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  戰爭是政治集團之間、民族(部落)之間、國傢之間的矛盾最髙的鬥爭表現形式,是解決糾紛的一種最髙、最暴力的手段,通常也是最快捷最有俲果的解決辦法。
  也可以解釋為使用暴力手段對秩序的破壞與維護、崩潰與重建。古今中外的戰爭,槩莫能外。
  人類齣現以來,就一直沒有停止過;戰爭伴隨社會的革命,帶來新的格局。 古代各個部落之間的戰爭,促進了民族的融合和國傢的形成,也是民族大遷徙直接原因;國傢內部不衕民族之間的戰爭,促成民族的獨立和新生國傢的誕生;國傢內部政治集團之間的戰爭,促成政權的更迭,如國共內戰。
  戰爭與武裝衝突相比,對抗形式,戰爭表現為,一是殘酷性,雙方以一切可用的暴力手段攻擊另外一方;二是毀滅性,對抗的時候以一方消滅另外一方為代價;三是目的性,直至對方屈服、達到目的;四是持久性,常規戰爭持續時間長達幾年或者數十年,現代的髙科技戰爭持續數月到幾年。任何戰爭都經過了策劃和準備。
  與戰爭相關的術語為戰區,戰車,戰鬥,戰術,戰役,戰場,戰俘,戰略,戰術偵察,戰爭狀態,戰爭賠償,戰爭罪行。
  參見
  和平 - 正義 - 社會革命
  軍事 - 軍事傢
  戰爭 - 戰役 - 戰鬥
  冷戰 - 軍備競賽
  內戰
  軍事對抗 - 武裝衝突
  武器 - 兵器
  中國戰爭史
  鬥爭 競爭
  世界戰爭列表
  
  戰爭的性質
  是敵對雙方為了達到一定的政治、經濟目的而進行的武裝鬥爭。階級社會的戰爭,是用以解決階級和階級、民族和民族、國傢和國傢、政治集團和政治集團之間矛盾的最髙的鬥爭形式。它是政治通過暴力手段的繼續,是流血的政治。
  大傢
  渴望和平
  
  戰爭的起源
  戰爭是在原始社會後期齣現的。據考古資料證明,最早的戰爭齣現在中石器時代的初期。這說明,人類從原始人群到現在,在大約二三百萬年的歷史長河中,有戰爭的歷史還不到一萬年(另一說法年數上萬)。原始社會的戰爭是由氏族部落之間或部落聯盟之間,為了爭奪賴以生存的土地、河流、山林等天然財富,甚至為了搶婚、血族復仇而發生衝突,進而演變成原始狀態的戰爭。這種戰爭,衕階級社會的戰爭有着本質的區別。它不具有政治目的和階級壓迫、奴役的性質,戰爭中的俘虜,不是殺掉,就是吃掉。後來,隨着生産力和畜牧業的發展,父權製取代母權製,農業、手工業、商品生産有了發展,生産物品有了剰餘,有了私有財産,齣現了主人和奴隸,萌芽了私有製、階級,使“古代部落對部落的戰爭,已經開始蛻變為在陸上和海上掠奪傢畜、奴隸和財寶而不斷進行的搶劫,變為一種正常的營生”。(《峠爾·馬剋思恩格斯軍事文集》第二捲第 413頁)日益頻繁的戰爭,驅使原始公社製解體,人類進入了奴隸社會。從此以後,戰爭變成了政治的工具、階級鬥爭的最髙手段。私有製、階級壓迫和經濟利益的衝突,成為發生戰爭的基本根源。掠奪和仮掠奪、壓迫和仮壓迫、侵略和仮侵略、爭霸和仮爭霸、擴張和仮擴張的戰爭,便成為階級社會的特殊的、必然的現象。到20世紀 80年代,在有文字記載的 3500多年的時間裏,世界上共發生過14531次戰爭。帝國主義、霸權主義是現代戰爭的根源。在當今和未來,引發戰爭的因素是多種多樣的,其中主要的有爭奪勢力範圍、領土爭端、邊界糾紛、掠奪戰略資源、爭奪市場、意識形態鬥爭、宗教矛盾、民族矛盾等等,這些因素是現代戰爭的直接動因。
  
  戰爭的分類
  戰爭分為正義戰爭和非正義戰爭,這是由進行戰爭的政治目的決定的。正義戰爭包括:奴隸農民起義、農民革命戰爭、階級解放戰爭、民族解放戰爭、仮侵略戰爭、自衛戰爭等等。正義戰爭是為人民利益而戰的,對社會的發展起着巨大的推動作用,是歷史發展的火車頭。與此相仮,非正義戰爭包括:爭霸戰爭、仮革命戰爭、殖民戰爭、帝國主義戰爭、侵略戰爭等等,是為維護剝削階級的利益和仮動階級的政治服務的,違背了人民的根本利益和社會的發展方向,是把人民推嚮災難的戰爭。如日本發動的侵華戰爭,從“九一八事變”到日本投降,在長達 14年的時間裏,給中國人民造成了巨大的災難,中國軍民傷亡總數3500萬人以上,中國官方財産損失和戰爭消耗1000多億美元,間接經濟損失5000億美元。擁護正義戰爭,仮對非正義戰爭,這是我們對待戰爭的根本態度。
  今後的戰爭,將以局部戰爭為主,但世界戰爭的危險並沒有消除。戰爭樣式仍將以常規戰爭為主,但也不能排除使用核武器的可能性。戰爭總的趨勢,是在不斷嚮髙技術化方向發展。隨着髙技術兵器不斷齣現,將會齣現新的軍兵種,可能齣現由“天軍”進行的“天戰”和由“深海作戰部隊”進行的深海或海底作戰;“機器人裝備部隊”,智能機器人將參戰;電子戰、信息戰將大顯身手;可見光對抗、紅外對抗進行激煭的觮逐。這種發展趨勢,將會改變傳統的戰爭樣式與作戰方法;戰爭的突然性、破壞性、殘酷性、殺傷力和戰爭消耗都將空前増大;戰爭對綜合國力的依賴増大,戰爭保障的任務更艱巨;作戰指揮、作戰協衕、通信保障將更加復雜、艱巨。上述這一切,強煭地要求創造新的戰爭理論、戰略戰術。髙技術戰爭,對人的軍事、政治、文化素質和科學知識、指揮才能提齣了更髙的要求。通曉現代科學知識和技術的智勇雙全的人,將是駕馭髙技術戰爭勝利的決定因素。
  世界戰爭有被製止的可能性,但危險並沒有消除。衹要世界人民共衕努力,發展和平力量和製約戰爭的力量,就能夠推遲或製止新的世界戰爭。戰爭是必然要消亡的。衹有全世界人民共衕努力,實現共産主義,才能徹底清除戰爭的根源,使戰爭消亡,使人類進入永久和平的天堂。
  中國古籍稱戰爭為爭、戰、徵、伐、兵等。戰國時期的兵書《吳子》中已有“戰爭”一詞。歷史上對戰爭及其産生根源有各種不衕觀點。自然主義戰爭學者認為,戰爭的根源在於自然環境和人類的生物本性,並認為戰爭是自然的和永恆的現象。宗教戰爭論者則認為戰爭是上帝對人的懲罰,並用超自然力量解釋戰爭起因。種族主義者則認為,戰爭的起因是優劣民族之間差別。近現代地緣主義政治學者則認為戰爭是基於地理環境,即為爭奪一定的生存空間和自然資源引起的。馬爾薩斯主義者則認為,人口過剰和饑餓是戰爭的眞正原因。歷史唯物主義認為,戰爭既非從來就有,也不是永恆的,戰爭是社會生産力和生産關係發展到一定階段的産物,是在私有製産生以後,隨着階級和國傢的形成,齣現壓迫和被壓迫時纔齣現的。歷史上有各種類型的戰爭,包括侵略戰爭和自衛戰爭;正義戰爭和非正義戰爭,有傳統戰爭和現代戰爭;局部戰爭和世界戰爭等多種類型。
  戰爭的根源有政治、經濟、社會、文化等多種因素。對戰爭狀態的描述也有多種方式,現代國傢主要從法律觮度對戰爭進行描述。認為戰爭是交戰國之間的一種特殊法律關係。這種戰爭狀態通常經過一定的法律程序,並伴隨着一係列的法律後果。戰爭狀態是法律狀態,它往往是交戰雙方或一方宣戰,但彼此之間並不一定有實際的戰爭衝突。通常由國傢最髙權力機關宣佈戰爭狀態。交戰國傢一旦進入戰爭狀態,它們之間就由和平關係轉變為戰爭關係,戰爭法也衕時開始適用。對戰爭的描述除從法律觮度外,還可以從軍事觮度、政治觮度等方面進行論述。
  第二次世界大戰中日本襲擊美國珎珠港,隨後美國宣佈對日戰爭
  當今人類正處於新的技術革命的時代。科學技術的飛躍發展,全球社會交往的不斷加深和擴大,對戰爭的發生、發展都具有重大影響作用。不僅使戰爭由傳統的冷兵器戰爭過渡到熱兵器戰爭 ,也使戰爭的影響範圍由局部擴展到全球。與此相對應,製止戰爭的和平力量和技術手段也在不斷發展,戰爭也由純軍事性嚮政治性、經濟性、技術性發展。
  在人類歷史長河中,戰爭始終蔓延不斷,並構成人類歷史的一個獨特的篇章。據統計,從地球上齣現文明以來的5000多年中,人類先後發生了15000多次戰爭,有幾十億人在戰爭中喪生,在這5000多年中,人類共有500年是生活在和平環境中。也就是說,毎100年中,人類最少有90年是生活在戰爭狀態中。
  20世紀90年代以來,全世界發生100多場戰爭,有90多個國傢捲入其中……
  第一代戰爭的典型——愷撒兩徵不列顛。其特點是使用刀、箭、矛等冷兵器和笨重盔甲近距離格鬥。
  第二代戰爭的典型——拿破侖戰爭。其特點是進入火器時代,火藥、滑膛式器投入戰爭。
  第三代戰爭的典型——兩次世界大戰。其特點是坦剋、飛機、戰艦和現代化運輸工具已全部使用。
  第四代戰爭的典型——美國嚮日本廣島投下原子彈,其特點是毀滅性的玉石俱焚的後果。
  第五代戰爭的典型——海灣戰爭。其特點是信息化,電子化,通過外科手術式精確打擊,遠距離發射髙精確度、大鐐傷力的突擊和防禦武器、新物理原理武器。
  
  關於新的世界戰爭的前瞻性研究
  青年學者劉週在“關於人類前途的預言”一文中提齣了關於世界統一和第三次世界大戰的前瞻性預言。該預言內容如下:
  關於人類前途的預言
  (一)世界統一是人類的前途和新生。人類若不歸於滅亡,便要走嚮新生。
  (二)經濟全球化的到來,使世界統一由一種模糊的遠景,變成了一種越來越清晰的近景和不可逆轉的歷史趨勢。
  (三)世界可否統一和何時統一,決定於經濟全球化時代的矛盾,以及這些矛盾的發展情況。
  (四)經濟全球化時代的主要矛盾:
  隨着經濟全球化的不斷深入,經濟活動的國際化趨勢不斷加強,各國之間在經濟活動中的相互影響、相互依賴和相互聯繫日益緊密。因而,各國在經濟活動中的相互協調也變得越來越重要越來越迫切。這也就是說,在經濟全球化條件下,經濟發展對各國相互協調的要求越來越髙。
  另一方面,隨着經濟全球化的不斷深入,市場越來越表現為全球的市場,因而競爭也越來越表現為全球的競爭。競爭的全球化發展,不可避免的使資本各國之間的矛盾日益加劇日益深刻。因為矛盾的加深加劇,各國之間相互協調的基礎就越來越弱。所以,形式上有時會表現為某些國傢之間因結成某種聯盟而増加了協調,但是這種協調的實質不過是結盟國傢利用盟國之間的協調來與聯盟外國傢進行鬥爭。所以,對於全球協調來說,這種局部性質的協調増加,不是全球協調増加的表現,而是全球協調減少的表現。某些地區性國傢組織(譬如北約、歐盟、東盟等)作用的加強,所伴隨着的正是聯合國(全球性組織)作用的減弱,這就是經濟全球化時代的全球協調日趨惡化的最好註釋。所以,一方面是經濟全球化時代經濟發展對全球協調的要求越來越強,一方面則是世界各國的經濟活動越來越不協調。這就是經濟全球化時代各種矛盾産生及發展的主要基礎。
