大唐帝国的盛衰变迁中,德宗和其他皇室成员一起饱尝了战乱和家国之痛,也亲身经历了战火的洗礼和考验。
  代宗即位之初,李适被任命为天下兵马元帅,肩负起与安史叛军余孽最后决战的使命。平定叛军之后,李适因功拜为尚书令,和平叛名将郭子仪、李光弼等八人一起被赐铁券、图形凌烟阁。
  一生四大矛盾
  广德二年(764)正月,李适以长子身份被立为皇太子,并于二月举行册礼。大历十四年(779)五月,代宗病逝于长安宫中。身为皇太子的李适遵照父皇遗诏柩前即位,就是历史上的唐德宗。
  德宗在位整整26年,要用他遗诏中所说,就是“二十有七载”,这是虚指。唐朝皇帝中,比他在位时间长的只有高宗和玄宗,太宗也不过在位23年;在他之后,再没有哪个唐朝皇帝比他在位时间长。
  德宗登基以后次年改元。他在位期间,共使用了三个年号:建中(4年)、兴元(1年)、贞元(21年)。
  青少年时代的动荡生活使德宗深知安定的可贵,他登基以后,大有图强复兴的雄心壮志。即位之初,为了实现自己的政治理想,他实施革新,果敢有为。但是,德宗采取的很多措施都因为安史之乱后唐帝国的积重难返而收效甚微,有的尽管粗见成效,但也为此付出了沉重代价。当德宗的一番改革遭遇挫折后,他的雄心竟然消失殆尽。德宗一生中,无论是性格还是行动,都充满了矛盾和悲剧色彩。
  矛盾之一:由即位之初信任宰相演变为对大臣的猜忌,并形成了拒谏饰非、刚愎自用的性格。
  朝廷之上频频发生人事变动,尤其是频繁地更换宰相,使德宗在位时期的朝政,即使偶尔能够呈现令人鼓舞的新气象,也都不过是昙花一现而无法保持下去。人事的纷争使德宗徒有宏图壮志,而不能实现救国兴邦。
  矛盾之二:由武力削藩转而变为对藩镇姑息。
  德宗即位后,一直试图削夺拥兵自重的地方藩镇节度使的权力。为此,他不惜使用武力。
  建中二年(781)正月,河北成德镇(驻守恒州,今河北正定)节度使李宝臣病死。按照以往藩镇节度使死后将职位和土地传给子孙的规矩,他的儿子李惟岳上表请求继承父位。德宗早想革除藩镇父子相传、不听命朝廷的弊端,坚决拒绝了这一要求。魏博节度使田悦、淄青节度使李正己、山南节度使梁崇义为了他们共同的利益和李惟岳密谋联手,准备以武力抗拒朝廷。德宗征调京西防秋兵万余人戍守关东,并亲自在长安设宴犒劳征讨兵马,打响了武力削藩的战役,并在最初阶段取得了巨大成果:淄青李正己病死后,他的儿子李纳被打得大败,李惟岳被其部将王武俊杀死,只有田悦在魏州负隅顽抗。成德镇的大将张忠和投降,德宗任命他为成德节度使。但是,德宗在削藩过程中,利用藩镇打藩镇,导致了参与朝廷削藩战役的幽州节度使朱滔等人的不满。结果,形势发生逆转。建中三年(782)底,卢龙节度使朱滔自称冀王、成德王武俊称赵王、淄青李纳称齐王、魏博田悦称魏王,“四镇”以朱滔为盟主,联合对抗朝廷。李希烈称帝后所铸行军都统印
  同时,淮西节度使李希烈也自称天下都元帅、太尉、建兴王(不久又称楚帝),与四镇勾结反叛。战火一下从河北蔓延到河南,而且东都告急。建中四年(783)十月,德宗准备调往淮西前线平叛的泾原兵马途经长安时,因为没有得到梦寐以求的赏赐,加上供应的饭菜又都是糙米和素菜,士兵发生了哗变,这就是历史上著名的“泾师之变”。德宗仓皇出逃到奉天(今陕西乾县),成为唐朝继玄宗、代宗以后又一位出京避乱的皇帝。泾原兵马拥立朱滔的兄长、曾担任泾原军统帅的朱泚,称大秦(后改为汉)帝,年号应天。朱泚进围奉天,前
  线李晟、朔方节度使李怀光等军从河北撤军勤王,德宗的削藩之战被迫终止。
  兴元元年(784)正月,德宗痛下“罪己诏”,声明“朕实不君”,公开承担了导致天下大乱的责任,表示这都是自己“失其道”引起的。德宗在诏书中宣布,李希烈、田悦、王武俊、李纳等人叛乱是因为自己的失误,所谓“朕抚御乖方,致其疑惧”,故而赦免了这些叛乱的藩镇,表示今后“一切待之如初”。除了朱泚以外,甚至连朱滔也予以宽大,许其投诚效顺。从此,开始调整了对藩镇用兵的政策。王武俊、李纳、田悦见到大赦令,取消了王号,上表谢罪。二月,由于朔方节度使李怀光联络朱泚反叛,德宗又不得不再次逃往山南西道的梁州(今陕西汉中)避乱。一直到七月,德宗才因为李晟在五月打败朱泚收复京师而重返长安,结束了颠沛流亡的生活。
  贞元元年(785)秋,马燧收复河中,李怀光兵败自杀,第二年四月,淮西将陈仙奇杀李希烈投降,德宗就任命陈仙奇为节度使。七月,淮西兵马使吴少诚杀陈仙奇,德宗又以吴为节度使留后。
  “大历元宝”、“建中通宝”铜钱
  显然,德宗在遭受削藩的挫折以后,特别是由于引发了“四王二帝”事件与“泾师之变”,他对藩镇由强硬的武力转为姑息。据说,德宗在离开京城时,曾打算逃亡成都,说明他在朱泚反叛以后对自己能否重回京师感到绝望,对能否消灭叛乱的藩镇和长安的朱泚感到前景渺茫。如果不是李晟和山南西道节度使严震的劝阻,他也许会真的远逃四川了。德宗一旦遭受挫折立即锐气大伤的状况,从他对待藩镇的态度上可见一斑。德宗对待藩镇态度的转变,使登基以来解决藩镇问题的大好形势和良好机遇,也转瞬即逝。藩镇割据专横,遂成积重难返。
