史前欧洲
Prehistoric Europe
  古代德意志
German Early History
  中世纪的德意志
Medieval Germany
  德意志民族国家的建立
Building of Germany
  德意志帝国时期
German Reich
  二战后德国
Post-war Germany since 1945
  德意志联邦共和国
Federal Republic of Germany
  


  德意志联邦共和国(德文:Bundesrepublik Deutschland,听 文件-播放,缩写BRD,英文:Federation Republic Of Germany)简称德国,是位于欧洲中部的议会制和联邦制国家,由16个联邦州组成,首都柏林。德国陆上与法国、瑞士、奥地利、捷克、波兰、丹麦、荷兰、比利时、卢森堡共九个国家接壤,是欧洲邻国最多的国家。
  
  德国在1871年普法战争中第一次形成统一的国家。德国是第一次世界大战和第二次世界大战的策源国和战败国,二战后,德国在1949年被美苏英法四强分割为东德和西德两部分 。1989年东欧民主运动蜂起,包括东德在内的各国共产党政权纷纷垮台;在四强同意下,1990年东德和西德终于达成两德统一。
  
  德国是欧洲联盟的创始会员国之一,也是联合国、北大西洋公约组织、八国集团的成员国和欧洲四大经济体之一,是当今世界强国之一。德国是世界第四大经济体(按GDP计算)、世界第一大商品出口国和第二大商品进口国;德国同时在科学技术的多个领域中处于世界领先地位。德国人口超过8200万,是现今欧盟成员国中人口最多的一个。


  Germany (pronounced /ˈdʒɜrməni/ (Speaker Icon.svg listen)), officially the Federal Republic of Germany (German: Bundesrepublik Deutschland, pronounced [ˈbʊndəsʁepuˌbliːk ˈdɔʏtʃlant] (Speaker Icon.svg listen)), is a country in Central Europe. It is bordered to the north by the North Sea, Denmark, and the Baltic Sea; to the east by Poland and the Czech Republic; to the south by Austria and Switzerland; and to the west by France, Luxembourg, Belgium, and the Netherlands. The territory of Germany covers 357,021 square kilometers (137,847 sq mi) and is influenced by a temperate seasonal climate. With 82 million inhabitants, it accounts for the largest population among the member states of the European Union and is home to the third-largest number of international migrants worldwide.
  
  A region named Germania inhabited by several Germanic peoples has been known and documented before AD 100. Beginning in the 10th century, German territories formed a central part of the Holy Roman Empire that lasted until 1806. During the 16th century, northern Germany became the centre of the Protestant Reformation. As a modern nation-state, the country was first unified amidst the Franco-Prussian War in 1871. In 1949, after World War II, Germany was divided into two separate states—East Germany and West Germany—along the lines of Allied occupation. The two states were unified in 1990. West Germany was a founding member of the European Community (EC) in 1957, which became the European Union in 1993. It is part of the Schengen zone and adopted the European currency, the euro, in 1999.
  
  Germany is a federal parliamentary republic of sixteen states (Länder). The capital and largest city is Berlin. Germany is a member of the United Nations, NATO, G8 and the OECD. It is a major economic power with the world's fourth largest economy by nominal GDP and the fifth largest in purchasing power parity. It is the largest exporter and second largest importer of goods. In absolute terms, Germany allocates the second biggest annual budget of development aid in the world, while its military expenditure ranked sixth. The country has developed a high standard of living and established a comprehensive system of social security. It holds a key position in European affairs and maintains a multitude of close partnerships on a global level. Germany is recognised as a scientific and technological leader in several fields.

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