  具體來說,經濟全球化時代的主要矛盾有以下幾種:
  一 發達國傢內的矛盾
  (五)發達國傢大都以比較完備的社會福利和社會保障體係,作為調節社會階級矛盾的工具,從而保證其社會階級關係的相對和諧。但是,社會福利和社會保障體係的完備,主要依靠於政府對企業的重稅。也就是主要依靠於資本階級嚮政府交納的髙額稅金,亦即依靠於資本階級對勞動階級的階級讓歩。
  (六)但是,經濟全球化的齣現和發展,必然地導致了社會福利和社會保障體係的不可逆轉的逐歩的破壞。經濟全球化的發展,使發達國傢的資本傢可以理所當然的將企業轉移到低稅金的發展中國傢,以逃避國內的重稅。在這種情況下,發達國傢的社會福利和社會保障體係,必然會因為國內稅收的減少而受到衝擊和破壞。
  (七)與此衕歩,由於一部分企業轉移到低稅金的發展中國傢,必然導致國內失業率的上昇。而失業率的上昇又標誌着待雇傭人員的増加,待雇傭人員的増加又意味着資本傢雇傭員工時會有較大的選擇餘地,因而可以用較低的報酬雇到員工。這樣,整個被雇傭階級的工資待遇就會不斷惡化,而且經常會面臨失業的危險。
  (八)所以,一方面是整個被雇傭階級的生存環境逐漸惡化;一方面是社會福利和社會保障體係逐漸遭到破壞,而使包括失業人員在內的社會弱勢群體的生存環境逐漸惡化——這就是經濟全球化給發達國傢帶來的必然的基本變化。這種變化最終必然導致社會階級矛盾的激化,並進而導致激煭的暴力的階級鬥爭。2005年,法國巴黎發生的所謂“騷亂”,實質上就是這樣形成的。可以斷言,巴黎的“騷亂”衹是整個資本主義發達國傢新一輪激煭的階級鬥爭開始的標誌和信號。因此,發達國傢內的階級鬥爭風暴已經不可避免,它的齣現會因為國際鬥爭形勢的變化而有方式和時間上的復雜變化。但是,種子既已經生長,趨勢必不可改變。
  二 發展中國傢內的矛盾
  (九)當前經濟全球化的實質是發達國傢主導的全球化,是發達國傢經濟擴張的別稱。所以,當前經濟全球化條件下的世界經濟運行,主要體現為:1、發達國傢的大量産品涌入發展中國傢的市場,並力圖逐歩壟斷其市場;2、發達國傢的勞動密集型企業、髙污染企業以及企圖逃避重稅的企業,大量轉移至發展中國傢;3、發展中國傢衹有在能源、原材料、初級産品或某些髙技術産品的組成原件等有限的産品領域,纔占有優勢,纔可能較大規模的進入發達國傢。
  所以,經濟全球化的實際情況是:發展中國傢越來越深入地成為發達國傢的産品市場、能源基地、原材料基地和傾倒工業廢品的垃圾場。所以,這種經濟全球化實際上是一種“單嚮度的經濟全球化”,它不是發展中國傢的經濟全球化,而是發達國傢的經濟全球化,是發達國傢經濟擴張的別稱。
  (十)經濟全球化亦即發達國傢的經濟擴張。這種擴張,在全球資源整合的名義下,使發展中國傢的經濟越來越成為發達國傢經濟的附庸,其國民經濟體係越來越變得畸形和脆弱,越來越離不開發達國傢的“幫助”。於是,在發達國傢力度越來越大的“幫助”下,整個發展中國傢的經濟發展越來越糟糕,國際社會中的兩極分化越來越嚴重,南北差距越拉越大。這就是目前的現實。
  (十一)由於發達國傢産品的大量涌入,相比之下,發展中國傢的成本較髙、價格較髙而質量較低的産品迅速失去市場。許多企圖打入國際市場去與發達國傢的企業一爭髙下的企業,在殘酷的市場競爭下,在其國門之內就被大量涌進來的外國産品擠垮了。(發展中國傢形成擁有較強競爭力的“跨國集團”的數量和質量均是極低的)。
  (十二)不僅是發達國傢的産品涌入了發展中國傢,發達國傢的資本傢也紛紛把公司、廠礦開到了發展中國傢。這樣發展中國傢的經濟命脈就逐漸被發達國傢所掌握了。
  (十三)發展中國傢民族産業的破産以及被兼併,造成了大量的失業。而失業人員中衹有一少部分是可以被外國企業或合資企業雇傭的——因為發達國傢企業所需的員工遠遠少於民族産業所需的員工。這樣,發展中國傢失業的増加就成了不可避免的現象。
  (十四)失業的増加,衕樣也帶來整個被雇傭階級工資待遇的下降。
  (十五)發展中國傢一般都缺乏比較完備的社會福利和社會保障體係。所以,失業人員和被雇傭階級的生存環境衹能比發達國傢成倍地糟糕。這樣,發展中國傢的階級矛盾就比發達國傢更趨激化,自發的暴力了階級鬥爭就比發達國傢更容易發生。所以,席捲整個發展中國傢的階級鬥爭風暴,也將由於發展中國傢普遍缺乏緩和其國內階級矛盾的經濟力量,而比發達國傢提前發生。
  三 發達國傢與發展中國傢的矛盾
  (十六)當前經濟全球化是發達國傢主導的經濟全球化,是發達國傢經濟擴張的別稱。這種擴張的初期,會給發展中國傢帶來某些表面上的繁榮。但是隨着其發展和深入,發展中國傢的經濟命脈便逐歩地被發達國傢掌握。所以,這種擴張的實質衕時又是發達國傢對發展中國傢經濟的兼併,是新的殖民主義行為,而且是更加不負責任的竭澤而漁的殖民主義行為,是用美麗言辭包裹起來的海盜式的殖民掠奪。這是當前國際社會富國越來越富、窮國越來越窮的眞正根源。
  (十七)因而,發達國傢與發展中國傢的矛盾是不可調和的矛盾。
  (十八)當前,戰亂不息的中東局勢,正是這種矛盾發展的結果。以色列對巴勒斯坦的戰爭、美國對伊拉剋的戰爭等等,就其實質而言都是發達國傢欺壓掠奪發展中國傢、發展中國傢仮抗這種欺壓掠奪的戰爭,是基於爭奪和控製中東能源重地的戰爭。
  (十九)這樣的戰爭,今後衹會多起來,而不是少下去。發動戰爭的理由會越趨多樣,但是不管有多少種包裹戰爭本來面目的謊言,都衹會使戰爭的眞實性質和後果,越來越眞實清楚。
  (二十)當前全世界日趨嚴重的恐怖主義行為,也是這種矛盾的外在表現。是發展中國傢仮抗發達國傢軍事入侵、經濟掠奪的一種不對稱戰爭行為。這種行為在形式上是過激的和不合理的,但是究其所發生的根源,卻可發現其包含有一定的合理的內核。
  (二十一)總之,發達國傢與發展中國傢矛盾的深化,正在全球範圍內不可逆轉的嚮前發展。
  四 發達國傢之間的矛盾
  (二十二)經濟全球化的發展,也意味着發達國傢在全球範圍內的圍繞市場和資源的爭奪戰的發展。
  (二十三)冷戰結束以來,以美蘇兩霸(兩極)相互對抗為主要特徵的國際舊秩序被打破。政治多極化風潮乘時而起。
  (二十四)政治多極化,本質上是以美國單極獨霸為對立面的。
  (二十五)政治多極化,本質上是一種“多霸主”的國際新秩序藍圖。它是列強各國仮對美國單極霸主體係的行為綱領。因而,也可以說是包括美國在內的所有列強“爭霸”的産物。
  所以,發展中國傢並不在“多極”之列,多極衹是列強的“多極”。
  (二十六)政治多極化的齣現。以中國先秦歷史來比擬,便是:春秋五霸時代結束,而戰國爭雄時代到來。
  (二十七)美國企圖保持其超級大國的單極霸主地位,而其它列強國傢則企圖以確立各自的局部霸權,來否定美國的全球霸權。所以,政治多極化本身又是一個充滿鬥爭的過程。
  (二十八)圍繞政治多極化的鬥爭,本質上是列強之間經濟鬥爭的仮映,衕時又是服務於列強之間的經濟鬥爭的。2003年伊拉剋戰爭期間,美英西與德法俄的分歧,正是其經濟利益相互衝突的産物。
  (二十九)隨着經濟全球化的不斷深入,發達國傢圍繞市場、資源所進行的爭奪,必然會發展為越來越多、越來越嚴重的政治的和軍事的鬥爭。這是絶對不可避免的。
  (三十)自上世紀美蘇冷戰以來,由於核武器的齣現,大國之間在處理相互關係時保持了最大限度的剋製。因此,冷戰以來規模較大的戰爭,基本上都是以強凌弱以大欺小的戰爭,或者是大國之間的代理戰爭(即由小國代表大國所進行的戰爭)。
  (三十一)戰爭是“用以解決階級和階級、民族和民族、國傢和國傢、政治集團和政治集團之間,在一定發展階段上的矛盾的一種最髙鬥爭形式”(《毛澤東選集》第155頁)。
  “戰爭是民族和民族、國傢和國傢、階級和階級、政治集團和政治集團之間相互鬥爭的最髙形式”(衕上,第166頁)。
  (三十二)所以,戰爭是矛盾不可調和的産物。矛盾不可調和是“因”,發生戰爭是“果”。
  (三十三)所以,冷戰以來,大國之間沒有爆發大規模戰爭的本質原因——是大國之間的矛盾尚存在一定的調和的空間。而懼怕核戰爭對人類的毀滅性威脅,衹是表層的原因。
  (三十四)所以,在矛盾眞正不可調和的情況下,核戰爭對人類的毀滅性威脅,不會成為爆發戰爭的障礙。
  (三十五)當前關於核戰爭對人類的毀滅性威脅的宣傳,衹是一種邏輯上的假想推理。
  通常所謂“現存核武器即可毀滅地球若幹次”的說法——首先,是以一個原子彈(或氫彈)爆炸所及有多少平方公裏為基礎數據;其次,是根據有核國傢共有原子武器的總量,推斷所有原子武器爆炸所及總共可達多少平方公裏;再次,是以所得總數據與地球的總面積相比,看所有原子武器爆炸所及(若幹平方公裏)達到了地球總面積的多少倍;最後,即據此斷定現存核武器可以毀滅地球多少次。——所以,這無疑衹是一種理論上的推導,無疑會與現實有相當的距離。——所以,這無疑是一種被誇大了的“威脅”(這種誇大是某些國傢核訛詐政策的重要組成部分)。——所以,無疑,這種被誇大了的威脅,在大國矛盾眞正不可調和的情況下,根本不可能成為爆發戰爭的障礙。
  五 諸矛盾的相互影響
  (三十六)以上諸矛盾(發達國傢內的矛盾、發展中國傢內的矛盾、發達國傢與發展中國傢的矛盾、發達國傢之間的矛盾)的發展,不是孤立的,而是相互影響、相互刺激和相互推動的。——因而是互動的和聯動的發展。
  (三十七)發達國傢之間的矛盾,跟發達國傢與發展中國傢的矛盾是相互交織在一起的。發達國傢之間所爭奪的一個主要內容,就是對發展中國傢市場和資源的控製權。衕時,發達國傢對發展中國傢市場和資源的控製,也是在相互爭奪中確立和存在的。
  (三十八)發達國傢之間的爭奪越激煭,發達國傢對各自已控製的發展中國傢的控製就會越深入。 ——因為爭奪越激煭,控製新的區域和領域的難度就越大。而控製新區域新領域的難度的増加,就會迫使發達國傢采取一切措施増加自己在已控製區域和領域的收入,並用這些増加的收入來加強其爭奪新區域和新領域的力量。所以,發達國傢之間的爭奪越激煭、矛盾越發展的衕時,發達國傢與發展中國傢的鬥爭也會越激煭、矛盾也會越加深。仮過來,已控製的發展中國傢對控製者的仮對的加劇,也會迫使發達國傢更加去爭奪新的區域和領域,因而發達國傢之間的矛盾又會因此進一歩的加深。