  矛盾之三:对内廷宦官由即位之初的“疏斥”转而变为后来的委重,以宦官掌握神策禁军和担任监军成为制度。
  德宗的父亲代宗,因为是由宦官拥立,所以对宦官很是优宠,特别是派往各地出使的宦官,任由其公开索贿、大肆搜刮。德宗为皇太子时就很清楚其中的弊端,所以即位伊始,就下决心加以整治。在刚刚即位的当年闰五月,德宗派宦官往淮西给节度使李希烈颁赐旌节。此人回京后,德宗得知,李希烈不仅送了他700匹缣、 200斤黄茗,还送了他骏马和奴婢。德宗大怒,将其杖责六十以后又处以流刑。此事传出京城,那些奉使出京还没有回来的,都悄悄地把礼品扔到山谷之中,没有收到礼品的就再不敢乱来了。不仅如此,在即位的当月,他还将暗怀异图的宦官刘忠翼赐死。
  
  后妃
  昭德皇后王氏
  韦贤妃
  
  德宗皇帝十一子,昭德皇后王氏生顺宗。
  1. 宣王→唐顺宗李诵
  2. 舒王李谊,本名李谟,唐代宗李豫的第三子昭靖太子李邈的孩子。以其最幼,唐德宗李适怜惜之,命为自己的孩子。
  3. 通王李谌
  4. 虔王李谅
  5. 肃王李详
  6. 邕王→文敬太子李謜,唐顺宗李诵的孩子,唐德宗李适怜惜之,命为自己的孩子。
  7. 资王李谦
  8. 缙云郡王→代王李諲
  9. 照王李诫
  10. 钦王李谔
  11. 珍王李諴
  
  唐德宗共有11位女儿:
  1. 韩国贞穆公主(母昭德皇后,先封为唐安公主)
  2. 魏国宪穆公主(先封为义阳公主,下嫁王士平)
  3. 郑国庄穆公主(先封为义章公主,下嫁茂宗)
  4. 临真公主(下嫁薛钊,薨于元和年间)
  5. 永阳公主(下嫁崔諲)
  6. 普宁公主(夭折)
  7. 文安公主(出家为道士,薨于大和年间)
  8. 燕国襄穆公主(先封为咸安公主,薨于元和年间)
  9. 义川公主(夭折)
  10. 宜都公主(下嫁柳昱,薨于贞元年间)
  11. 晋平公主(夭折)


  Tangde Zong Li fitness (kuò), Tempo first year (742) was born on April 19 in Chang'an Grand Palace. He is the eldest grandson of Su-tsung, Daizong's eldest son, and his entire youth, is the prosperous Tang Empire bustling glory days. But did not last long, he
  14 years old (Tempo 14 set, 755) in November, the outbreak of the Rebellion, the fall of the second year Chang, Hsuan-tsung fled Sichuan, from the Tang Empire caught in an ancient rare among the great chaos. Rise and Fall of the Tang Empire in Transition, Corrections, and with members of other royal family suffered the pain of war and the home country, but also personally experienced the war and challenge.
  Daizong ascended the throne at the beginning, Lee was named the world appropriate marshal troops and horses, take up the remnants of the rebels and security history last battle mission. Put down the rebels, Lee suitable for power thanks to the Book of Order, and counter-insurgency a General, Li Guangbi give Master in iron along with coupons, graphics Lingyan Pavilion.
  Four life conflicts
  Hironori years (764) the first month, Lee has been established as appropriate to the eldest son as crown prince, and book ceremony held in February. Dali 14 years (779) in May, Daizong died in Chang'an palace. As crown prince Li appropriate follow Fuhuangyizhao coffin came to the throne, is the history of the Tang Dezong.
