原住民时期 Indigenous peoples   欧洲殖民时期 European colonization   联邦的组成及扩张 Confederation and expansion   20世纪早期 Early 20th century   现代加拿大 Contemporary era   北美自由贸易协议 North American Free Trade Agreement   

路易·斯蒂芬·圣洛朗路易·斯蒂芬·圣洛朗 Louis Stephen St. Laurent1948年1957年10年
约翰·乔治·迪芬贝克约翰·乔治·迪芬贝克 John George Diefenbaker1957年1963年7年
莱斯特·皮尔逊莱斯特·皮尔逊 Lester Bowles Pearson1963年1968年6年
皮埃尔·特鲁多皮埃尔·特鲁多 Joseph Philippe Pierre Yves Elliott Trudeau1968年1979年12年
查尔斯·约瑟夫·克拉克查尔斯·约瑟夫·克拉克 Joe Clark1979年1980年2年
皮埃尔·特鲁多皮埃尔·特鲁多 Joseph Philippe Pierre Yves Elliott Trudeau1980年1984年5年
约翰·内皮尔·特纳约翰·内皮尔·特纳 John Napier Turner1984年1984年1年
马丁·布赖恩·马尔罗尼马丁·布赖恩·马尔罗尼 Martin Brian Mulroney1984年1993年10年
金·坎贝尔金·坎贝尔 Kim Campbell1993年1993年1年
让·克雷蒂安让·克雷蒂安 Joseph Jacques Jean Chrétien1993年2003年11年
保罗·马丁保罗·马丁 Paul Edgar Philippe Martin2003年2006年4年
斯蒂芬·哈珀斯蒂芬·哈珀 Stephen Joseph Harper2006年2015年10年
贾斯廷·特鲁多贾斯廷·特鲁多 Justin Pierre James Trudeau2015年现今8年


  The financial crisis of the Great Depression had led the Dominion of Newfoundland to relinquish responsible government in 1934 and become a crown colony ruled by a British governor. After two bitter referendums, Newfoundlanders voted to join Canada in 1949 as a province.
  Harold Alexander at desk receiving legislation
  Governor General the Viscount Alexander of Tunis (centre) receiving the bill finalizing the union of Newfoundland and Canada on March 31, 1949, at Rideau Hall
  Canada's post-war economic growth, combined with the policies of successive Liberal governments, led to the emergence of a new Canadian identity, marked by the adoption of the Maple Leaf Flag in 1965, the implementation of official bilingualism (English and French) in 1969, and the institution of official multiculturalism in 1971. Socially democratic programs were also instituted, such as Medicare, the Canada Pension Plan, and Canada Student Loans, though provincial governments, particularly Quebec and Alberta, opposed many of these as incursions into their jurisdictions.
  Finally, another series of constitutional conferences resulted in the Canada Act, the patriation of Canada's constitution from the United Kingdom, concurrent with the creation of the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms. Canada had established complete sovereignty as an independent country, although the Queen retained her role as monarch of Canada. In 1999, Nunavut became Canada's third territory after a series of negotiations with the federal government.
  At the same time, Quebec underwent profound social and economic changes through the Quiet Revolution of the 1960s, giving birth to a secular nationalist movement. The radical Front de libération du Québec (FLQ) ignited the October Crisis with a series of bombings and kidnappings in 1970 and the sovereignist Parti Québécois was elected in 1976, organizing an unsuccessful referendum on sovereignty-association in 1980. Attempts to accommodate Quebec nationalism constitutionally through the Meech Lake Accord failed in 1990. This led to the formation of the Bloc Québécois in Quebec and the invigoration of the Reform Party of Canada in the West. A second referendum followed in 1995, in which sovereignty was rejected by a slimmer margin of 50.6 to 49.4 percent. In 1997, the Supreme Court ruled unilateral secession by a province would be unconstitutional and the Clarity Act was passed by parliament, outlining the terms of a negotiated departure from Confederation.
  In addition to the issues of Quebec sovereignty, a number of crises shook Canadian society in the late 1980s and early 1990s. These included the explosion of Air India Flight 182 in 1985, the largest mass murder in Canadian history; the École Polytechnique massacre in 1989, a university shooting targeting female students; and the Oka Crisis of 1990, the first of a number of violent confrontations between the government and Indigenous groups. Canada also joined the Gulf War in 1990 as part of a U.S.-led coalition force and was active in several peacekeeping missions in the 1990s, including the UNPROFOR mission in the former Yugoslavia.
  Canada sent troops to Afghanistan in 2001, but declined to join the U.S.-led invasion of Iraq in 2003. In 2011, Canadian forces participated in the NATO-led intervention into the Libyan Civil War, and also became involved in battling the Islamic State insurgency in Iraq in the mid-2010s.

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