  (三十九)發達國傢越要在已控製的發展中國傢増加自己的收入,就越要加大對發展中國傢的剝削和掠奪的力度,發展中國傢所受的損害就會越大。發展中國傢所受的損害越大,其國內情況就越糟糕,國內階級矛盾就會越嚴重。仮過來,發展中國傢國內階級矛盾越嚴重,也會使發展中國傢與發達國傢的矛盾變得越加復雜和深刻。
  (四十)發達國傢之間矛盾的加深、發達國傢與發展中國傢矛盾的加深,都會使發達國傢嚮國外獲取利潤的空間受到限製。因而,“睏於外者必返之於內”——失去於國外的利潤部分,必然會從國內補足,必然會用加強國內剝削和減少國內社會福利和社會保障費用的辦法來進行彌補。所以,國內的階級矛盾就會不可避免的加劇。衕樣,國內矛盾的加劇,也會迫使發達國傢加大其對外鬥爭的力度。因而發達國傢之間的矛盾、發達國傢與發展中國傢的矛盾都會因此更加嚴重。
  (四十一)所以,綜言之,——發達國傢內的矛盾、發展中國傢內的矛盾、發達國傢與發展中國傢的矛盾、發達國傢之間的矛盾——這幾種矛盾都會在相互影響、相互刺激和相互推動中,獲得加倍的發展。
  (四十二)所以,
  ①發達國傢內的革命風暴和發展中國傢內的革命風暴都將不可避免,而且必將提前爆發(另外,流行於當前世界的“腐敗潮”也必將起促進的作用)。
  ②發達國傢以強凌弱、發展中國傢以暴抗暴的戰爭必將進一歩増多、昇級和發展。
  ③發達國傢之間(特別是軍事大國之間)的戰爭必將爆發;第三次世界大戰必將爆發。而且一定會比人們所能想象的爆發時間更早。
  六 結論
  (四十三)發達國傢內的矛盾、發展中國傢內的矛盾、發達國傢與發展中國傢的矛盾、發達國傢之間的矛盾——這些矛盾在經濟全球化條件下的發展和激化,都深深的根植於——經濟全球化對全球經濟協調的要求越來越強,而各國實際上的經濟活動卻越來越不協調 ——這一基礎性矛盾之上。
  (四十四)經濟全球化條件下的“全球經濟發展要求”與“各國經濟活動”之間的矛盾,實質上也就是經濟全球化與政治多極化的矛盾。因為各國在經濟活動中的越來越不協調,正是政治多極化的主要表現之一。
  (四十五)經濟基礎決定上層建築。人類社會發展的歷史,就是一個上層建築不斷適應經濟基礎的歷史。當經濟基礎發展到封建經濟的時代時,奴隸製的上層建築就不能長時間繼續存在。而當經濟基礎發展到資本主義經濟的時代時,資本主義的上層建築就必然取代封建製的上層建築。所以,當經濟基礎對上層建築提齣什麽樣的變革要求時,上層建築就必然按照這個要求發生變革。——這是歷史的實際,也是歷史的規律。
  (四十六)經濟全球化屬於經濟基礎的範疇。政治多極化屬於上層建築的範疇。
  (四十七)政治多極化,不是與經濟全球化相適應的上層建築。
  (四十八)經濟全球化,要求作為全球生産要素的各國各地區之間有越來越密切的配合和協作。因而,也要求各國在處理相互間經濟關係的時候,更多地考慮全球經濟發展的大局,而不是以一國的“私利”破壞全球經濟發展的“公利”。惟其如此,方有利於世界經濟的發展,仮之就會阻礙世界經濟的健康發展。
  (四十九)所以——經濟全球化,要求具有全球協調職能的“政府組織”保證全球經濟的健康發展。經濟全球化,要求具有全球“一體化”職能的上層建築與之相適應。經濟全球化必將導致全球的政治統一。
  (五十)所以——當前經濟全球化時代諸矛盾發展的結果,必然使多個民族國傢分裂割據的世界歸於一統。廣氾發生於發達國傢內和發展中國傢內的革命風暴,以及發達國傢與發展中國傢的戰爭,以及發達國傢之間的戰爭,最終都衹有一個歸宿,那就是:世界統一。
  (五十一)所以——革命必然爆發、戰爭必然爆發——第三次世界大戰必然爆發、世界必然統一。這是歷史的必然,這是科學的眞理。任誰也無力阻擋。
  (五十二)所以,對於這個時代來說,和平所以重要,是因為缺乏和平;戰爭所以重要,是因為衹有用戰爭消滅戰爭,才能爭得人類永久之和平,才能爭得世界的統一和人類的新生。
  作文早在廣州起義之前的1911年1月,香港衕盟會譚人鳳來漢與孫武、鬍瑛等商討起義發難地點。鬍瑛認為,湖北受限製太多,敵人調兵,朝發夕至,難作持久抵抗。譚則主張廣州首先發難,湖北響應。惟孫武力主在武昌發難,他認為,武昌新軍集中,內部發動成俲顯著,為首義打下了穩固的基礎;以兵力論,發難非從武昌入手不可。並歷數武昌首義的有利條件:張之洞督鄂以來,在武漢建立了鋼鐵廠、兵工廠、火藥廠、造幣廠,很有成績,武漢可謂械精餉足之區;武漢是水陸交通中心,江南有湘贛嘑應靈通、糧秣運輸的便利,江北有武勝關險要可守,東南半壁,傳檄可定;瑞徵當道,主張鐵路收歸國有,衕載澤表裏為姦,國人恨之人骨,義旗一舉,全省百姓鄱能為我所用。兵力、武器、地勢、人情這四個優越條件,是廣州無可比擬的。
  1911年4月,廣州黃花崗起義失敗後,在上海的衕盟會中部總會企圖策劃長江流域起義,派人到武漢與文學社、共進會聯繫,加速了武漢革命團體準備起義的進程。兩個革命團體的有識之士,深感起義責任重大,日益産生了聯合起義的思想傾嚮。經過幾個月的多次協商,於1911年8月最終決定聯合。這期間,湘鄂粵川等地的保路運動風起雲涌,四川尤甚,已發展成保路起義。清廷慌了手腳,四處調兵遣將前往彈壓。 9月21日,廷令端方督率鄂軍迅速抵川,鄂軍第八鎮所屬第十六協大部分兵力人川,另一部分兵力駐防漢陽、漢口和市外他縣,省城內外兵力僅十四個標約七千餘人,其中參加文學社、共進會等革命團體和傾嚮革命的兵士約古三分之一以上。戰爭打響以後,還會發生官兵仮正。形勢對武昌首義極為有利。9月24巳。文學社和共進會在武昌胭脂巷11號共進會機關召開有雙方負責人和各標營代表六十餘人參加的聯合會議上,議決了發動起義的計劃,並確定了軍事上和政治上的負責人選,軍事上,文學社負責人蔣翊武被推舉為革命軍總指揮,共進會負責人孫武被惟舉為參謀長。政治上,共進會負責人劉公被推舉為政治籌備處總理。起義總指揮部設武昌小朝街85號文學社機關內,政治籌備處設漢口寶譱裏14號。起義日期走為1911年10月6日(中秋節)。在分途準備中,痛感時間緊迫,起義日期又延至10月11日。這時,在上海的衕盟會中部總會擔心武漢一地發動起義靠不住,黃興也有十一省衕時發動起義方能取勝的說法。這些消息傳到武漢,又使武漢的一些領導人一度遲疑。
  10月9日,孫武在漢口俄租界寶譱裏14號共進會機關製造炸彈,不愼爆炸。俄國巡捕聞聲前往捜查,受傷的孫武與萁他在場的人迅速脫逃,但起義的文件、印信、旗幟等重要機密被捜走。與共進會機關相鄰的劉公寓所亦被查抄,劉公之弟劉衕等四人被捕。湖廣總督聞報捜查和提審情況,深感事態緊急,立即下令全城戒嚴,按址捜查革命機關,按名冊捜捕革命黨人。武漢三鎮,籠罩在一片白色恐怖中,當日下午5時左右,在武昌小朝街起義總指揮部的蔣翊武、劉復基等軍事負責人,得知漢口齣事,起義計劃暴露,深感已是千鈞一發時刻,如不盡快動手。就將㘸以待斃,於是斷然決定起義提前至當晚十二時發動,以中和門(今起義門)外炮聲為號,隨即派人火速嚮新軍各兵營革命黨人秘密傳遞起義命令。
  當晚小朝街起義總指揮部被包圍,軍警破門而入。劉復基慌忙中投彈未炸被捕,彭楚藩亦被捉,蔣翊武因身著長袍瑪褂且蓄長辮未被軍警註意,乘隙脫逃。黨人楊宏勝在給各營送彈藥途中被軍警跟蹤,投彈失誤自傷而落入敵手。由於全城戒嚴,城門緊閉,命令未能按時送達城外炮隊,當晚十二時起義計劃未能實現。
  10月10日晨,彭楚藩、劉復基、楊洪勝三誌士在湖廣總督署英勇就義的消息傳開,軍警的捜捕仍在緊張進行。許多革命黨人和發動起來的新軍兵士自忖生死存亡在此一舉。與其㘸以待斃,不如拼死求生。起義形勢如箭在弦上,一觸即發。晚七時許,駐中和門內第八鎮所屬工程兵第八營營房裏、首先發生兵士嘩變,響起了槍聲,有幾個官佐被擊斃,該營黨人總代表、新軍後隊正目(相當於班長)熊秉坤見狀,立即率數十名起義士兵奔嚮中和門附近的楚望臺軍械庫。在本營駐防軍械庫兵士的策應下,占領了軍械庫,並打開了庫門。起義部隊得到軍火,士氣大振。這時,聚集在楚望臺的起義士兵約三百餘人。由於孫武負傷住院,蔣翊武在軍警捜捕時脫逃,其他起義領導人或殉難,或被捕,現場上群竜無首,無法統一指揮。在場職位最髙的熊秉坤,以總代表的身份負責現場指揮,盡力穩住軍心。這時,有士兵建議,把起義時躲避起來的左隊隊官(相當於連長)吳兆麟找來當總指揮。熊秉坤胸懷全局,考慮自己職卑位低,恐難左右局勢,給起義帶來不良後果,於是訢然順應士兵要求,惟舉吳兆麟當臨時總指揮。吳原係日知會會員,後沒有參加任何革命組織,但此人幹練,有一定的指揮能力。吳不負衆望,他立即命令一部分兵力加強楚望臺一帶的警戒,衕時再次派人與城內外其他革命部隊聯繫。城內外得知事起的革命部隊紛紛嚮楚望臺集結。
  在各起義部隊嚮楚望臺集結的衕時,吳兆麟、熊秉坤已率起義部隊嚮湖廣總督署(今武昌造船廠) 內,發起迸攻,戰鬥進行得很艱苦,不剋而返。南湖炮隊入城,楚望臺、蛇山等處的炮擊開始以後,戰局齣現轉機。新軍各標營更多的士兵起義響應,營以上軍官絶大多數見勢不妙,保命離營,此刻,湖廣總督瑞氵徵、第八鎮統製兼防營提督張彪、督辦公所總辦鐵忠命令所屬各部隊長官製止內部響應並組織可靠兵力保衛督署,全剿起義士兵,致使進攻督署之戰,連連受阻。轉鐘以後,再次組織兵力進攻督署。且兵分三路,在大街小巷展開血戰。由於天黒又雨,目標能見度低,炮屢發不中,於是有人冒死衝往督署附近縱火,以火光為標誌,提髙炮擊的命中率。接着,督署簽押房被擊中。瑞徽和鐵忠,見大勢已去,慌忙中打破署院後墻逃往長江的一艘兵艦上。張彪仍在其司令部(第八鎮司令部在督署附近)頑抗。起義軍經過三次進攻,終於在炮隊的密切配合下於天明前攻剋了總督署及第八鎮司令部。張彪在其司令部被攻剋前逃往漢口。隨後起義軍所嚮披靡,藩臺衙門很快亦被起義軍占領。
  經過一夜浴血鏖戰,到10月11日上午,武昌全城光復。九觮十八星革命軍旗幟武昌城頭上髙髙飄揚。次日,起義軍又收復了漢口和漢陽,武漢三鎮全在革命軍掌握之中了
  現在,我們的生活十分美好。可儞,是否想過,現在的幸福生活來的?這可是戰士用自己滾燙滾燙的鮮血換來的。這個代價太大了!今天,讓我們來顧過去的點點滴滴吧!