  Corrections to the entire reign of 26 years, the use of his Yi Zhao said, is "twenty-seven set," which is virtual means. Emperor of the Tang Dynasty, reigned longer than his only Gojong and reign, Taizong reign of 23 years, but also; in him, which the Tang Dynasty emperor no longer than his reign.
  Corrections to the throne after the reign title the following year. During his reign, reign of three were used: Jianzhong (4 years), Xing Yuan (1 year), Zhen Yuan (21 years).
  Adolescent turmoil of life to make Corrections to know the stability of the value, after he ascended the throne, a great revival Tuqiang ambitions. Ascended the throne at the beginning, in order to achieve their own political ideals, he implemented innovative, decisive and energetic. However, Corrections to the many measures taken after the An-Tang Empire because the die-hard but have little effect, despite some rough fruit, but paid a heavy price. When the Corrections of some reform setbacks, his ambition even disappeared. Corrections to the life, both character and action, are full of contradictions and tragic.
  One contradiction: the evolution from the throne at the beginning to trust the prime minister of the minister's suspicions, and refused to take advice form a non-decorated, self-willed character.
  Frequent personnel changes over the court, especially the frequent change of prime minister, so that the affairs of state during the reign of the Han and even occasionally to present encouraging new atmosphere, but also short-lived and can not be maintained. De Apostle personnel disputes to have grand aspirations, but can not be achieved salvation and prosperous country.
  The second contradiction: fan cut by the force of the military governors turned into appeasement.
  Corrections to the throne and has been trying to deprived of their soldier dead weight of the power of the local Military Governor. Therefore, he did use force.
