美国前殖民时代
Pre-Columbian period
  美国殖民地时代
Colonial period of the United States
  美国立国
Formation of the United States of America
  美国向西扩展
Westward expansion
  美国内战时期
Civil War era
  美国重建和工业化
Reconstruction and the rise of industrialization
  一战中崛起
Progressivism, imperialism, and World War I
  美国经济大萧条
Post-World War I and the Great Depression
  二战中的美国
United States in World War II
  冷战开始
The Cold War begins
  冷战中的美国
The Counterculture Revolution and Cold War Détent
  冷战结束
The end of the Cold War
  世界霸权
The World Superpower
  


美国前殖民时代
  在欧洲人来到这里之前,印第安人等北美洲的原住民生活在这片广阔的土地上。相传他们的祖先在大约一万多年前经由西伯利亚跨过白令海峡来到北美洲,并且在这里生存繁衍,他们没有自己的文字,却有着丰富的口头文学。对于原住民的人口,历史上的统计有很大出入,据1492年(哥伦布第一次来到北美洲)的估测,北美印第安人总数大约有八百万到一千万人。随着欧洲殖民者的深入,原住民的健康和领土受到严重威胁。由于欧洲人带来的各种病菌,在150年内,原住民的人口锐减了90%;他们的村落被摧毁,原本用于畜牧或种植的土地被毁掉了。


  The Pre-Columbian era incorporates all period subdivisions in the history and prehistory of the Americas before the appearance of significant European influences on the American continents, spanning the time of the original settlement in the Upper Paleolithic to European colonization during the Early Modern period.
  
  While technically referring to the era before Christopher Columbus' voyages of 1492 to 1504, in practice the term usually includes the history of American indigenous cultures until they were conquered or significantly influenced by Europeans, even if this happened decades or even centuries after Columbus' initial landing.
  
  Pre-Columbian is used especially often in the context of the great indigenous civilizations of the Americas, such as those of Mesoamerica (the Olmec, the Toltec, the Teotihuacano, the Zapotec, the Mixtec, the Aztec, and the Maya) and the Andes (Inca, Moche, Chibcha, Cañaris).
  
  Many pre-Columbian civilizations established characteristics and hallmarks which included permanent or urban settlements, agriculture, civic and monumental architecture, and complex societal hierarchies. Some of these civilizations had long faded by the time of the first permanent European arrivals (c. late 15th–early 16th centuries), and are known only through archaeological investigations. Others were contemporary with this period, and are also known from historical accounts of the time. A few, such as the Maya, had their own written records. However, most Europeans of the time largely viewed such texts as heretical, and much was destroyed in Christian pyres. Only a few hidden documents remain today, leaving modern historians with glimpses of ancient culture and knowledge.
  
  According to both indigenous American and European accounts and documents, American civilizations at the time of European encounter possessed many impressive accomplishments. For instance, the Aztecs built one of the most impressive cities in the world, Tenochtitlan, the ancient site of Mexico City, with an estimated population of 200,000. American civilizations also displayed impressive accomplishments in astronomy and mathematics.
  
  Where they persist, the societies and cultures which are descended from these civilizations may now be substantively different in form from that of the original. However, many of these peoples and their descendants still uphold various traditions and practices which relate back to these earlier times, even if combined with those that were more recently adopted.

后一朝政 >>:美国殖民地时代

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