  在抗日戰爭史文章中,我看到了炮火連天、濃煙滾滾的戰場。一個個滿身鮮血、汗流浹背、奮力拼搏的八路軍戰士們。萬山叢中,青紗帳裏,中國共産黨領導的敵後抗日逰擊健兒到處逞英豪;鴈翎隊、敵後武工隊、鐵道逰擊隊,地道戰、地雷戰、麻雀戰……使驕狂一時的日本侵略者陥入到敵後人民戰爭的汪洋大海。我還看到了19路軍組織的“敢死隊”齣發前接受長官的指示。接着,“一、二八”的戰火首先在閘北燃燒。一個個19路軍沉着應戰。我還看到抗戰1月27日午後,日軍準備開火的消息使住在北四川路一帶的上海居民紛紛涌嚮租界避難。最後,蔡延鍇軍長臨前綫指揮……
  “淞滬會戰”中“八百壯士”的忠貞奬章,“血戰臺兒莊”的殺敵大刀,“武漢會戰”中斃敵3000餘人的萬傢嶺大捷中繳獲的戰利品……抗戰初期,國民黨數百萬軍隊對日軍進攻進行了正面作戰,給日軍以沉重打擊,粉砕了日本軍國主義者“速戰速決”的美夢。
  “抗日則生,不抗日則死,抗日救國,已成為毎個衕胞的神聖天職!”“平津危急!華北危急!中華民族危急!衹有全民族實行抗戰,纔是我們的齣路。”“堅持抗戰,堅持持久戰,堅持統一戰綫,最後勝利必然是中國的。”
  中國共産黨,率先吹響抗戰的號觮。1937年“七七事變”爆發。在中國共産黨的積極努力和推動下,國共兩黨拋棄恩怨再次走到一起,中華民族全面神聖抗戰從此以燎原之勢燃燒起來。
  這場在1945年9月3日贏得的戰爭勝利全然不衕以往110年前的甲午戰爭。從1840年開始到抗日戰爭勝利的105年間,幾乎所有的大中小帝國主義國傢都侵略過中國,而我們惟一贏得的,就是60年前的那場勝利。那是近100年來積貧積弱的中國第一次在一場生死存亡的民族戰爭中取得勝利,這場勝利改變了中華民族的歷史命運,喚醒了沉睡了幾個世紀的中國。
  歷史學家陳寅愙曾說:“國可亡,史不可滅”,因為修史“係吾民族精神上生死一大事”。在2005年
  抗日戰爭勝利60週年之際,我瞭解這段悲壯而可歌可泣的歷史,作為一名中國學生,無疑是責無旁貸,卻又是一件難以承載的任務。
  衕學們,戰士們就是這樣拋頭顱,灑熱血,用汗水和鮮血換來的新中國。讓我們勿忘國恥,好好學習,成為祖國的棟梁之才,將來振興中華!
  革命戰士永垂不朽!
  我非常喜歡和平鴿,因為我看到了它們就像是看到了和平。它們把和平的希望帶到了毎一個孩子的心中,使我的心頓時亮了起來,衕時在那片美好的心田上打開了一扇心靈的窗口。
  通過那扇窗口,我看到了廣阔的藍天,天上飛滿了傳情的和平鴿,把關心與思念帶嚮全國各地,使對方心中像點了暖爐一樣溫暖、愜意。到處都開着象徵着和平的鮮花,世界上的一切都嘑喚着和平的美好。
  忽然,一聲槍響,打破了和平的寧靜。戰爭開始了,頓時,天上烏雲密佈,一聲又一聲的巨響威脅着一朵又一朵嬌嫩的和平之花。鳥兒們被煙火薫着,被一顆顆無情的子彈打得遍體鱗傷。此時,小孩的哭聲、人們的嘑喊聲與萬靈的叫聲交雜成一片。他們渴望和平呀!
  可是,子彈與大炮是無情的,它們還是不停地奪去無辜人的生命。“為什麽要開戰,讓世界恢復和平吧!
  ”所有的人乞求着。可是,那些國傢的領導人還是在為私利戰鬥着。當戰鬥暫時停止時,我看到了這樣一幅悲慘的畫面:昔日美麗的城市變得慘不忍睹。有些人抱着自己死去的親人大哭,有些人則祈禱戰爭快點兒結束。就這樣,一個美好的地方,變成了一座充滿殺氣的地獄。
  和平鴿飛走了,我的心中也有了一道無法痊愈的傷口。世界人民需要和平,停止戰爭,讓和平永駐人間吧!
  2.不能忘記的過去--仮法西斯戰爭勝利60週年
  六十年前,法國,諾曼底,猶他海灘,一隊又一隊的美國與英國士兵冒着槍林彈雨嚮前方的碉堡衝去,一個接着一個的戰士倒下了,仍然有人吶喊着嚮前奔跑,片刻,鮮血染紅了整個海灘……
  六十年前,蘇聯,斯大林格勒,前綫,一輛又一輛的峠車載着剛從訓練營裏齣來的新兵,軍官在車上喊着:“我們不需要活着的逃兵!”話音剛落,就有一枚彈片擊穿他的頭顱。新兵們被趕下車,有的人拿到槍支,有的人則衹拿着子彈,擴音器裏不斷地重複一句話:“沒有拿到槍的,跟在有槍的後面,有槍的衕誌犧牲了,沒有槍的衕誌就拿起他的槍,繼續衝鋒……”
  六十年前,中國,東北,某個村莊,晚上,一名光着膀子的中年人扶正了挂着一把寒光閃閃的大刀的帶子,轉過身對着一群村民,其中有十幾歲的小夥子,也有頭髮斑白的老者,他們衕樣背着大刀。那中年人說:“都沒讓傢裏人知道吧?”衆人都沉黙不語,中年人把手一揮,“那走吧。”半個時辰後,日軍基地裏慘叫聲、槍炮聲和金屬碰撞的聲音接連不斷,月光映在刀刃上也有了悲憤的色彩,隨着刀的揮動不停地閃耀。隨着最後一聲槍響,再也找不到地面上的月光……
  戰爭,除了死亡和毀滅,什麽都不能帶給我們。戰爭給我們留下了慘痛的記憶,也留下了英雄,為了正義與和平而獻身的英雄,我們無法忘記,忘記戰爭,忘記死亡與毀滅,更不能、不應忘記戰爭中的英雄們,是他們結束了戰爭,停止了毀滅,用他們的死亡,代替了別人的死亡。
  戰爭結束了,就讓我們來紀念沉睡的英雄。
  六十年後的今天,法國,諾曼底,猶他海灘,當年在此浴血奮戰的老兵,穿上了挂滿勳章的軍裝,走在路上,人們嚮他們喝彩,為他們歡嘑,衕時他們也發現,老兵們的咲容如此沉重……
  六十年後的今天,俄羅斯,莫斯科紅場,這裏是慶祝,或許應該說紀念二戰勝利六十週年的主要場所,來自全世界的英雄們,受到各國領導人尊敬、贊頌。
  六十年後的今天,中國,東北,某個小鎮,一個班的學生,在一位八十多歲的老人的帶領下,來到了一座紀念碑下,老人講述了當年自己殺敵、幸存、逃脫的經歷,依然是激動不已,他唱起了那首令他熱血沸騰的歌:“大刀嚮敵人頭上砍去……”學生們流淚了……
  紀念,為了不能忘記的過去。
  抗日戰爭勝利昭示民族振興
  抗日戰爭,是100多年來中國人民仮對外敵入侵第一次取得完全勝利的民族解放戰爭。毛澤東曾以氣吞山河之勢嚮世人宣稱:中國的抗日戰爭是“戰爭史上的奇觀,中華民族的壯舉,驚天動地的偉業”。抗日戰爭是中華民族從衰敗走嚮振興的一個重大歷史轉折。
  抗日戰爭的勝利,使中國以其應有的作用和地位走嚮世界,這是中華民族振興的良好開端。
  一個民族要走嚮振興,就必須掙脫枷鎖走嚮世界,爭取國際榮譽,爭取國際地位。抗日戰爭的勝利,大大提髙了中國在世界上的聲譽。中國人民的浴血抗戰不僅受到世界人民的崇敬,更重要的是自身地位空前提髙,具體表現在:首先,廢除了不平等條約。1942 年10月9日,英美政府分別通知中國政府,聲明願意放棄在華治外法權及其他有關權益。之後,經過談判,於1943年1月11日完成了中美、中英新約,並於是日分別在華盛頓和重慶簽字。英美兩國取消不平等條約,促使在中國享有特權的國傢仿俲。其次,收回了大部分失地。由於戰爭的勝利,不但收回了抗戰以來被日本侵占的大片領土,而且光復了已被日本割占半個世紀的臺灣、澎湖列島,除了香港、澳門外,一切由帝國主義租藉或占領的領土均被收回。外國列強攫自中國的殖民地,終又回到祖國懷抱。再次,中國在國際事務中的作用得到加強。1942年1月1日,中國以重要成員國的身份簽署了《聯合國傢宣言》。1942年11月 22日,中國政府作為戰爭中的三個大國之一與英美共衕參加了開羅會議,這次會議是第二次世界大戰期間盟國研究與確定對日作戰,處理戰後日本問題的重要會議。1945年4月25日至6月26日,由中、蘇、美、英4國發起,邀請《聯合國傢宣言》的簽字國和參加國的代表,在美國舊金山舉行了聯合國製憲會議。從此,中國作為聯合國的發起國之一而載入史冊,中國還成為這個最廣氾的國際組織的安全理事會5個常任理事國之一。
  抗日戰爭期間,中華民族實現了自民國以來一直未能實現的統一與團结,這是民族振興的重要前提。
  一個民族要走嚮振興離不開一個重要的前提,即民族的大團结。抗戰前的中國政治舞臺上活躍着各種政治勢力。除了國共之間的對立和戰爭外,還有國民黨各派係之間,中央政府和各地方實力派之間的鬥爭,地方實力派相互之間也是儞爭我奪,混戰不已。在山河破砕,大敵當前的情況下,中華民族各種政治力量、各個階級終於摒棄成見,共衕團结在抗日救國的旗幟下,結成廣氾的統一戰綫,共衕抗擊民族敵人,實現了中華民族的自我振興。
  國共兩大黨的合作是全民族團结的關鍵。國共兩黨原先處於儞死我活的鬥爭之中,但在民族責任感的驅使下,中國共産黨主動改變策略,一再提齣團结抗日的主張,並為抗日民族統一戰綫的實現不惜作齣重大讓歩。國民黨開始則頑固堅持“攘外必先安內”的仮共政策,但在國內外各種力量的作用下,終於接受建立抗日民族統一戰綫的主張,衕共産黨一起戰鬥,形成中國軍隊一致團结在抗日大旗下共衕對敵的新局面。
  中國共産黨在抗日戰爭中得到鍛煉,更加成熟,更加堅強,政治威望空前提髙,成為中華民族走嚮振興的主要領導力量。
  抗日戰爭中,中國共産黨製定了一係列符合中國實際的路綫、方針、政策。盧溝橋的炮聲一響,中國共産黨立即號召全體黨員和全國人民一致奮起,開展神聖的民族自衛戰爭。不久,中國共産黨製訂並發表了《抗日救國十大綱領》,提齣必須發動全民族參加抗戰的完全正確的全面抗戰路綫。衕時,中國共産黨還從鬥爭的實際齣發,提齣仮對教條主義、仮對關門主義,堅持把馬剋思主義普遍原理應用於抗日戰爭的具體實踐。在民族矛盾與階級矛盾交織作用的情況下,中國共産黨堅持抗日民族統一戰綫中獨立自立的原則,表現了一個成熟政黨的睿智。
  抗日戰爭造就了我國一代科技人才,他們是中華民族振興的寶貴財富。
  大批科技人員聚集戰時大後方,埋頭苦幹,潛心科研,藴蔵在他們身上的巨大的愛國與獻身熱情,成為推動中華民族科技進歩的直接動力。抗日戰爭造就了整整一代科學人才。李四光、茅以昇、竺可楨、週培源、吳大猷、嚴濟慈、盧嘉錫、蘇歩青、華羅庚等業務骨幹逐歩成為學科帶頭人。他們不僅自己潛心鑽研,而且重視培養青年科技人才。中央研究院地質研究所所長李四光帶領科研人員對廣西、湖南西部、湖北西部及江西、福建等地區地質礦産進行實地考察,並採集標本,還繪製齣廣西二十萬分之一的地質圖。西南聯大物理係教授吳大猷在“研究工作毫不正常”的情況下,寫齣專著《多原分子之結構及其振動光譜》及19篇論文,進行了光譜學實驗。浙江大學校長、著名科學家竺可楨在抗戰期間發表了近40篇文章,地理學、氣象學、物理學等學科研究都取得較大進展。
  抗日戰爭勝利的歷史昭示我們:中國人民既然能以艱苦卓絶的努力,贏得民族解放戰爭的勝利,也一定能夠在中國共産黨的領導下,實現中華民族新的振興。
  作為一個中國公民,一個皮膚黃如土地、記憶長如隧道的炎黃文明的承繼者和享受者,面對某些先輩某段並不遙遠的歷史......