  Jianzhong years (781) the first month, Hebei Chengde Town (stationed permanent state, this Hebei definite) Jiedushi Libao Chen died. Military Governor in accordance with previous jobs and land after the death of the sons of the rules passed to his son Lee Koreoka father's footsteps on the table the request bit. Corrections would like to get rid of military governors as early as his son is said, does not obey the court's shortcomings, firmly rejected the request. Weibo Jiedushi Denetsu poetry of Jiedushi Jane Lee himself, Shannan Jiedushi Liangchong Yi for their common interests and Lee Koreoka conspiring together, ready to use force to resist the court. Corrections to requisition troops Jingxi thousand people guarding against the autumn Kanto, and personally in the campaign against Chang hosted a Treat Horses, started a campaign to force cut fan, and made great in the first stage results: poetry of Jane Lee has died, his son, defeated Li Na was beaten, Li Koreoka killed by his Ministry Wang Wujun only Denetsu in Weizhou resist. Into Germany and the surrender of the town's general Zhang, Corrections appointed him into the German military commissioner. However, Corrections cut fan in the process, the use of military governors to fight military governors, leading to participation in the court battle Youzhou Jiedushi cut Fan Tao Zhu and others dissatisfied. Results, the situation reversed. Jianzhong three years (782) end, Lulong Jiedushi claim Ji Zhu Tao Wang, Zhao Cheng Tak Wang Wujun said poetry of Li Na said the King of Qi, Weibo Tian Yue said the king and the "four towns" to Zhu Tao was the chief and joint fight against the court. Li Xilie emperor system after the Two Birds are printed on the march
  Line Li Sheng, Shuofang Jiedushi Li Huaiguang other loyalist troops withdrawal from Hebei, Corrections to the cut-fan war end.
  Zhen Yuan Dynasty (785), in autumn, Ma Sui recovered in the river, Li Huaiguang defeated and committed suicide, the second in April, would be Chen Xianqi kill Li Xilie Huaixi surrender, Corrections on the appointment of Chen Xianqi as military commissioner. July, Huaixi Bingma Shi Wu Shaocheng kill Chen Xianqi, Corrections Youyi Wu Jiedushi after leaving.
  "Dali ingot", "Jianzhong Tong Bao" coin
  The third contradiction: on the inner court eunuchs from the throne at the beginning of the "dredging exclusion" turned into a subsequent re-appointed to policy imperial guards and eunuchs grasp God as a system of supervisory army.
  Empress
  Akinori Empress Wang
  Wei 贤妃
  Corrections to the emperor, 11 children, Seven Generations of students at Queen's Wang Shun cases.
  1. → Emperor Shunzong of Tang Xuan Wang Li Deng
  2. Shu Wang Li Yi, whose real name is Li Mo, Li Yu's third child in Tang prince Li Zhao Jing Miao children. Its most children, Tangde Zong Li appropriate sense of pity, life for their children.
  3. Tong Wang Li Chen
  4. Qian Wang Li understanding
  5. Su Wang Li Long
  6. Yong Wang Wen Jing Prince → Li Yuan, Emperor Shunzong of Tang Li Deng's children, Tangde Zong Li appropriate sense of pity, life for their children.
  7. Information Wang Li Qian
  8. Jinyun Dukes → behalf of Wang Li Yin
  9. According to Wang Li Commandments
  10. Qin Wang Li-e
  11. Jane Wang Lee Hsien Chou
  Tang Dezong total of 11 daughter:
  1. Han Guozhen Princess Mu (Queen Mother Seven Generations, the first labeled TANG Princess)
  2. Weiguo Xian Mu Princess (Princess Yiyang first labeled, married Wang Shiping)
  3. Zheng Zhuang Mu Princess (first labeled Yoshiaki princess, married Mao cases)
  4. Pro True Princess (married Xue Zhao, death of a prince in dollars and years)
  5. Yongyang Princess (married Cui Yin)
  6. Puning princess (died)
  7. Wen'an Princess (ordained as a priest, death of a prince in Japan years)
  8. Yan Guo Xiang Mu Princess (Princess first labeled Haman, death of a prince in dollars and years)
  9. Yi Chuan Princess (mortality)
  10. Yidu Princess (married Liu Yu, death of a prince in Zhenyuan years)
  11. Jinping Gong master (died)
    

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