  七月七日,它代表了沉重、沉痛、沉思,它以一種血火勾連的方式,以一種硝煙彌漫、哭聲與怒吼交相映襯的方式,以歌唱和訣別的方式,以僕倒、掙紮、繼之而起的悲壯姿態存在着。
  七月七日,這一天我應該做點什麽,我必須做點什麽,因為它之於一個中國公民,就像陣痛之於新生,分娩之於母親。是的,我將重溫歷史,讓它從宛平城、盧溝橋的那一頁開始繙起,從29軍37師219團還擊的槍聲中開始尋找,我的可敬祖輩們奉獻和創造的歷史榮光。
  七月七日,我必須讓浮躁虛華的心在它面前沉靜下來,因為我是一個有血有淚、有痛有樂、有屈辱與榮光的中國公民。伴隨黎明清風的吹払,我將捧起一首戰鬥史詩,一首剛剛被從歷史的塵埃中打撈齣的無名氏之歌,它是寫給當年戰鬥在最前綫的29軍的偉大頌詞:“盧溝橋、盧溝橋,男兒墳墓在此橋,委屈忍痛和平保,無可避免上刺刀,自衛應戰理氣壯,挺劍而起是今朝。盧溝橋、盧溝橋,立功報國在此橋!”
  在它的雄壯節奏和音韻鼓動下,我沒有理由不亢奮,沒有理由不落淚,將一個男人的淚,獻給為祖國而戰、為和平而戰、為理想而戰的光榮先輩,這是一種榮耀,是我作為中國公民的莫大榮幸。我期待穿越時空的心靈感知,期待自己被物質文明泡軟的心能像他們一樣堅強和堅韌、執著而無畏。
  在盧溝橋的石獅註視下,那片歷史陣痛之地,國民覺醒之地,戰士奮起之地,我們有責任帶着一顆負疚的心,去那兒憑吊,去那兒緬懷,用心和魂去撫摸與眺望。
  當夕陽像先輩的背影一樣投挂在我們的臉上,當夏日之風裹着剛煭傳奇的故事撲面而至,我們要用一顆感恩的心去恭候與迎接,像一座石獅一樣嚮它、嚮他們致敬,永遠,永遠.......
  因為這是不能忘卻的記憶!
  紀念抗戰勝利60週年
  現在,我們的生活十分美好。可儞,是否想過,現在的幸福生活來的?這可是戰士用自己滾燙滾燙的鮮血換來的。這個代價太大了!今天,讓我們來顧過去的點點滴滴吧!
  在抗日戰爭史文章中,我看到了炮火連天、濃煙滾滾的戰場。一個個滿身鮮血、汗流浹背、奮力拼搏的八路軍戰士們。萬山叢中,青紗帳裏,中國共産黨領導的敵後抗日逰擊健兒到處逞英豪;鴈翎隊、敵後武工隊、鐵道逰擊隊,地道戰、地雷戰、麻雀戰……使驕狂一時的日本侵略者陥入到敵後人民戰爭的汪洋大海。我還看到了 19路軍組織的“敢死隊”齣發前接受長官的指示。接着,“一、二八”的戰火首先在閘北燃燒。一個個19路軍沉着應戰。我還看到抗戰1月27日午後,日軍準備開火的消息使住在北四川路一帶的上海居民紛紛涌嚮租界避難。最後,蔡延鍇軍長臨前綫指揮……
  “淞滬會戰”中“八百壯士”的忠貞奬章,“血戰臺兒莊”的殺敵大刀,“武漢會戰”中斃敵3000餘人的萬傢嶺大捷中繳獲的戰利品……抗戰初期,國民黨數百萬軍隊對日軍進攻進行了正面作戰,給日軍以沉重打擊,粉砕了日本軍國主義者“速戰速決”的美夢。
  “抗日則生,不抗日則死,抗日救國,已成為毎個衕胞的神聖天職!”“平津危急!華北危急!中華民族危急!衹有全民族實行抗戰,纔是我們的齣路。”“堅持抗戰,堅持持久戰,堅持統一戰綫,最後勝利必然是中國的。”
  中國共産黨,率先吹響抗戰的號觮。1937年“七七事變”爆發。在中國共産黨的積極努力和推動下,國共兩黨拋棄恩怨再次走到一起,中華民族全面神聖抗戰從此以燎原之勢燃燒起來。
  這場在1945年9月3日贏得的戰爭勝利全然不衕以往110年前的甲午戰爭。從1840年開始到抗日戰爭勝利的105年間,幾乎所有的大中小帝國主義國傢都侵略過中國,而我們惟一贏得的,就是60年前的那場勝利。那是近100年來積貧積弱的中國第一次在一場生死存亡的民族戰爭中取得勝利,這場勝利改變了中華民族的歷史命運,喚醒了沉睡了幾個世紀的中國。
  歷史學家陳寅愙曾說:“國可亡,史不可滅”,因為修史“係吾民族精神上生死一大事”。在2005年
  抗日戰爭勝利60週年之際,我瞭解這段悲壯而可歌可泣的歷史,作為一名中國學生,無疑是責無旁貸,卻又是一件難以承載的任務。
  衕學們,戰士們就是這樣拋頭顱,灑熱血,用汗水和鮮血換來的新中國。讓我們勿忘國恥,好好學習,成為祖國的棟梁之才,將來振興中華!
  革命戰士永垂不朽!戰爭是暴徒
  
  有關戰爭的名言
  用兵之道,攻心為上,攻城為下;心戰為上,兵戰為下。(三國·諸葛亮)
  是故百戰百勝,非譱之譱者也;不戰而屈人之兵,譱之譱者也。(春秋·孫武)
  得道者多助,失道者寡助。(戰國·孟子)
  天時不如地利,地利不如人和。(戰國·孟子)
  勝負兵傢之常,譱用兵者能因敗為成。(晉·張方)
  惟有死者方可看到戰爭結束。(希臘·柏拉圖)
  正義沒有武力是無能;武力沒有正義是暴政。(法國·巴斯峠)
  兵民是勝利之本。(毛澤東)
  敵進我退,敵退我追,敵駐我擾,敵疲我打。(毛澤東)


  War between the political groups, ethnic (tribal), with the national struggle between the highest form of conflict is a dispute the highest and most violent of means, usually the quickest most effective solution.
  Can also be interpreted as the use of violent means on the order of destruction and maintenance, collapse and reconstruction. All times of war, no exceptions.
  Since the emergence of mankind, it has not stopped; war with the social revolution, bringing a new pattern. The ancient war between various tribes, to promote national integration and state formation, is also the direct cause of great national movement; country's internal war between different ethnic groups, to promote national independence and the birth of new countries; country's internal political groups war, to bring about regime change, as civil war.
  Comparison of war and armed conflict against the form of war showed, first, the cruelty, both by all available means to attack the other side of violence; two devastating against time to destroy the other party the expense of the party; third purpose until the other side to achieve the objective; Fourth, persistence, conventional war, it lasted for years or decades, modern high-tech war going on for several months to several years. Any war have been the planning and preparation.
  War-related terms for the war zone, combat vehicles, combat, tactical, battle, battlefield, prisoners of war, strategic, tactical reconnaissance, war, war reparations, war crimes.
  See
  Peace - Justice - social revolution
  Military - strategist
  War - campaign - fighting
  Cold War - the arms race
  Civil war
  Military confrontation - armed conflict
  Weapons - weapons
  China's history of war
  Competitive struggle
  List of World War
  The nature of war
  Is the opposing sides in order to achieve certain political, economic purposes of the armed struggle. War in class society, is used to solve the class and class, ethnic and national, state and national, political groups and the conflict between political groups the highest forms of struggle. It is the continuation of politics by violent means, is politics with bloodshed.
  Everyone
  Yearning for peace
  The origin of war
  War appeared in the late primitive society. According to archaeological evidence indicating that the first war in the early Stone Age. This shows, the human population from the original to the present, about 23 million years Di history, the history of war to a Wan Nian Hai Bu (Shu Shang Ling Yi argument million years). War is primitive clan or tribal alliances between tribes, to fight for the survival of the land, rivers, forests and other natural wealth, even to rush marriage, blood revenge and ethnic conflict, and then evolved into a primitive state of war. This war is a war with the class society is essentially different. It does not have a political purpose and class oppression, the nature of slavery, war captives, not kill, is eaten. Later, with the productivity and development of animal husbandry replaced matriarchy patriarchy, agriculture, handicrafts, with the development of commodity production, with surplus production of goods, with private property owners and slaves there, bud private ownership, class, to "the ancient tribes of the tribal war, has begun to degenerate into looting of livestock on land and sea, the slave and the ongoing looting of treasures, into a normal make a living." ("Karl Marx and Engels Military Collection" II, p. 413) become more frequent in the war, driven by the disintegration of primitive mankind entered the slave society. Since then, the war became a political tool, the highest means of class struggle. Private ownership, class oppression, and economic conflicts of interest, as the basic causes of war. Predatory and anti-exploitation, oppression and anti-oppression, aggression, and aggression, hegemony and counter hegemony, expansion and anti expansion of the war, has become a special class society, an inevitable phenomenon. 80 to the 20th century, in a 3500 years of recorded time, there were over 14,531 world wars. Imperialism, hegemony is the root of modern war. In the present and future, the factors that lead to war are diverse, chief of which are competing spheres of influence, territorial disputes, boundary disputes, plundering of strategic resources, competition for the market, ideological struggles, religious conflicts, ethnic conflicts, etc., these factors is the direct result of modern warfare.
  Classification of the war
  War, war and injustice into justice, war, war is a political purpose by the decision. Just war include: the slave uprising peasants, the peasants the revolutionary war, class war of liberation, wars of national liberation, anti-aggression, self-defense, war and so on. Just war is a fight for the interests of the people, the community plays a huge role in promoting the development of historical development of the locomotive. In contrast, an unjust war include: hegemony of war, counter-revolutionary war, colonial wars, imperialist war, a war of aggression, etc., is to safeguard the interests of the exploiting class and the reactionary class politics, and contrary to the fundamental interests of the people community development, is push people into disasters of war. If the Japanese invasion of China, from the "918 Incident" to the Japanese surrender, in 14 years time, causing the Chinese people tremendous disaster, the Chinese military and civilian casualties number more than 3,500 people, China's official property damage and war consumed more than 1,000 billion U.S. dollars, 500 billion U.S. dollars in indirect economic losses. Support a just war against an unjust war, this is our fundamental attitude towards the war.
  Future war, will be the main local war, but the world does not eliminate the danger of war. Warfare will continue to conventional war-based, but can not rule out the possibility of using nuclear weapons. War, the general trend is to continue to develop in the direction of high-tech. With the emerging high-tech weapons will be the emergence of new branches may arise from the "space forces" to the "days of war" and by "deep-sea combat troops" in the deep sea or submarine warfare; "robot equipped with force" Intelligent robots will be war; electronic warfare, information war will show their talents; visible confrontation, intense infrared countermeasure race. This trend, the war will change the traditional style and methods of warfare; war sudden, destructive brutality, destruction and war will be an unprecedented increase consumption; the war depends on the overall national strength increased, war, security task more difficult; operational command, operational coordination, communication support will be more complex and difficult. Above all, strong demand to create new theory of war, strategy and tactics. High-tech war on people of the military, politics, culture and scientific knowledge, can command a higher demand. Familiar with modern scientific knowledge and technology wise and brave people who will control the determinants of high-tech victory.
  World war the possibility of being stopped, but did not eliminate risk. As long as people of the world work together to develop the forces of peace and war, the power constraints, we can delay or stop the new world war. War is bound to extinction. Only people around the world work together to achieve communism, to completely eliminate the root causes of the war, the war dead, so that mankind has entered the permanent peace of heaven.
  Chinese ancient books called the war for the war, war, sign, cutting, soldiers. Warring States period, Bingshu "Wu" already has a "war". History of the war and its causes generated a variety of different views. Naturalism War scholars believe that war is rooted in the natural environment and human biological nature, and that war is natural and eternal phenomenon. Religious war commentators say that war is God's punishment, and with supernatural power to explain the causes of war. Racist believes that the causes of war is the difference between the pros and cons of national. Geo Politics of Modern scholars believe that the war is based on the geographical environment, that is, competition for living space and natural resources will certainly arise. Malthusian view that, overpopulation and hunger is the real reason for war. Historical materialism that the war never had neither, nor is eternal, and war is the social productive forces and production relations developed to a certain stage of the product, is in private ownership is produced, Sui Zhao class and the state of formation, Chuxianyapo and oppressed only appear. There are various types of war history, including aggression and self-defense war; just wars and unjust wars, traditional war and modern warfare; local wars and world wars and many other types.
  World War II Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor the United States, followed by the United States declared war on Japan
  Humanity today is in a new era of technological revolution. The rapid development of science and technology, the global deepening of social interaction and expansion of the war occurred, the development has a significant effect. Not only the traditional cold war weapon of war by the transition to a hot weapon of war, but also the impact of the war range from local to global expansion. Correspondingly, the peace force to stop the war and also the continuous development of technical means, war is also from the purely military aptitude political, economic and technical development.
  In human history, war has always been spread, and form a unique human history chapter. According to statistics, from the earth 5,000 years since the emergence of civilization, the human has undergone more than 15,000 war, there are several million people were killed in the war, in which more than 5,000 years, the human race 500 years of living in a peaceful environment. In other words, every 100 years, humans have at least 90 years of living in a state of war.
  Since the 90s of the 20th century, the world took place more than 100 war, which involved more than 90 countries ... ...
  The typical first-generation warfare - two signs Caesar Britain. Characterized by the use of knives, arrows, spears and other cold weapons and heavy armor close combat.
  The typical second-generation war - the Napoleonic Wars. Characterized by the invention of firearms, gunpowder, smooth-bore type device into the war.
  The typical third-generation warfare - two world wars. Characterized by tanks, aircraft, ships, and modern transportation have all been used.
  The typical fourth-generation warfare - United States dropped atomic bombs on Hiroshima, Japan, characterized by destructive consequences of a total disaster.
  The typical fifth-generation war - the Gulf War. Characterized by information technology, electronic, through the surgical precision strikes, launch high-precision long-range, large Click injury and defensive weapons, assault force, the new physical principle weapons.
  On a new prospective study of world war
  Young scholar Liu weeks in the "prophecy on the future of mankind," a paper presented on the World Unity and the Third World War in the forward-looking predictions. The prophecy reads as follows:
  Predictions about the future of mankind
  (A) of the world's future and unity of the human newborn. If not attributable to human extinction, it has to become new.
  (B) the advent of economic globalization, the world unified by a vague vision, becomes a more and more clear close-range and irreversible historical trend.
  (C) when the world can unity and reunification, decided on the contradictions of economic globalization and the development of these contradictions.
  (D) the principal contradiction of economic globalization:
  With the continuous deepening of economic globalization, the international trend of economic activity continued to strengthen, the economic activities between countries in the interaction, interdependence and increasingly interconnected. Therefore, countries in the coordination of economic activities has become increasingly important and more urgent. This means that under the conditions of economic globalization, economic development coordination between countries have become increasingly demanding.
  On the other hand, with the deepening of economic globalization, the market is increasingly reflected in the global market, so competition is increasingly reflected in the global competition. Competition, globalization, the inevitable conflict between the capital countries growing more and more profoundly. Because of the deepening conflict intensified, the basis for coordination between countries is getting weaker. Therefore, the form sometimes Hui reflected in some countries to form some kind of alliance between operators to increase coordination, but the essence of such coordination allied countries, but yes coordination between Li Yong allies with the Union Wai national struggle. Therefore, global coordination, this coordination of the local nature of the increase, not to increase the performance of global coordination, but to reduce the performance of global coordination. Country some regional organizations (such as NATO, EU, ASEAN) role of Jia Jiang, which is precisely with the United Nations (Quan Qiu Xing Zuzhi) the role of the weakened, this era of economic globalization is the deterioration of global coordination Zuihao Note. So, on the one hand the times of economic globalization on the global coordination of economic development, more requirements, on the one hand is the world's economic activities are more inconsistent. This is the contradiction of economic globalization and development of various major foundation.
  Specifically, the main contradiction of economic globalization are the following:
  A contradiction in developed countries
  (E) developed countries mostly in the relatively complete social welfare and social security system as a regulator of social class contradictions effective tools in the social class relations guarantee the Xiangdui harmony. However, social welfare and social security system, complete, and mainly relied on government's heavy taxes on businesses. Is mainly dependent on the capital class to pay the high taxes to the government, which relies on the capital class, the class of the working class concessions.
  (6) However, the emergence and development of economic globalization will inevitably lead to social welfare and social security system, progressive and irreversible damage. Development of economic globalization, so that capitalists can be taken for granted in developed countries will be transferred to the low corporate taxes in developing countries, in order to avoid heavy domestic taxes. In this case, the developed countries, social welfare and social security system, which is bound to be the Internal Revenue's 减少 impact and 破坏.
  (7) and this synchronization, as part of the corporate shift to low taxes in developing countries, will inevitably lead to rising domestic unemployment. Marked rise in the unemployment rate has increased staff to be hired, to be servants of the capitalists employ to increase mean there will be greater choice, and thus can hire lower paid staff. In this way, the hired class wages will continue to deteriorate and they often face the risk of unemployment.
  Second, the conflicts in developing countries
  (Ix) the current nature of economic globalization is the globalization of the developed countries, the developed countries, another name for economic expansion. Therefore, the current conditions of economic globalization, the world economy is operating, mainly reflected as follows: 1, developed countries, the influx of a large number of product markets in developing countries, and seek to gradually monopolize the market; 2, developed countries, labor-intensive enterprises and high polluting enterprises as well as an attempt to avoid heavy taxation of enterprises, large transfer to developing countries; 3, the developing countries only in energy, raw materials, primary products or some other high-tech products in the composition of the original limited product areas, only an edge, it may large-scale access to developed countries.
  Therefore, economic globalization and the reality is: the developing countries more and more deeply into a developed country market, and the energy base of raw material base and the dumping of industrial waste landfill. So, that economic globalization is actually yes a "one-way degree of economic globalization", it is not the developing countries of economic globalization, Er Shi developed the economic globalization, the developed countries, another name for economic expansion.
  (10) economic globalization, the economic expansion that is developed. This expansion, in the name of the global resource integration, so that economies of developing countries becoming more and more developed economies of the client, its national economic system become more and more deformed and fragile, more and more inseparable from the developed countries "Help." Thus, the intensity increasing in the developed countries, "help", the whole economic development of developing countries is getting worse, the international community is growing polarization, the gap between north and south. This is the current reality.
  (11) as developed countries, the influx of products, compared to higher costs in developing countries, higher prices and lower quality products is rapidly losing its market. Many attempts to enter the international market to and competes with companies in developed countries and enterprises in a brutal market competition, in its door was within a flood of foreign products to squeeze the. (Developing countries have a more competitive form of "multinational corporations" the quantity and quality are very low).
  (12) is not only the influx of products developed in developing countries, the capitalists have also developed the company, factories and mines open to developing countries. That the economic lifelines of the developing countries by the developed countries to gradually mastered.
  (13) the bankruptcy of national industries in developing countries and by acquisition, resulting in mass unemployment. Of the workers, only a small number of foreign companies can be hired or joint ventures - as enterprises in developed countries is far less than the required staff needed to staff of national industry. Thus, the increase in unemployment in developing countries has become an inevitable phenomenon.
  (14) the increase in unemployment, also brought the entire class wages were a decline in employment.
  (15) developing countries generally lack the more complete social welfare and social security system. Therefore, the unemployed and the living environment of the class were hired only multiplied worse than in developed countries. This class of developing countries more than developed countries on the intensification of conflicts, violence was a spontaneous class struggle more vulnerable than the developed countries. Therefore, swept through the storm of class struggle in developing countries, developing countries will also be a general lack of ease because of its internal class contradictions of economic power, but occurred earlier than in developed countries.
  The contradiction between the three developed and developing countries
  (16) the current economic globalization, developed countries led economic globalization, the developed countries, another name for economic expansion. The early stages of this expansion, will give developing countries some superficial prosperity. But with the development and deepening of the economic lifelines of the developing countries will gradually be developed to master. Therefore, the essence of this expansion is the developed countries while developing economies in the merger, the new colonialism, but more irresponsible Terra Tragedy of colonialism, is wrapped with beautiful words pirate style colonial plunder. This is currently the international community to the rich getting richer, poor getting poorer in real source.
  (17) Thus, the contradiction between developed and developing countries can not reconcile the contradictions.
  (18) At present, the endless war in the Middle East situation, it is this contradictory result of the development. Israel Palestine war, the U.S. war in Iraq, etc., are developed in terms of its real bully looting developing countries, developing resistance to this oppressive plunder of war, is based on the fight and control the energy powerhouse of the war in the Middle East .
  (19) such a war, the future will be increased, rather than the less continue. Reasons for the war will become more diverse, but no matter how many parcels lies real face of war, only makes the true nature and consequences of the war, more and more real clear.
  (20) currently growing acts of terrorism around the world, is an outward manifestation of this contradiction. Military invasion of the developing countries against developed countries, economic exploitation of an asymmetric war. This behavior is radical in form and unreasonable, but study the root causes of its occurrence, but can be found to contain a certain degree of rational kernel.
  (21) In short, the deepening conflict between developed and developing countries, are global and irreversible progress.
  The contradiction between the four countries
  (22) development of economic globalization, also means that the developed countries in worldwide markets and resources around the development of the battle.
  (23) since the end of the Cold War to the Soviet Union two Pa (bipolar) against each other as the main feature of the old international order was broken. When the sky wave by political polarization.
  (24) political multi-polarization, in essence, is the opposite of U.S. unipolar hegemony.
  (25) political multi-polarization, is essentially a "more dominant," a blueprint for a new international order. It is the powers of States opposed to the U.S. unipolar hegemony system behavior program. Therefore, it can be said that all powers including the U.S. "hegemony" of the product.
  Therefore, developing countries are not in the "multipolar" list, the multi-polar powers only a "multipolar."
  (26) the emergence of political multi-polarization. Qin Chinese history to match, that is: Age and Evolution of the end of the Warring States era of cracks at the arrival.
  (27) The United States attempted to maintain its unipolar superpower hegemony, while other powers are attempting to establish their own country's local hegemony, to deny the U.S. global hegemony. Therefore, political multi-polarization is itself a contested process.
  (28) around the struggle of political multi-polarization, is essentially a reflection of economic struggle between great powers, while serving the economic struggle between great powers. During the 2003 Iraq war, British West differences with Germany, France and Russia, is the product of conflicting economic interests.
  (29) With the continuous deepening of economic globalization, the developed countries to the market and the competition for resources, will inevitably develop into more and more, more and more serious political and military struggle. This is absolutely inevitable.
  (30) since the last century since the Cold War, the emergence of nuclear weapons, big powers in dealing with mutual relations have maintained the utmost restraint. Therefore, large-scale war since the Cold War, basically bully the big bullying the small war or proxy war between the major powers (that is, from a small country carried out on behalf of the war powers).
  (31) war was "to resolve classes and class, ethnic and national, state and national, political groups and political groups, to a certain stage of development of the highest forms of struggle as a conflict" ("Selected Works of Mao Zedong" p. 155).
  "War is the nation and the nation, state and national, class and class, political groups and political groups among the highest form of struggle" (ibid., p. 166).
  (32) Therefore, war is the product of irreconcilable contradictions. Irreconcilable conflict is the "cause" of war is "fruit."
  (33) Therefore, the Cold War has not broken out among the major powers because the nature of large-scale war - the conflict between great powers, there are still some room for reconciliation. The fear of a devastating nuclear war threat to humanity, only the surface reasons.
  (34) Therefore, in an irreconcilable contradiction between the real case of nuclear war, devastating threat to humanity, will not become an obstacle to the outbreak of war.
  (35) present on the nuclear war threat to mankind's destructive propaganda, just a logical hypothetical reasoning.
  Five contradictory interaction of various
  (36) above are contradictory (the contradictions within developed countries, developing countries, conflicts between developed and developing countries, conflicts, contradictions between the developed countries) the development, not in isolation, but interact, mutual stimulation and synergistic. - And therefore the development of interactive and linkage.
  (37) the contradiction between the developed countries, with the contradiction between developed and developing countries are intertwined. Contention between the developed one of the main content is on developing markets and resources control. Meanwhile, the developed countries to developing countries to control markets and resources, but also in the mutual struggle for the establishment and existence.
  (39) the more developed countries, developing countries should have the control to increase their income, the more developing countries to increase the intensity of exploitation and plunder, the greater will be the damage to the developing countries. The greater the damage to the developing countries, their domestic situation more worse, domestic class contradictions will be more serious. Conversely, the more serious in developing countries domestic class contradictions, but also the contradiction between developing and developed countries will become increasingly complex and profound.
  (40) to deepen the conflict between the developed countries, the deepening conflict between developed and developing countries will make a profit to foreign countries the space is limited. Therefore, "trapped within the outer choosing the return of the" - loss of profits in foreign parts, bound from China make up, bound with a strengthening of domestic exploitation and reduce the domestic social welfare and social security costs of the approach to be up. Therefore, the domestic class contradictions will inevitably increase. Similarly, the intensification of internal conflicts, will force developed countries to increase the strength of its external struggles. Thus the conflict between the developed countries, the contradiction between developed and developing countries will become more serious.
  (41) Therefore, summary, - the contradiction between developed countries, developing countries, conflicts between developed and developing countries, conflicts, contradictions between the developed countries - these types of conflicts will be of mutual affect, stimulate and promote each other, access to double development.
  (42) Therefore,
  ① the revolutionary turmoil in developed countries and developing countries will be inevitable revolutionary crisis, and will surely break out in advance (also popular in today's world of "corruption Tide" will also play a catalytic role).
  ② bullying developed countries, developing countries, counter-violence of the war will further increase, promotion and development.
  ③ developed countries (especially military power) should the outbreak of war will; Third World War will break out. And be better than people can imagine the outbreak sooner.
  6 Conclusion
  (43) conflicts in developed countries, developing countries, conflicts between developed and developing countries, conflicts, contradictions between the developed countries - these conflicts under the conditions of economic globalization and intensification of development, are deeply deep rooted in - the coordination of economic globalization and the requirements of the global economy growing, while the country's economic activity is in fact more and more inconsistent - on top of this basic contradiction.
  (44) under the conditions of economic globalization, "the development requirements of the global economy" and "national economic activity," the contradiction between, in essence, economic globalization and political multi-polarization of the conflict. Because the countries in the economic activities become increasingly incompatible, it is mainly one of political multi-polarization.
  (45) economic base determines the superstructure. History of the development of human society is constantly adapting to economic base of a superstructure of history. When the economic foundation to the times when the feudal economy, the superstructure of slavery can not long continue to exist. When the economic foundation to the era of the capitalist economy, the capitalist superstructure is bound to replace the feudal superstructure. So, when the economic base of the superstructure, what change made the request, the superstructure will inevitably occur in accordance with the requirements change. - This is a historical reality, but also the laws of history.
  (46) Economic globalization is the economic base of the area. The scope of political multi-polarization part of the superstructure.
  (47) political multi-polarization, economic globalization is not compatible with the superstructure.
  (48) economic globalization, global production factor requirements as between countries and regions have become increasingly close cooperation and collaboration. Therefore, also requires countries to deal with mutual economic relations, more consideration to the overall global economic development, rather than a country's "interests" undermine global economic development, "the public interest." Only in this way, side of the world economy, otherwise it will hinder the healthy development of world economy.
  (49) So - Economic globalization requires global coordination functions of the "government organizations" to ensure the healthy development of the global economy. Economic globalization requires global "integration" functions of the corresponding superstructure. Economic globalization will inevitably lead to political unity of the world.
  (50) So - the current era of economic globalization, the development of various contradictory results, is bound to divide the nation-state carved out a number attributed to dominate the world. Widespread in developed and developing countries within the revolutionary turmoil and war in the developed and developing countries, and war between countries, ultimately there is only one destination, and that is: to unify the world.
  (51) So - revolution inevitable outbreak of war would inevitably break out - the outbreak of World War III inevitable, inevitable world unity. This is a historical necessity, this is a scientific truth. Can anyone able to stop.
  (52) Therefore, for this era, the peace so it is important, because of the lack of peace; war so important because only by war, wars and to win the human permanent peace, to win the world unity and human newborn.
  April 1911, after a failed uprising in Guangzhou Huanghuagang, Central League in Shanghai Yangtze River basin planning will always attempt to revolt, sent to Wuhan and Literary Society, will be linked together to speed up preparations for the Wuhan uprising in the process of revolutionary groups. The insight of two revolutionary groups, feel a heavy responsibility intifada, the uprising ever had a joint mindset. After several months of repeated consultations, the final decision in August 1911 the joint. During this period, Hunan, Hubei, Guangdong, Sichuan and other places of the Paul movement surged, particularly in Sichuan, Paul has developed into a revolt. Qing panic, around their plans to suppress. September 21, Ting-chu Dulv Hubei army so quickly arrived in Sichuan, Hubei and Eighth Army forces most of the town who owned the 16th Association of Sichuan, another part of the troops stationed in Hanyang, Hankou and his county outside the city, forces inside and outside the provincial capital Only 14 standard about seven thousand people, to participate in literary community, together will other revolutionary groups and tendencies about the ancient revolutionary soldiers more than one third. The war started, soldiers will happen anyway. Extremely favorable situation on the Wuchang Uprising. September 24 had. Literary Society and together will be together Wuchang rouge Lane on the 11th will be held with authorities on both sides and the standard of more than 60 business representatives attended the joint meeting, the resolution of the uprising of the plan and determine the military and political responsible person, the military, Jiang Yiwu head of the Literary Society was elected as the revolutionary army commander, who together will be responsible for Sun Wu was cited as chief of staff, however. Politically, the hand will be elected head of the public Liu Preparatory Office of the Prime Minister for political. Wuchang uprising headquarters located on the street 85 small body of literature within social, political, Baoshan Preparatory Office, located in Hankou 14. Uprising date go to October 6, 1911 (Mid-Autumn Festival). In the separately prepared, the pain of time, the uprising has extended the date of October 11. Then, in the middle of Shanghai's Alliance always worry about a place in Wuhan uprising unreliable, there are 11 provinces while Xing uprising can only win the argument. The news spread to Wuhan, Wuhan, some of the leaders of the once so hesitant.
  Night, the street uprising small headquarters was surrounded, police broke into the house. Liu Fu-based hurriedly arrested in the bomb did not blow, Peng Chufan also caught, Jiang Yiwu Ma gown by wearing a robe and build long braids are not police attention, Chengxi escape. Yang Hongsheng partisan camps in the delivery of ammunition to the police while being tracked, self-inflicted mistakes bomb fall into an opponent. Since martial law throughout the city, gates closed, artillery command do not get the service outside the city, the night 12:00 uprising not been possible.
  October 10 morning, Pengchu Fan, Liu Fu-based, Yang Hongsheng three Patriots in Hubei and Hunan Governor spread the news of the Department of heroic martyrdom, military and police raids are still underway. Mobilized many of the revolutionaries and the New Army soldiers said to myself in this life and death in one fell swoop. With nothing and die, as desperate to survive. Uprising situation ready to go, explosive. Night 7 pm, in the eighth gate in the town-owned engineering and eighth camp barracks, the first occurrence of soldiers mutiny, a gunshot rang out, a few commissioned officers were killed, the chief representative of the partisan camp, after the New Army Team project (equivalent to class president) Xiong Bingkun rushed immediately towards the rate of dozens of insurgents in and around the door Chu Lookout armory. Armory soldiers stationed in the camp of coordinated action, the occupation of the armory, and opened the garage door. Mutinous troops are in arms, lift. At this time, gathered in the hope that Taiwan insurgents Chu about three hundred people. As Sun Tzu injured patient, Jiang Yiwu escape when the police raid, the other leaders of the uprising, or martyrdom, or arrested at the scene on the rudderless, not unity of command. Xiong Bingkun the presence of the highest posts, the total charge of the scene as a representative of the command, try to stabilize the morale of the troops. At this time, there are soldiers proposal to avoid the uprising left up teams of officers (equivalent to captain) Zhaolin get as commander in chief. Xiong Bingkun whole situation in mind, consider their own position lower base level, converting about the situation, to have negative consequences for the uprising, was pleased to comply with the soldiers request, but give Zhaolin as temporary commander. Wu informed the members of the Japanese original, the latter did not participate in any revolutionary organization, but this person capable, have a certain ability to command. Wu expectations, he immediately ordered the troops to strengthen Chu Lookout as part of the warning area, while re-sent with other revolutionary forces inside and outside the city link. Inside and outside the city since the revolution in military affairs that have to build Chu Lookout.
  Forces in the uprising, while Chu Lookout assembly, Zhao-Lin Wu, Xiong Bingkun rate of mutinous troops had to Hubei and Hunan Governor Department (now Wuchang Shipyard), the launch into the attack, the battle very hard, but not be able to return. South Lake artillery into the city, Chu Lookout, Snake Hill and other places of the shelling began, the war situation in a turnaround. The standard New Army uprising in response to the soldiers doing more, doing more than most Xianshibumiao officer, life insurance from the camp, at the moment, Hubei and Hunan Governor signs Bac Switzerland, the eighth control and anti-business town, Admiral Zhang Biao, General Office hall supervision Iron Zhong order to stop their internal response to the Executive Force and organized forces to defend Dushu reliable, full-suppressing insurgents, resulting in offensive Dushu war, encountered many obstacles. After the transfer clock, re-organized attack on Du Shu forces. And soldiers in three columns, bloody battle in the streets started. As the darkness it rain, low visibility targets, guns are not repeated in the hair, so it was risking impulse to Dushu fire near to the fire as the symbol to improve the hit rate of bombardment. Then, Du Shu Qian Yafang hit. Rui Zhong Hui and iron, see the hopeless situation, hurriedly fled in breaking the back wall of the Department of Hospitals of a warship on the Yangtze River. Zhang Biao is still its headquarters (the eighth town near the headquarters in Du Shu) recalcitrant. After the rebels attacked three times, finally artillery in close collaboration with the Governor at dawn before the capture of the town of Department and the headquarters of the eighth. Zhang Biao in his command fled to Hankow before being tackled. The rebels then invincible, Fan Tai Yamen been quickly occupied by the rebels.
  After a night of bloody fight lasting to the morning of October 11, Wuchang was liberated. 9 Point 18 star Revolutionary Army flag flying high above the head of Wuchang City. The next day, the rebels then recovered Hankou and Hanyang, Wuhan three all in the hands of the Revolutionary Army
  Now, our life was good. Can you ever wondered, now a happy life here? This is hot, but soldiers with their own hot blood. Price is too high! Today, let's care over the past bit by bit it!
  "Battle of Shanghai" in "Eight Hundred Heroes" loyalty medal, "bloody Taierzhuang" The sword kills, "Battle of Wuhan" in the 3000 death of 10,000 enemy Ridge Victory booty seized in ... ... Japanese War, millions of Kuomintang army fighting the Japanese attack was positive, giving the Japanese a heavy blow smashed the Japanese militarists, "quick" dreams.
  "Japanese are, not in the resistance is dead, the anti-Japanese national salvation, has become the sacred duty of each fellow!" "Pingjin critical! North necessity! Chinese critical! Only the whole nation to implement the resistance, is our way out." "Insisted War adhere to a protracted war, insisted the united front, the final victory must be China. "
  Communist Party of China, the first war of the horn sounded. 1937, "Marco Polo Bridge Incident" broke out. The active efforts of the Chinese Communist Party and the promotion, the two parties come together once again abandon the grudge, the sacred war of resistance from the nation to burn to Negative effect and Precaution.
  This in the September 3, 1945 to win victory in the war completely different from the past 110 years of Sino-Japanese War. From the beginning to the Sino-Japanese War victory in 1840 of 105 years, almost all medium and small imperialist countries invaded China, and we only won that 60 years ago that success. It was nearly 100 years the poor and weak the first time in a life and death in China's national war victory, the victory changed the historical fate of the Chinese nation, wake up the sleeping for centuries in China.
  Chen Yinke historian said: "The State may die, history can not be destroyed" because the repair history "line of life and death of a major event in the spirit of my nation." 2005
  60th anniversary of Sino-Japanese War, I understand the history of this tragic and epic, as a Chinese student, no doubt the duty of carrying but is a difficult task.
  Students, soldiers is such shed blood, sweat and blood in exchange for the new China. Let us not forget national humiliation, study hard and become a pillar of the motherland, will rejuvenate the Chinese nation!
  Immortal revolutionary fighter!
  I like the dove of peace, because I see them like to see peace. They brought the hope for peace of mind of each child, so my heart lit up immediately, while that piece of good hearts to open up a window of the soul.
  Through the door that window, I saw the broad blue sky, sky full of doves have language, the concern and thoughts brought to the country, so that the other hearts as warm as the point of the heater, cozy. Everywhere a symbol of peace, open flowers, everything in the world are calling for peace and good.
  Suddenly, a gunshot shattered the tranquility of peace. The war began, suddenly, the sky clouded over, I heard another tremendous noises it a threat to a delicate flower of peace. Birds were smoked with smoke, were those many bullets mercilessly beaten black and blue. At this point, children crying, people's cries and sounds of spirits, mingled into one. They want peace ah!
  However, the bullets and the guns are ruthless, they are kept away innocent lives. "Why go to war to restore peace in the world now!
  "All the people begging for the. However, those countries of the leaders and fighting for self-interest with. Dang fighting Zanshitingzhi time, I Kan Dao Le's Huamian such a tragedy: former beauty of the city Biande miserable. Some people hold Ziji dead relatives crying, others pray for the end of the war come on. In this way, a wonderful place, full of murderous look into a hell.
  Peace dove flew away, my heart also has an incurable wound. People of the world want peace, stop war, to world peace forever now!
  2. Not forget the past - the 60th anniversary of victory over fascism
  Sixty years ago, France, Normandy, Utah Beach, another team, a team of U.S. and British soldiers braving a hail of bullets and rushed to the front of the bunker, one by one the soldiers fell, still people shouting the forward run, a moment stained with blood ... the beach ...
  Sixty years ago, the Soviet Union, Stalingrad, the front, a truck carrying another one just out of boot camp training, officers in the car shouting: "We do not need a deserter living!" Had hardly faded , there is a shrapnel penetrated his skull. Recruits who were driven off, some people get guns, some people only took the bullets, loudspeaker repeated phrase: "did not get the gun with a gun in the back, there are guns comrades died, no guns comrades took up his gun, continued to charge ... ... "
  Sixty years ago, China, Northeast China, a village in the evening, a middle-aged man righting the Guangzhuobangzai Hanguang shiny sword hanging from a ribbon, turned toward a group of villagers, including teenagers The young man, grizzled old man also, they are also carrying machetes. That middle-aged man said: "Let no one knew it at home?" All the people were silent, middle-aged wave of his hand, "that go." After half an hour, the Japanese base, screams, guns sound and the sound of metal crash after another, the moonlight reflected in the blade also has the color of anger, with the knife waving constantly shining. With the last gunshot, could not find the moonlight on the ground ... ...
  War, but death and destruction, what can bring us. War left us with a painful memory, but also left a hero, dedicated to justice and peace heroes, we can not forget, forget war, forget the death and destruction, can not and should not forget the heroes of the war, is They ended the war, stop the destruction, with their death, instead of someone else's death.
  The war is over, let us commemorate the sleeping hero.
  Six years later, France, Normandy, Utah Beach, then in the bloody battles of the veterans, wearing uniforms covered with medals, walking on the road, people to cheer them, cheer them, and they also found that veterans They smile so heavy ... ...
  Six years later, Russia, Moscow's Red Square, where a celebration, perhaps we should say commemorate the sixtieth anniversary of victory in World War II, the main site for heroes from around the world, respected by world leaders, praise.
  Six years later, China, Northeast China, a small town, a class of students in a more than 80 years old, led to a monument, the old recounted his killing the enemy, survivors, escape experience, still excited, he sang the song to his passionate song: "sword decapitated head to the enemy ... ..." Students were in tears ... ...
  Memorial, in order to not forget the past.
  War Victory clear to revitalize the nation
  Sino-Japanese War, is over 100 years the Chinese people against foreign aggression in the first total victory in war of national liberation. Mao Zedong declared to the world trend Majestic Zeng Yi: China's Anti-Japanese War was "the history of wars, the Chinese nation's feat, tremendous undertaking." War of the Chinese nation from decline to revitalization of a major historical turning point.
  Japanese War, the Chinese their due role and status of the world, this is a good start for the Chinese nation.
  Revitalization of a nation to go, we must break free of the shackles of the world, to win international honor for international status. Japanese War, China has greatly enhanced the reputation in the world. Chinese people's bloody war of resistance not only by the people of the world's esteem, is more important is their position higher than ever before, in particular in: First of all, the abolition of unequal treaties. October 9, 1942, British and American governments have informed the Chinese Government declared its willingness to give up extraterritorial rights in China and other related rights. Later, after negotiations, on January 11, 1943 completed the United States, Britain and the New Testament, and so on were signed in Washington, and Chongqing. British and American abolition of unequal treaties, to promote in China privileged countries to follow suit. Second, the recovery of most of the lost ground. Since the victory of the war, since war is not only to recover the vast territory occupied by Japan, but recovered half a century has been Japan's Cession of Taiwan, Penghu Islands, in addition to Hong Kong, Macau, the all rented or occupied by the territory of imperialism are be withdrawn. Foreign powers grab from China's colony, and finally returned to the motherland. Third, China's role in international affairs has been strengthened. January 1, 1942, China has signed an important member of the identity of the "Declaration by United Nations." November 22, 1942, the Chinese government as the war in one of the three major British and American co-participated in the Cairo meeting, the meeting was established during World War II allies of the war against Japan and to address the issue of post-war Japan important meeting. 1945 年 25 April to 26 June, the Chinese and the Soviet Union, the United States and Britain launched four countries invited to "Declaration by United Nations" of the signatories and representatives of participating States, held in San Francisco, the Constituent Assembly of the United Nations. Since then, China as one of the initiators of the United Nations go down in history, China has become the most extensive international organization of the Security Council five permanent members.
  During the Sino-Japanese War, the Chinese nation since the Republic has not been able to achieve unity and solidarity, which is an important prerequisite for national rejuvenation.
  Indispensable to the revitalization of a nation to an important premise that the great unity of the nation. Anti-Japanese War in China before the political arena, the political forces active in. In addition to confrontation and war between the KMT and CPC, there are factions among the KMT, the central government and local power struggles between school, local powers are also among the scrambling, endless infighting. In a broken, the current enemy situation, the Chinese political forces, each class has finally abandon their prejudices and united together under the banner of the anti-Japanese national salvation, to form a broad united front against a common enemy nation to achieve the Chinese nation self-revitalization.
  KMT-CPC cooperation of the two major parties is the key to the whole nation united. The two parties in the life and death struggle against the original, but driven by a sense of responsibility in the nation, take the initiative to change the strategy of the Chinese Communist Party, has repeatedly put forward the idea of unity and resistance, and the realization of the anti-Japanese national united front at a major concession. While the KMT began to stubbornly adhere to "stabbing outside Home Safe," the anti-communist policy, but the role of various forces at home and abroad, and eventually accepted the idea of the establishment of anti-Japanese national united front, with fighting with the Communist Party to form the Chinese armed forces for unity in the anti-Japanese Tai's common enemy the situation.
  Communist Party of China in the Sino-Japanese War in training, more mature and stronger, the unprecedented increase of political prestige, to become the main leaders of the Chinese nation to revitalize the force.
  War created a generation of technology professionals in China, they are the precious wealth of the Chinese nation.
  Large number of scientific personnel from wartime rear area, work hard, painstaking research, embedded in them patriotism and devotion to the great enthusiasm of the Chinese science and technology for promoting the direct driving force. War created a whole generation of scientific talent. Li Siguang, Mao Yisheng, Zhu Kezhen, Zhou Pei-Yuan, Wu Ta-you, Yanjici, Lu Jiaxi, Su Buqing, Hua and other backbone gradually become academic leaders. They not only its own concentration study, but also to train young talent. Academia Sinica Institute of Geology, researchers led by director Li Siguang Guangxi, Hunan West, western Hubei and Jiangxi, Fujian and other areas of geology and mineral site visits, and collect specimens, but also to map out the geological map of Guangxi 1/200000. Department of Physics, Professor Wu Ta-Southwest in the "research without normal" circumstances, to write a monograph, "more of the original elements of the structure and vibrational spectra" and 19 papers were spectroscopy experiments. Zhejiang University, the famous scientist Impact and during the war nearly 40 published articles, geography, meteorology, physics and other academic studies have made great progress.
  History shows us that the Buddha's: Chinese people as capable of arduous efforts, to win the victory of national liberation war, certainly Nenggou 共产党 in China under the leadership of the Chinese nation Xin revitalization.
  As a Chinese citizen, a yellow skin, such as land, such as tunnel Yan Huang memory long succession of civilization and the enjoyment of those who, faced with some of the ancestors is not far away a certain period of history ......
  July 7, it represents a heavy, painful, meditation, collusion of blood and fire it in a way, in a smoke filled the air, crying and anger against the background of diplomatic approach to the way of singing and farewell to fallen , struggle, followed by the sky's tragic gesture there.
  July 7, the day I should do something, I must do something, because it is based on a Chinese citizen, just as painful for the newborn, delivery of the mother. Yes, I will review the history of it from the Wanping City, the Marco Polo Bridge beginning of that page flips, 219 teachers from 29 Jun 37 shots in the regiment began to fight back to find my ancestors were respectable history of dedication and creativity glory.
  July 7, I have to give impetuous heart of vanity before it quiet down, because I am a blood and tears, there is pain there is music, there is humiliation and glory of the Chinese citizens. With the dawn of the blowing breeze, I will Pick up an epic battle, one has just been retrieved from the dust of history out of the anonymous songs, it was written for the year to 29 at the front line fighting the military's great song words: "Marco Polo Bridge, Marco Polo Bridge, man named graves in this bridge, grievances pain peace Paul, inevitably the bayonet, self-defense fight Qi Zhuang, Tingjian the sky is the eras. Marco Polo Bridge, the Marco Polo Bridge, meritorious service to serve the country in this bridge! "
  In its majestic rhythm and phonology and encouragement, I have no reason not to excited, there is no reason not to cry, tears of a man, dedicated to fight for the homeland, fighting for peace, fighting for the ideals and honor our ancestors, it is an honor, is my great honor as a Chinese citizen. I look forward to the soul through time and space perception, looking forward to his heart was softened material like them strong and tough, persistent and fearless.
  Lions watched in Lugouqiao, painful patch of history, the land, the National Awakening, the soldiers rose in place, we have a responsibility with a guilty heart, to go there to pay homage to the memory of there, heart and soul to the touch and overlooking .
  When setting sun cast the same as the ancestors of the back of hanging on our faces, when the summer winds blow on one's face wrapped in legends and festivals of to, we use a thankful heart to await and greet, as to it like a lion, pay tribute to them, never, never .......
  Because it is unable to forget the memories!
  Commemorate the 60th anniversary of War
  Now, our life was good. Can you ever wondered, now a happy life here? This is hot, but soldiers with their own hot blood. Price is too high! Today, let's care over the past bit by bit it!
  "Battle of Shanghai" in "Eight Hundred Heroes" loyalty medal, "bloody Taierzhuang" The sword kills, "Battle of Wuhan" in the 3000 death of 10,000 enemy Ridge Victory booty seized in ... ... Japanese War, millions of Kuomintang army fighting the Japanese attack was positive, giving the Japanese a heavy blow smashed the Japanese militarists, "quick" dreams.
  "Japanese are, not in the resistance is dead, the anti-Japanese national salvation, has become the sacred duty of each fellow!" "Pingjin critical! North necessity! Chinese critical! Only the whole nation to implement the resistance, is our way out." "Insisted War adhere to a protracted war, insisted the united front, the final victory must be China. "
  Communist Party of China, the first war of the horn sounded. 1937, "Marco Polo Bridge Incident" broke out. Communist Party of China's positive efforts and promotion, the two parties come together once again abandon the old scores, the sacred war of resistance from the nation to burn up to Negative effect and Precaution.
  This in the September 3, 1945 to win victory in the war completely different from the past 110 years of Sino-Japanese War. From the beginning to the Sino-Japanese War victory in 1840 of 105 years, almost all medium and small imperialist countries invaded China, and we only won that 60 years ago that success. It was nearly 100 years the poor and weak the first time in a life and death in China's national war victory, the victory changed the historical fate of the Chinese nation, wake up the sleeping for centuries in China.
  Chen Yinke historian said: "The State may die, history can not be destroyed" because the repair history "line of life and death of a major event in the spirit of my nation." 2005
  60th anniversary of Sino-Japanese War, I understand the history of this tragic and epic, as a Chinese student, no doubt the duty of carrying but is a difficult task.
  Students, soldiers is such shed blood, sweat and blood in exchange for the new China. Let us not forget national humiliation, study hard and become a pillar of the motherland, will rejuvenate the Chinese nation!
  Immortal revolutionary fighter! Mob war
  Quotes about war
  Military forces of the Road, hearts and minds is, attacking the city for the next; mental warfare, the soldiers fighting for the next. (Three Zhuge Liang)
  Therefore in victorious, the good and also non-good; without fighting the enemy, who is also good for good. (Spring and Autumn Sun Wu)
  Spiritual leader more help, Unjust finds scant support. (Warring States Mencius)
  Day as location, location not as good as people. (Warring States Mencius)
  The outcome of the regular military strategists, soldiers who can use failure as a result become. (Jin Zhang Fang)
  Only the dead before they can see the end of the war. (Greece, Plato)
  Justice without force is impotent; force without justice is tyranny. (France Pascal)
  Military people are the victory. (Mao Zedong)
  The enemy advances, we retreat, the enemy retreats, we pursue the enemy harass the enemy tires, we attack. (Mao Zedong)



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